The main fields of open ground ornamental plant cultivation in Hungary are: Woody ornamental nursery products (trees, shrubs, conifers) (950 ha cultivation area and 4-6 million plants sold per years.; Rose bushes (around 140 ha and 2-4 million bushes per year); Perennial plants (20-30 ha and 3-4 million plants per year); Dried flower...s (200-250 ha of land and a production value of 5-700.000 HUF per year). The paper is discussing in detail the structure, development and tendencies of ornamental nursery production (with figures in tabulated form) and later gives shorter assessments of the present state and perspectives of the other three fields. Finally, a list is given of the Hungarian professional associations and unions, education and research centres involved in ornamental plant growing and trade.
In the continental weather zone, more and more frequently occurring extreme conditions require continuous renewal of the market which generates constant challenge for the ornamental plant breeders. Most of the traditionally used decorative ornamental plants are sensitive to these extreme conditions. In 2001, Department of Plant Biotechnology, D...ebrecen University initiated an interdisciplinary breeding program in collaborations with Zoltan Kovats (he dealt with hungarian drought-tolerant plant species) to produce new or reintroduce forgotten drought-tolerant ornamental species into public parks and roadsides. From ~900 species of Salvia genus, Salvia nemorosa L. has been known as a medical plant, however, because of its high adaptation ability and decorative nature it is a highly recommended ornamental plant as well. Salvia nemorosa L. has a low maintenance, extremely droughttolerant, fast growing plant, generates proper cover, and highly competing weeds on roadsides. Nowadays, 50-60 varieties are available; however this number could be increased by new hybrids. Great morphological and colour variation could be seen within the species, from different white to deep violet. The main goal of this research is the production of elite lines with wide colour and morphological variation in wild sage. We have already obtained 25 different clones for further investigation without eliminating the original plants generating an in vitro gene bank as it has been done by Italian breeders.
The production of ornamental plants represents an important branch of our horticulture. The growing area is relatively small (round 2800 ha), the production value, however, a rather large. Notwithstanding, its financial balance is inactive because the demand surpasses the supply copiously.
The most popular plants are as follows: carnati...on, gerbera, rose, bulbous flowers, chrysanthemum, other cutflowers, cutgreens and Gypsophyla — their total production value makes up to Ft 8-9 billion. The area of ornamental nurseries — about 800-900 ha — is to be found mostly on the western part of our country.
Our accession to the EU will have undoubtedly an impact on our ornamental plant production. We must take into account, that in greenhouse production the specialization extends all over the world, field production over a limited region. Our chances will not deteriorate by joining the EU. The buyer — chiefly because of ecological purposes — will prefer the domestic product to the foreign one. By the way, our products will be competitive, as far as quality or price is concerned, with those of western Europe. Last but not least, we may hope a greater saleability of home-bred, special varieties and cultivars, the so-called "hungaricums", both in the domestic as well as export markets. It is anticipated that we will have a good turnover with potted ornamental plants and flower seedlings. Our nursery products will become marketable too.
To exploit the opportunity, of course, the necessary conditions are to be created. First of all, we need development in research, with special regard to breeding, at the same time in education, in extension service, in the training of experts, on a high level. Some tasks can be solved, no doubt by improvement of the organisation within the branch. At the same time the state subsidy is indispensable in order to promote both the technical and the research activities. State subsidy is also necessary to build up more advantageous conditions of sales like in some foreign countries (e.g. the Netherlands).
Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a perennial rhizomatous herbaceous plant, it has been widespread all over the world by human activities. It is a 2-8 meter high, polyploid, sterile species (not produce viable seeds), it can be propagated only by vegetative methods (rhizomes, stem cuttings, in vitro biotechnological methods). It has considered pr...omising dedicated energy crop thanks to high biomass production (20-40 dry tons per hectare depending on microclimate), adaptability of different kind of soils and environment and low energy input required for its cultivation. It has been utilized for energetic purposes, biogas/bioethanol production, cellulose/paper production and ornamental purposes. The objectives of the present study were to determine morphological properties of new ornamental giant reed leaf variants originated from somatic embryogenesis and to evaluate their photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic activities. The most typical changes was the appearance of different colour (white, yellow, light green) longitudinal stripes on leaves (also on petiole and on leaf blade). It was significant differences (p<0.05) between green and leaf variants in case of photosynthetic pigments content and photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm value). There was no detectable chlorophyll a or b content in the white bands of leaves and albino shoots. Total chlorophyll content of the white striped leaf variety was more than twice than the light green leaves. Photosynthetic activity and content of photosynthetic pigments also confirm and determine the morphological characteristics and growth habit of leaf variants.
