Dietary intake of large amounts of nitrates and oxalates presents a health hazard. In this study experiments were conducted with two oxalate accumulating vegetables rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum L.) and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla L.)) using POC-DAP in order to improve their nutritional quality. In the rhubarb experi...ment oxalate content was significantly reduced by band application of POC-DAP, while effects on ascorbate and nitrate contents were ambiguous. The improved nutritional quality in the POC-DAP treatment was rather a cause of ammonium nutrition than a cause of less amount of released fertilizer nitrogen. In the Swiss chard experiment oxalate and nitrate contents were reduced, while ascorbate content was increased by a band application of POC-DAP. The improved nutritional quality in the POC-DAP treatment was the cause of both the less amount of released nitrogen and the realised ammonium nutrition. It was also found that by using POC-DAP for Swiss chard cultivation, labour and energy costs of top-dressings could be eliminated without yield decrease. It was concluded that the nutritional quality of rhubarb and Swiss chard could be improved by using a band application of POCDAP.
Response of “Badamy sefid” Pistachio trees to spraying of fertilizer was studied over two years (2006–2007). The boron and zinc fertilizer were used just on swelling time of female flower bud in compare to no fertilization (control). Also nutritional solution combined of nitrogen (400 ppm), phosphorus (P2O5) (380 ppm), potasium (K2O) (520... ppm), Fe (5 ppm), Cu (2 ppm), Zn (2 ppm), Mn (2 ppm) in 1000 liter water per hectare sprayed at first week of May, third week of June and July). The concentration of some macro and micro elements in flower bud and in leaves, also productivity (g/shoot sectional area) mean nut weight, fresh weight of nut per cm2 branch cross sectional area, blanks nuts %, non-split nut %, new shoot growth length after cessation of growth and remained flower bud (%) at the next spring were recorded for the different treatments. The results showed that boron and zinc concentration increased in the bud of sprayed trees in compare to control. Application of nutritional solution decreased the flower bud abscission, also resulted in increased vegetative growth, nut weight, and productivity of trees. In conclusion, spraying of fertilizers in the suitable time to the pistachio trees might be a useful method in decreasing flower bud abscission and mitigating the alternate bearing.
Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) has been long regarded to be a health-promoting fruit. Although it is mainly
consumed in processed form, its relatively heat-stable polyphenolics were confirmed to be responsible for most of the beneficial effects. This review aims to show basic nutritional information on quince fruit such as carbohydrate, fibr
Produce of harmonic nutrient balance and status of trees is basic task of growers for qualified fruit growing. The role of crop loaded is essential to grow the productivity of trees without nutrient disorder or other nutritional problems. To reduce the frequency of biennial bearing there are some ways (site and species selection, crop regulatio...n, irrigation, nutrition etc.) from them one is the best easy way the proper site and species oriented nutrition. Sometimes the responsible for irregular cropping is the insufficient fertilization. Observed irregular cropping at two apple cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh., cv. ‘Summerred’ and cv. ‘Mutsu’) in an integrated apple orchard at Hajdúnánás-Tedej, in 2007 resulted a chance to determine nutritional status of “bearing” and “non bearing” trees and investigate the effects of irregular cropping on nutrient uptake and possibilities of correction. Our results pointed out that irregularity is connection on nutrition status of trees. Irregular cropping results in insufficient nutrient uptake and disharmony of nutrients. For this reason, the establishment of nutrient status of “non bearing” trees is could permit a chance to correct and improve the nutrient supply of trees which help to breakdown the vicious circle of irregularity.
In this study I compared the nutritional composition of the commonly consumed fruits and vegetables with three of the most important cultivated mushrooms: white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus LANGE/IMBACH), oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp. JACQ. P. KUMM.) and shiitake (Lentinula edodes BERKELY/PEGLER). I compared the energy content and some...mineral values (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and selenium), as these play a major role in the nutritional value of mushrooms. The focus was on the vitamin B group and the vitamin D content in mushrooms, which is especially important due to the fact that fruits and vegetables do not contain this vitamin. Nowadays one of the main research and experimental topic is finding possible ways for enhancing the vitamin D content in cultivated mushrooms by UV-light. The Corvinus University of Budapest is running a project in this research area as well. Based on the data presented in this study we can say that mushrooms and therefore the cultivated mushrooms have an honourable place within the group of functional foods.
