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Irrigation modeling in a pear orchard
Published May 10, 2010
75-79.

The pear has large water requirement, therefore the planting of high density and grass covered pear orchards are needed irrigation
conditions in Hungary. Drip irrigation spread in the orchards is due to the 90–95% of water use efficiency. One of the key role of irrigation is the
proper determination of evapotranspiration and crop coeffi...cients. As there is a considerable lack of information for different crops or fruits the
Penman-Monteith method is used for the estimation of evapotranspiration, using CROPWAT 8.0. The research field was the genetic collection of
pear at Újfehértó, in Hungary, which is situated in Nyírség meso-region. Our aim was to establish drip irrigation at this site. Based on the results
of CROPWAT irrigation model the mean amount of the total gross irrigation is between 230–270 mm, within 3 irrigation interval regarding
climatic and rainfall data of the last 10 years. In 2009, due to heavy drought, the total gross irrigation was 355,4mm/year on sandy soil calculating
with 45% total available water depletion in 5 irrigation interval. The sizing of the irrigation system was set to the maximum 0.55 l/s/ha, which is
6.3 l/tree/h. 6.3 l/tree/h can be carried out with a drip emitter having 16 mm wing lines diameter, 4 l/h water flow at 3 atm pressure.

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Cooling irrigation as a powerful method for microclimate modification in apple plantation
Published March 15, 2011
33-37.

Irrigation in some countries is a horticultural practice mainly used only to supply water. At the same time the use of microsprinklers have a powerful influence on the changes of temperature in orchards. When the air’s temperature is high (about 20 °C or higher) the evaporative cooling irrigation significantly decreases the plants’ surface... temperature and air temperature. The cooling effect is stronger when the air is dryer. By using cooling irrigation regularly, canopy temperature can be decreased so that the beginning of blooming can be delayed. Also if the blooming is early and frost probability is high, serious damages can happen in orchards. The beneficial effect of cooling irrigation is the temperature reduction and frost protection. InMarch 2010, one month earlier than the expected blooming an irrigation system was established to produce anti-frost treatment and regulate the micro-climate of a Gala apple orchard which belongs to the University of Debrecen (Hungary). The objective of sprinklers was to cool the air by increasing water evaporation and relative humidity. The position of the micro-sprinklers was planned in three levels (around the tree trunks, a few cm near to the soil surface, in the crown region and above the crown, a half meter higher). The results showed that the water sprayed in the orchard by micro-jets influenced decisively the temperature of the plantation. At higher temperatures (around 20 °C), the drop of temperature may attain 5–7 °C. A low relative humidity of the air may increase the relative effect. When water was applied at intervals of 15 minutes for ten times a day from 8 am to 18 pm, the air, flowers and bud’s surface temperature could be kept low.At certain days when the temperature was higher than 10 °C, irrigation was used at night time in similar 15 minutes intervals, from 18 pm and 6 am. The beginning of bloom could be delayed for more than ten days. The Gala apple variety blooming dynamics was characterized by a logistic curve in the treated as well as in the control plot. In the treated plot, the curve was steeper than in the control one in spite of the equal temperatures measured in the plots. Under Hungarian climatic conditions, the method was successfully used to delay blooming dates. The main result was the diminution of the frost damage in the spring that assured apple yields.

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The necessity and possibilities of irrigation in fruit growing under conditions of Hungary
Published September 13, 1999
93-94.

Climatic and soil conditions are highly suitable for most temperate fruit species and promise profitable yields with good quality. An accurate choice of the growing site is, however, decisive because of the wide range agro-climatic variation an soils within the country. One of the most important factors is the annual precipitation which does no...t exceed, in general, 700 mm. The aims of irrigation practices are, succinctly speaking, the improvement of quantity and security of yields and the guarantee of quality. The relative importance of those criteria changes according to the fruit species. In up to date apple, pear and cherry production, micro-irrigation systems are mainly considered. According to recent experiences, the micro-jet type of water distribution should be preferred to the dripping system. In cherries, the choice of the method is motivated by the need to prevent fruit cracking. Most of the peach and apricot plantations are located on the dry and moderately dry regions of the country. Because of the late freezes, the improvement of security is crucial. There the investment of irrigation systems should concentrate to the possibility of anti-freeze sprays. High water requirements of plums are met in Hungary by irrigation where the method should be decided at the plantation and adapted to the harvesting procedure which could be mechanised or (in high density plantations) picked by hand. Sour cherries are perhaps the less dependent on watering under Hungarian conditions. Yields in small fruits: currents, gooseberries, raspberries and strawberries could be increased by irrigation to 40-50 % and may improve quality too. In those cultures the system of moving flexible wing tubes are considered to be the best irrigation technique.