The world industry of ornamental plants is under wide transformations regarding the changes in the cultivation, management, postharvest technologies and the use of new (bio)technologies to assist the improvement and development of new varieties. This industry worth more than US$ 20 billion, but Brazil shares only 1% of this value. To compete...at this market with permanent technological innovation, the country needs to be tuned in with the progresses in the biotechnologies applied to the productive chain of ornamental plants. In this revision, we analyze the Brazilian and world ornamental market emphasizing the role of the biotechnologies in the modernization and increase of the competitiveness of the sector.
In the University of Debrecen started in 2001 related and biotechnology, genetic researches on climate-changerelated.
This work has already visible signs on the city’s public spaces. The main goal of participants of the program is it that
in Debrecen and in the surrounding communities more adaptable to the variable climate, ecologically
grounded urban ornamental planting are preferred in the next decade. The new results and ongoing researches of the decorative
ornamental and biomass plants are an interdisciplinary breeding program.
The paper gives a review on the results of the latest rootstock evaluation projects in Hungary. Several cherry rootstock evaluation projects were carried out in Hungary during the last two decades. The evaluated rootstocks are partly mahalebs selected in Hungary, but more or less all the most important new rootstocks from different countries ar...e involved. The aim of these evaluation projects was to find appropriate rootstocks in a wide range of vigour for our climate and soil conditions. The conclusion of the last 20 years of research in Hungary proved just the opposite of believes, that high density orchard can only be planted with dwarfing rootstocks. Before choosing the right rootstock the most important is to consider adaptability, precocity and productivity. Dwarfing and semi-dwarfing rootstocks showed proper results only with irrigation or very good site conditions. These rootstocks are very precocious, but branches form easily blindwood. This must be corrected by severe pruning in the first years. The relatively small leaf surface area can also be disadvantageous, but it can be controlled by pruning, fruit-thinning, irrigation and fertilization. After studying different rootstocks semi-vigorous rootstocks seem to be the most adequate for different site conditions in Hungary. Fast initial growing and competent precocity are their favourable characters. From the vigorous group of clonal mahalebs or seedlings are highly recommended first of all for poor site condition (sandy, lime soils with high pH). They turn to bearing early and easy to find them in the Hungarian nurseries. But on vigorous rootstocks trees might need stronger summer pruning.
The examination of production possibilities of woody ornamental shrubs (originating from warmer regions than our country) commenced with the financial support of the INTERREG IIIA Slovenia – Hungary – Croatia programme at the Department of Horticulture of the University of Pannonia’s Georgikon Faculty in spring 2007. Our examinations focu...sed on the appearance of species in our country as well as on their frost resistance abilities. The species participating in the experiment are as follows: Abelia grandiflora, Aucuba japonica ’Rozzanie’, Calycanthus floridus, Cotoneaster franchettii, Elaeagnus pungens ’MaculataAurea’, Ilex cornuta, Ligustrum sinense, Ligustrum texanum, Nandina domestica, Osmanthus heterophyllus, Perovskia atriplicifolia, Phyllyrea angustifolia, Photinia fraseri ’Red Robin’, Prunus lusitanica, Sarcococca hoockeriana, Spartium junceum, Teucrium fruticans, Viburnum cinnamonifolium, Viburnum tinus.