A field experiment was conducted in an integrated apple orchard (Malus domestica Borkh.) established on a lowland chernozem soil in East-Hungary, to investigate if flower analysis could be used to diagnose the nutritional status of the trees. In April 2008, during full bloom, flowers and leaves were collected. Leaves were collected aga...in in August, at the standard sampling time from the same trees. The content of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium magnesium and boron were measured in flowers and in leaves. Correlation analyses were carried out to establish the relation s between nutrient contents in same and different plant part s. In flowers the following ratio was found between nutrients: N:P: K:Ca:Mg:B -10: l.35:7: 1.7: I :0,02. From result s it was evident that flower as organ contain significant and comparable amount of nutrients like as leaf. The N, K and Ca content were higher in leaves than in flowers at full bloom. The opposite was true for B. The P and Mg content of flower were quite equal with leaf P and Mg at full bloom . All examined nutrients were significantly affected by cultivars both in flowers and leaves. Significant correlation, was found between flower P and leaf P, flower B and leaf B (P=O.O 1) and flower K and leaf K at blooming time (P=0.05). Significant, but weaker correlation was also found between flower K and leaf K and between flower Mg and leaf Mg al JOO days after full bloom (P=0.05). Moreover, strong, but negative correlation was observed between flower B and leaf B at 100 clays after full bloom (P=O.O 1). Within flowers, the strongest positive correlation was found between Mg and B content (P=O.O 1). Strong positive correlations were also recognised between flower K and flower N, Ca and Mg and between N and Ca in the flowers (P=0.01). The strongest correlation was found between K and P in leaves at full bloom (P=O.O 1 ). Strong significant correlation was observed between N and B in the leaves collected at standard sampling time (100 DAFB) (P=0.01). Strong, but negative correlations were found bet ween leaf Mg and leaf P, K and between leaf N and leaf P at 100 days after full bloom (P=O.O 1).
Worldwide research goals and concerns are to soil conservation and improve. This conception is mostly actual in horticulture where the numbers of high-density plantings are continuously increasing. High-density orchards cause more intensive nutrient and water uptake. So that the preservation of soil moisture and nutrient level are key factors i...n qualified fruit growing. On the other hand due to the climatic changes the water supply of trees will be satisfied among worse conditions than some decades ago. Appearance of water supply problems and water stress is increased in organic growing, where the number of corrections is limited anyway. Furthermore, floor management is a successful tool in weed management which causes many problems for organic growers due to the prohibition of synthetic herbicides. This paper will mainly focus on the nutritional aspects of methods of orchard floor management for growers adopting organic fruit management to make their production profitable.
The richness of Hungarian sour cherry cultivars in the world is unique; they can be consumed in many ways. Sour cherry is a Hungaricum and has excellent fruit quality and nutritional value. Nowadays the demand for chemical-free fruits is increasing. Reducing the number of chemical applications can be achieved most effectively by the use of resi...stant varieties, technological developments and cultivar innovation. The domestic and international sour cherry breeding programs use almost exclusively the resistant ‘Csengôdi’ clones as a basis. They are mainly Monilinia and Blumeriella resistant and have higher dry matter and antioxidant content. These pathogens influence not only the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the fruits, but may play an indirect role in the deterioration of the overall condition of the trees as well. The cultivation of resistant varieties can greatly reduce the pesticide load of the environment, so we can produce fruit with excellent nutritional value with fewer chemicals. Our aim is the expansion of the sour cherry assortment by introducing new resistant cultivars. With this we can contribute to the spreading of environmentally sound production technologies and supply “super fruits” to the consumers.
In sweet cherry growing, intense technology is introduced as the up to date development. Among the elements of the technology are the choice of variety, planting design and pruning are the main elements. The methods, intensity and the timing of pruning are largely dependent from the growing habits of the varieties, the light demand of the parts... of different age and their tendency of getting bald on the aging zones. One of the main limiting factors of production, the frost damages are outstanding. In choosing the site of plantation, we must avoid the places, where spring frosts used to occur, the next moment is the role of the variety and the technology applied. In Hungary, the late or spring frosts are considered, however, the winter frosts may also cause heavy losses, which depend also on the health and nutritional condition of the trees when being exposed to temperature minima. Our present study is based on a 9-year-old plantation trained to slender spindle as well as to free spindle crown. We observed the development of fruiting structures and their frost damage also in relation with the timing of the pruning operations during the winter or summer, and compared also the varieties with each other.