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The atmospherical drought as a decisive factor of yield in the main sour cherry varieties of Hungary
Published July 26, 2012
121-125.

Atmospheric drought causes heavy diffi culties of water supply in most fruit species grown in Hungary, although the modern, intensive plantations are already equipped with irrigation. The use a dripping systems are widely applied, therefore nothing was done to avert the risk of atmospheric drought. In excessively dry seasons the reduction of yi...elds is often due to atmospheric drought. Present study aims to utilise measured data of meteorological parameters (relative air humidity and temperature) to develop an index to characterise drought and measure its effect on fruit yield. Causes influencing yields are multiple. Phytosanitary problems are combined with defi cits of water supply. Water deficit of the soil is avoided by dripping irrigation, but the atmosphere is infl uenced by sprinklers only. Atmospherical drought increases the transpiration of the trees intensely and causes reduction of photosynthetic activity, consequently impairs the yield. Applying the index developed in a plantation of 6 sour cherry varieties grown in Hungary (Meteor, Nefris, Pándy, Újfehértói fürtös, Kántorjánosi, Debreceni bôtermô), we measured the specific yields (yield per volume of tree crown) during the period 1989–2011 using the meteorological database of the growing site. Additionally, other parameters characterising the drought are compared and searched for a method most reliable for judging the specific yielding capacity of sour cherry varieties. The results proved convincingly the utility of the index, especially for the varieties Pándy and Újfehértói fürtös. Comparison with other indices expressing the effects of drought revealed the superiority of our index, which will be applied in the future to express the risk of atmospheric drought.

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The effect of cooling irrigation on the blooming dynamic of plum
Published August 16, 2010
57-59.

The objective of the present study is to explore the effect of cooling irrigation (aspersion) on the beginning of bloom and on the micro-climate of the plantation. The results show that the water sprayed in the orchard by micro-jet influenced decisively the temperature of the plantation. At higher temperatures (around 20 °C), the drop of tempe...rature may attain 5–7 °C. A low relative humidity of the air may increase the relative effect, The frequent repetition (20 minute intervals) may keep the temperature low also in the buds. The beginning of bloom may delayed for more than ten days. The dynamics of blooming was characterised by a logistic curve in the treated as well as in the control plot. In the treated plot, the curve was steeper than in the control in spite of equal temperatures measured in the plots. Under our (Hungarian) climatic conditions, the method is successfully used to delay blooming dates. The main result is the diminution of the frost damage in the spring and the security of yield. The costs and water requirement should be calculated later.

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Water use of young apple trees related to leaf area development
Published February 23, 2000
61-63.

Present paper describes an investigation concerning seasonal water use and foliage area development of apple trees. Sap flow velocity was measured in the trunks of five years old apple trees cv. `Florina'/M.26 by a thermal dissipation (Granier) method from 20th of May to the end of September in 1998. The development of foliage area was estimate...d by a method including leaf area measurements, recording of leaves and shoot length. The foliage area reached to 70% of the maximum yearly value at beginning of June. The remaining 30% developed to the end of August. The leaf area specific water use was considerable higher in June and July, than in second part of summer. The trends of ET-FAO and water use curves differed mostly in the late season: the ET-FAO curve falls quite in September compared to August, whereas the value of water use was a similar as in August. This insensitivity of ET-FAO in this period may be a great disadvantage while using the Penman-Monteith equation in irrigation scheduling of apple.

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Effect of over tree cooling irrigation on ‘Bosc’ pear orchards microclimate
Published July 2, 2016
153-156.