Wild roses of the section Caninae, commonly known as dogroses, have been described as more disease tolerant than ornamental roses and could therefore become valuable for breeding improved rose cultivars. Two fields with dogroses, one with plants obtained by open pollination in wild populations, and one with plants obtained from intra-...and interspecific crosses, were evaluated for blackspot, powdery mildew, rust and leafspots in the autumn of 2005. Symptoms of the different fungi on different dogrose species were carefully evaluated in a microscope and documented by photography. Interestingly, almost no symptoms of powdery mildew were found in either field, although the fungus infected wild roses of a different section in a field closeby. Surprisingly few symptoms were found also of blackspot, and they differed considerably from those found on ornamental cultivars, indicating a lower susceptibility in dogroses. The most important fungal disease in 2005 was rust, followed by leafspot symptoms. The latter were apparently caused by Sphaceloma rosarum and Septoria rosae which can be properly discriminated only in a microscope. The investigated dogrose species and their progeny groups varied significantly in disease susceptibility and in the appearance of encountered symptoms but there was no evidence of major resistance genes, except possibly in Rosa rubiginosa which did not show any symptoms of Septoria. In 2006, a subset of the plant material in Field 1 was evaluated to check for consistency between the years. Leafspots had overtaken rust as the most important disease but results were otherwise very similar to those of 2005.
The importance of hydro-cultural growing is significantly increasing.We have been dealing with the hydro-cultural growing of cut flowers at the Department of Ornamental Plant Growing and Maintenance of Gardens at the College Faculty of Horticulture at Kecskemét College since 1988.We started our experiments by growing carnation in growing estab...lishment without soil then we introduced other species of cut flowers and potted ornamental plants into our research work.
On the basis of a six-year experiment a method was elaborated for forcing and off-seasons growing of tulips, narcissus and gladioli under frameless plastic cover. The advantages of this cheap energy-saving method are manifested in an improved quality of flowers and essentially in the earlier flowering. With this method mostly first-class flower...s can be obtained immediately after the season of forcing in heated constructions with plastic cover, and anticipated outdoor flowering.
The possibilities of applying the method are studied on further ornamental plant species (other bulbous plants, Paeonia lactiflora, annual ornamentals).
Mosses are traditionally used as ornamental plants, especially in Japan, USA, England (moss gardens) and Germany, French (green roofs). In shadow areas (where the members of Poaceae usually cannot grow well), mosses are potentially use as “grass”. The stocks of moss colonies maintain optimal microclimate and decrease desiccation of soils (l...ike mulch). Additionally, mosses are evergreen, attractive all year, during winter. In our study, 18 moss species were propagated by fragments (as mixture, with the use of 16 species) and transplantation of carpets (with Brachythecium rivulare and Calliergonella cuspidata) in Szentendre. The aim was to find the most durable species and the best way of propagation. In an outdoor, irrigated garden, propagation by fragments was effective (with 63% coveration) and higher values (93% and 76%) were obtained in the cases of non-irrigated stocks of Amblystegium serpens (in trays) and moss carpets. In vertical structures (moss picture-frames with the use of mixtures), protonema of 2 species (Hypnum cupressiforme and Eurhynchium hyans) covered 24 and 33% of the 0.5 x 0.5 m sized area.
The effect of 1-MCP on rose cultivar 'Bordeaux ' was studied in combination with different preservative solutions. The flowers were treated with 1-MCP for 6 hours at 17 °C and for 18 hours at 4 °C. As for the diameter of flowers the best resu lts was achieved, when applying 20 gL- 1 sucrose + Clorox (2 ml L- 1), as well as preservative "Sprin...g" ( I 0 gL-1) + 1-MCP ( 18 hours). Similar results were measured in the case of Spring + Clorox + 20 gL-1 sucrose with 1-MCP (6 and 18 hours). The longer MCP treatm ent gave better results as compared to the shorter ones, because the flowers were much more open.The condition of flowers was the best in the solution of Clorox + 20 gL-1 sucrose and Spring solution combined with the longer MCP treatment. and Clorox + 20 gL- 1, on the IQ1h day. The longest vase life ( 10,3 day) was observed in the case of Spring application combined with 18 hours of MCP treatment. ln this treatment the vase life was prolonged by 3,3 days. As regards the calculated ornamental values, the following sequence could be established :"Spring" + l-MCP ( 18hrs) 134 points, Clorox + 20 gL-1 sucrose + 1-MCP (l8h) with 129 point, and the third was the Clorox + 20 gL-1 sucrose with 1 19 point.