The aim of our experiments was to investigate the internal quality parameters of some old melon and watermelon landraces or varieties whether they have any desirable characteristics. Measurements were carried out using 8 different types of melon (Cucumis melo L.) and 8 accessions of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus...em>[Thumb]), which were self pollinated under greenhouse conditions. Besides the determination of dry matter content; soluble solids, titratable acidity of the fruit juices, investigation of carbohydrates, total phenol content was measured by spectrophotometer. Total antioxidant capacities were determined spectrophotometrically using the FRAP method. We found some accesions both among melon and watermelon varieties, which could be characterized by outstanding inner content.
Recent interest to avoid use of agrochemicals in fruit growing to safeguard environmental and human health has stimulated interest in organic fruit production (OFP) all over the world. Organic production requires a holistic approach to agricultural ecosystem management. Because of the perennial nature of orchards, this is not a great departure...from conventional orchard management, except that corrective techniques are limited primarily to naturally derived materials. Organic mineral nutrition management hinges on two principles: 1) practices that lead to the build up and maintenance of soil that is biologically active and high in organic matter; 2) supplementing the mineral nutrients provided by the soil with fertilizers from approved sources. Organic orchards should be sited on land with superior soils and preplant soil preparation to increase organic matter and correct any sub-optimal soil characteristics. For successful organic fruit growing the following statement should be considered:Weed management is critical to reduce competition for nutrients and water. Soil and leaf analysis provide the basis for correcting mineral nutrient deficiencies or imbalances in organic production. It may be necessary to use a number of strategies to supply mineral nutrients over the life of the orchard. The slower, natural methods applied require a management approach that is simultaneously patient and dynamic.
Authors present synthesis of experimental work, performed in the last decades, for better understanding nutritional behaviour of apple trees and related problems in fruit quality. There were evidences supporting possible deteriorating role of potassium in feeble physiological status of apples, if applied in excess. More intensive studies proved... that higher potassium uptake into leaves and fruits might be also the result of increased sink power of individual fruits. Nevertheless early senescence of apples during storage and also sensibility to bitter pit were successfully related to the increased sink power of fruits, casual relations in excessive NPK fertilization, although increase in sink power need further investigations. Impaired weather conditions during early development of fruits, hostile orchard practices in pruning, thinning, irrigation and also unskilled application of growth regulators may also contribute in the enhancement of sink power and in weakened physiological status of apple fruits.
Callus cultures derived from young stems of two varieties of Taxus baccata cv. aureovariegata (genotype I) and Taxus baccata L. (genotype II, III) were induced. Gamborg's B5 medium was supplemented with different concentrations of auxin (2,4-D) in combination with cytokinins (kinetin or topolin) and with a phenolic-binding compound (PV...P) to prevent callus darkening and growth inhibition. Stem explants displayed different responses to in vitro culture depending on plant genotype and on the season. Genetic variability was observed in the growth rate of calli initiated from all three genotypes of the same Taxus species. We found the best growth of callus cultures originated from the genotype ill in defined media. After the first subculture the majority of the cream-coloured primary callus turned brown and ceased its growth. However, the long-term culture was initiated.
Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars grown in Hungary are of local origin while most sweet cherry cultivars in Hungary are introduced from other countries.A great phenotypic variability is displayed by both species. In the present study, we analyzed 10 sour and 9 sweet cherry cultivars for their antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolics (T...PC) and total anthocyanin (TMAC) contents. In general, sour cherries showed higher levels of antioxidant capacity, TPC and TMAC. The anthocyanin contents varied from 0.16 to 6.85 and 1.41 to 127.56 mg/100 g for sweet and sour cherries, respectively. However, TMAC generally seems to have a limited influence on the antioxidant capacity of cherries.An amarelletype sour cherry, ‘Pipacs 1’ showed the highest antioxidant capacity (21.21mmolAA/l) and TPC (44.07mgGA/l) in contrast to its lowanthocyanin content. The detected diversity presents a choice that can satisfy different consumer preferences, and meet specific nutritional requirements.