Irrigation in some countries is a horticultural practice mainly used only to supply water. At the same time the use of microsprinklers have a powerful infl uence on the changes of temperature in orchards. When the air’s temperature is high (about 20 °C or higher) the evaporative cooling irrigation signifi cantly decreases the plants’ surfa...ce temperature and air temperature. The cooling effect is stronger when the air is dryer. By using cooling irrigation regularly, canopy temperature can be decreased so that the beginning of blooming can be delayed. Also if the blooming is early and frost probability is high, serious damages can happen in orchards. The benefi cial effect of cooling irrigation is the temperature reduction and frost protection. In March 2010, one month earlier than the expected blooming an irrigation system was established to produce anti-frost treatment and regulate the micro-climate of a Bosc pear orchard which belongs to the University of Debrecen (Hungary). The objective of sprinklers was to cool the air by increasing water evaporation and relative humidity. The position of the micro-sprinklers was planned in three levels (around the tree trunks, a few cm near to the soil surface, in the crown region and above the crown, a half meter higher). The results showed that the water sprayed in the orchard by micro-jets infl uenced decisively the temperature of the plantation. At higher temperatures (around 20 °C), the drop of temperature may attain 5–7 °C. A low relative humidity of the air may increase the relative effect. When water was applied at intervals of 15 minutes for ten times a day from 8 am to 18 pm, the air, fl owers and bud’s surface temperature could be kept low. At certain days when the temperature was higher than 10 °C, irrigation was used at night time in similar 15 minutes intervals, from 18 pm and 6 am. The beginning of bloom could be delayed for more than ten days. The Bosc pear variety blooming dynamics was characterized by a logistic curve in the treated as well as in the control plot. In the treated plot, the curve was steeper than in the control one in spite of the equal temperatures measured in the plots. Under Hungarian climatic conditions, the method was successfully used to delay blooming dates. The main result was the diminution of the frost damage in the spring that assured pears yields.

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A review of the orchard management in organic fruit production
Published September 19, 2007
43-49.

The elements of orchard management have a determining role in the success of organic fruit production, therefore, it is essential that they are applied properly. The present review gives describes some aspects of the orchard management such as site selection, orchard soil, rootstocks and cultivars, planting materials and plant density, crown sh...ape. Then, one of the most important elements, pruning is discussed with special emphasis on winter pruning, condition and apical dominance, degree and method of pruning, summer pruning. After pruning, an overview of fruit thinning, irrigation, soil cultivation, soil protection (cover plants and mulching) and fertilization is given.

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Comparison of pear production areas from yield risk aspect
Published August 16, 2010
25-28.

There are three main pear production regions in Hungary. The most relevant is theWest-Transdanubian (Zala, Vas and Gyôr-Moson-Sopron counties), where up to 30% of total pear production occurs. The second most productive region is Pest County, where pear is grown mostly in gardens and garden plots, resulting in 15-20% of Hungarian production. I...n the northern Hungarian region (Bodrog valley in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Heves and Nógrád counties), the microclimate is perfect for optimal pear production. In our analysis, we focused on four plantations that are dominant in pear production in Hungary. Two of them are situated in south-western Hungary, one of them is in South Transdanubia and one is in North Hungary. Considering the personal attitude of the decision maker towards risk, the best alternative is ‘Williams’ in Alsóberecki, as the yield risk is the lowest with this variety, while the second best alternative is ‘Bosc Beurre,’ also produced in Alsóberecki. This is an irrigated area, and this fact evidently decreases the yield risk. The highest risk is in Bánfapuszta and in Zalasárszeg, for the non-irrigated ‘Williams’ variety. The highest yield with the lowest risk can be obtained with irrigation. Nevertheless, in the case that relevant data are available, and by incorporating cost and expected profit data, the stochastic dominance method is suitable for financial risk assessment, as well.

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An investigation of genotype-environment interaction and stability for pea (Pisum sativum L) seed yield
Published February 23, 2000
53-55.

Eighteen pea breeding lines and three check cultivars were tested in two years with and without irrigation. The linear regression can explain only a small part of GEI so the use of regression technique was not possible for interpreting the data. In this case the ecovalence, stability variance and superiority measure s...tability parameters cannot describe properly the genotype's response. With the AMMI method it is possible to group properly the genotypes according to their response.

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Microclimatic studies on different aged apple plantations
Published February 19, 2008
7-11.

The purpose of measuring parallel canopy and out of canopy microclimates was to find out in what extent climatic parameters measured in different aged canopis differ from each other and from the values characteristic to out-of-canopi areas. The importance of phytoclimatic researches seems to lie in the fact that if the reactions of fruit trees ...towards meteorological elements are continuously followed, we have the possibility to provide growers with information. These pieces of information are like defining the optimum time of phitotechnical interventions (summer pruning, sorting sprouts, thinning fruits, etc.), the necessity of applying mulching, defining the method and time of irrigation and applying plant protection activities. By means of phytoclimatic researches, it is possible to react to unfavourable meteorological impacts within a certain extent. It is also possible to successfully reduce the risks of late spring and early autumn frost damage, as well as the risks, content and measure of experienced heat and water stress conditions by finding out about the physical characteristics of the canopis' internal area.

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