During the winter dormancy period of 1998-99, the differentiation process of xylem and the formation of annual and pseudo-annual growth rings was studied in sections of the central stem of Thuja orientalis of different age (1-14 year old), starting from the top (the tip of leader shoot) towards the bottom. In the apical 1-2 cm portion...of the one year-old leader shoot, only the protoxylem was formed by the end of vegetation. The protoxylem elements appeared first in 6 bundles than gradually merged into 2 semiquadrangular (triangular) bands (each containing 3 protoxylem bundels) around the pith. In this stem portion, the pith was cross-formed first and became gradually flattened at the lower stem parts, following the generally flattened shape of the stem and the respective facial and marginal position of leaves. A continuous xylem ring (with formation of metaxylem elements) apeared 3-5 cm below the shoot tip. In fact, it was the stem part where a "real" annual ring was formed by the end of vegetation. The first pseudo-annual rings were observed 16 cm below the top. The "regular" annual rings were completely continuous all around the stem, consisted of strongly flattened in radial direction thick-walled latewood tracheids and had a distinct border (demarcation line) at the end of the year. The "pseudo-annual" rings formed incomplete dark rings or semicircular bands within the earlywood. They were composed of tracheids with thick cell walls but somewhat wider radial diameter than those of the "real" annual rings, and the border between their outside margin and the next earlywood was less distinct.
In the xylem of two year old stem portion, the innermost central annual ring appeared not at the transition zone between the current and the former years of growth, but about 2 cm lower. Above that, only the thick-walled bundles of the former years protoxylem were found. Down the stem, the older sections showed similar features: the next annual ring appeared always somewhat lower than the borderzone of the given and the former years growth. The "pseudoannual" rings (or more correctly the growth rings) continued regularly to appear in the lower (older) sections of the stem as well. They were found untill the age of up to 14 years (the bottom of the studied plants). Their number was 3-4 per year first, than (from the 5th annual ring counted from the centre) decreased to 3,2,1, and in the youngest outer part of the xylem there was no pseudo-annual ring at all. The development of pseudo-annual rings was usually more marked on the thicker (more branched) than on the thinner side of stem. Stems older than 14 years were not studied.
Differences in the attractiveness of pollen according to plant families and species for the honeybees had been examined by researchers, but pollen samples of cultivars were not tested yet. This examination attempts to evalu2te the differences in attractiveness of pollen of some cultivated and ornamental apples to honeybees. We applied biotest w...ith equal amounts of hand collected pollen samples and by a nucleus of bees with brood. The evaluation was based on the number of visitation by foraging honeybees on the samples during the time of the experiment which was determined. Pollenkitt samples were also tested in a separate experiment.
The data were analysed by variance analysis and significant differences were found according to the number of bee visitation in the attractiveness of the pollen and pollenkitt samples of apple cultivars.
The visualisation of pollenkitt was done by light microscope and SEM.
Between 1950-1989, the production and trade of ornamental plants in Hungary was characterised by meeting the demands of the home and that of the Eastern-Block market and by a minimal external trade with the Western countries. After the socio-economical changes in 1989/90, the trade of flowers gradually became liberalised and the Hungarian growe...rs had to face the concurrency of steadily increasing import from the West and from all over the World. This tendency coincided with the physical and mental degradation (outdating) of most of the glasshouses, along with the decline of several former large growers of the communist type (state or cooperative), the appearance and growth of new private companies and the building (rebuilding) of new plastic houses and (mainly second-hand) glasshouses. In spite of the above-listed problems, the production as a whole did not (or only slightly) decrease and/or even an increase occured in many areas mainly in the open-ground production. In 1998, the protected flower cultivation comprised round 110 ha of glasshouses, 180-220 ha of plastic structures and 3-5 ha of frames, with the main crops as follows: cut flowers and cut foliage 220-240 ha; pot plants (with geraniums) 30-40 ha; bedding plants (without geraniums) 20-25 ha; "transit--greenhouses (for redistribution only) 3-5 ha: other (eg. propagation of woody ornamentals) 3-5 ha. The structure of open-ground production was as follows: Total 1150-1210 ha, including: Nursery products: woody ornamentals 880 ha; perennials 10-15 ha; rose bushes 30-35 ha. Other open-ground crops: flower bulbs 50-60 ha; dried flowers 130-140 ha; open-ground cut flowers 25-30 ha; flower seed 30-35 ha; (biennial) bedding plants 10-15 ha.
This work was conducted at private nursery in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate during 2006 and 2007 seasons to investigate the possibility of using grape manufacture waste compost (GMWC) and farm wastes compost (FWC) in ornamental and vegetable nurseries as partially or totally replacement of coconut peat (CP) and vermiculite (V) in the growing mediu...m and also to find out the optimum media of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, cv. Castle Rock) and Cockscomb (Celosia plumosa) as comparing to a mixture of CP and V (1:1 v/v). The authors used a ten mixtures as followed: 1- Control (CP+V at 1:1 v/v), 2-GMWC (100 %), 3- GMWC +CP (1:1 v/v), 4- GMWC + V(1:1 v/v),5- GMWC +CP + V (1:1:1 v/v/v), 6- FWC (100 %),7- FWC+ CP (1:1 v/v), 8- FWC+ V (1:1 v/v), 9- FWC+ CP+ V (1:1:1 v/v/v), 10- GMWC+FWC+CP+V (1:1:1:1 v/v/v/v). Data recorded as seedling height, No. of leaves, total pigments, shoot fresh and dry weights, root length and root fresh and dry weights in order to assess the quality of both transplants of tomato and cockscomb. Both seedlings grown in medium contain a mixture of GMWC+CP+V displayed quality traits similar or better as to those of recorded from the control treatment.
Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a perennial, herbaceous grass, it has been spread all over the world from continent to tropical conditions by human activities. In continental climate, especially Hungary, it has been considered as ornamental species, due to its decorative appearance, striped variants’ colour of leaves, long growing season and...low maintenance requirements. It does not produced viable seeds, so it can be propagated vegetative ways by rhizomes or stem cuttings and by in vitro biotechnology methods. Because of its growth habits and good adaptation capability, it has been considered invasive weed primarily in coastal regions in warmer climate areas. In the previous century, giant reed produced for paper/cellulose/viscose production, woodwind musical instruments, stakes for plants or fishing rods etc. Over the last few decades, it has been produced for bioenergy purposes (bioethanol, biogas, direct combustion) or utilize as chemical basic compounds or construction materials. It has been considered a dedicated promising biomass crops thanks to high biomass production, high energy balance of cultivation and adaptability of different kind of soils and conditions. The objective of the present paper is to overview the most significance literature data on giant reed production and utilization, compare to own experimental data and economic calculations and to determine some critical factors, advantages and disadvantages of giant reed production compare to other biomass species.
The work summarizes the prospective conceptions of all the five horticultural branches. These branches (vegetable, fruit, grape and wine, herb and ornamental plant production) with the production of propagating material together amount to round 30-35% of the total value of the entire plant production. The performance of horticultural branches d...eclined significantly because of privatisation and lack of capital. The accession to the EU urges the development of modernization and competitiveness, therefore the state subsidies are indispensable.
Two urban stress tolerant Tilia clones were selected by the Department of Floriculture and Dendrology. The mother trees of the Observed clones were found in an alley of linden trees, settled on a traffic island of a busy two-lane road.
Tilia hybrid 'Saint Stephen' has a beautiful cone-shaped crown, the leaves are brigh...t green and they keep their green colour for much longer time than the leaves on the other trees in the alley. In the nursery the Tilia hybrid 'Saint Stephen' was budded on T. cordata, T. platyphyllos and T. argentea and it had good compatibility with every rootstock. The average height of the one year old buddings was 200 cm and the buddings kept their good growing capacity in the following years as well. They had an outstanding growing capability comparing with the other Tilia cultivars.
Tilia platyphyllos 'K3' clone has similar cone-shaped crown. The growing vigor and urban stress tolerance seems to be better than Tilia hybrid 'Saint Stephen'.
The interest in wild growing fruits was increased considerably by the pharmaceutical industry, the cosmetics as well as by the food industry. (Stefanovits-Bányai et al., 2004). Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L), sand thorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), cornet (Cornus mas L.), dog rose ...>(Rosa canina L. bearing hips) and the Sorbus species (Sorhus ssp.) have been well known medicinal and/or ornamental plants since long. Recently, precious substances have been detected in their fruits, which are indispensable in healthy foods. Several species and micro-species of the genus Sorbus are components of the native flora of Hungary, and the fruit of some of them have been consumed traditionally, however, they are preferably considered as ornamentals. The nursery of Alsótekeres (Balatonvilágos) maintained some 16 clones of Sorbus species, which are mainly apomictic "micro species" of. the collection. In 2003, a comprehensive analysis of sorb fruits born on apomictic micro species was initiated in order to find those, which will be suitable to establish plantations. It turned out that considerable differences exist between the fruits of individual taxa, however, it is largely influenced by seasonal effects. According to physical measurements, a scale of mean fruit masses could be established. As for chemical ingredients of the fruits, those are of special interest, which are involved mainly in anti-oxidant activities of the organisms (calcium, potash, phosphorus, copper, magnesium).
Leucojum aestivum is a native, protected ornamental and medicinal plant in Hungary and in Ukraine too. The aim of our work was to establish in vitro cultures of this bulbous plant. Prior to surface sterilisation the old leaves and roots were dissected from the bulbs and they were stored in a refrigerator (2-3°C) for different periods...(1 week for the first starting experiment and 5 weeks for the second one). After sterilisation, bulbs, bulb scales and leaves of the bulbs were placed on Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium with 1 mg/1 benzyl-adenine (BA) and 0,1 mg/1 naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). At the first starting experiment 81,3%, and at the second one 92,3% of the explants turned to be sterile. Bulblets and roots were developed on the explants in the case of using bulb plates together with bulb scales and leaves as inoculua. The best result was achieved after 5 weeks chilling and it was possible to gain little bulbs from the bulb leaves too.
Angel's trumpet (Danira = Brugmansia arhorea) is a common, popular ornamental plant in Hungary. On the basis of thin layer chromatographic and densitometric alkaloid studies of leaf and flower samples collected from several places in Somogy and Baranya counties it can be stated that in samples of cultivars with different flower colour,... taken approximately at the same time, the atropine and scopolamine content varies: there are samples free of alkaloids, but most of them are rich in alkaloids. Although the means do not reflect the extremes, they are suitable for determining the alkaloid accumulating capacity of flowers. Generally the amount of atropine and scopolamine is significant both in the leaf and the flower. It is conspicuous that the flower can be characterised by an extremely high scopolamine content (mean in mg/g dry matter of leaf: atropine 0.34, scopolamine 0.31; of flower: atropine 0.26, scopolamine 0.85). Thus it can be stated that the leaf, and especially the flower of angel's trumpet is a potential hallucinogen, just like in the case of Datura stramonium.
One of our objectives in the apple breeding program of the Department of Fruit Science, beside creating new varieties, is to search for new gene sources. After evaluating the disease resistance of Malus taxa available in Hungary, we put the promising selected individuals through further examinations. Their habit and growth vigor was ob...served, as well as productivity and fruit characteristics were evaluated. Malus fusca seems to be a new, promising gene source in Hungary among the examined taxa. Beside its optimal canopy, growth vigor and fruit characteristics, it has the advantage to be in distant relationship to Malus x domestica, therefore its resistance is based on a different genetic basis. SBG 1 selection of Malus spectabilis can be recommended as a new gene source for resistance breeding. The range of gene sources can further be widened by selected clones of Malus floriblunda (BA I), Malus x zumi (BA) and Malus baccata (SBG 6). An additional value of Malus taxa chosen by us is that they show resistance not only to apple scab, but to powdery mildew as well, and according to our results, they have optimal habit, acceptable productivity and good fruit quality. Nine hybrids were selected from first Malus progenies which proved to be resistant to apple scab and powdery mildew. These are valuable not only as gene sources of breeding, but as pollenizers or ornamental trees, while their decorative fruits can be used in inside decorations and flower arrangements.
A useful method was improved to test and to evaluate the susceptibility of plants to fire blight and the virulence of E. amylovora strains. Six Hungarian strains from different host plants were tested on in vitro cultured apple rootstocks. Disease rating was used for the characterization of the process of disease development....The different strains had different capacity to cause disease, mainly in the first period of incubation. There were significant differences between the virulence of the strains.