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Effects of nitrogen fertilizer application rate and time to first harvest on leaf area index; leaf nitrate content and yield of irrigated leaf rape (Brassica napus L. var. Giant)
Published July 21, 2021
64-75.

In Zimbabwe, smallholder cultivation of leaf rape is of considerable importance due to the increasing demand for the leaf vegetable from the rapidly increasing urban populations.  A two-season field trial was conducted in the Agricultural Practice Experimental Plots of the Midlands State University in central Zimbabwe. The objective of the stu...dy was to establish selected biometric responses of leaf rape to N fertilizer rates and time to first harvesting. Increasing the rate of N fertilizer application considerably improves the yield of fresh rape leaf; LAI and concentration of leaf nitrate. Delaying rape leaf harvest after N fertilizer side dressing can be used as a strategy to boost rape leaf yield for vegetable markets with high single delivery demand. When harvesting is deliberately delayed after N fertilizer application rape LAI are significantly increased. Delaying the first leaf harvests by 7; 14 and 21 days after N fertilizer side dressing amendments increases the content of nitrate in fresh rape leaves. Fresh rape yield can be more accurately predicted by values of rape LAI. Nitrate concentrations in fresh rape leaf is a poor predictor of rape yield under field conditions.

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Evaluation of fruit tree waterstress condition and transpiration with heat fl ux sensors
Published July 2, 2016
leaf area index, evapotranspiration, water stress

In this study the transpiration properties and response to heat stress of Granny Smith and Jonagold apple species were measured. The examinations were set at an orchard near to Debrecen. The chosen trees were two years old, without fruits, in 20l container, placed in the mixture of mulch matrix, wood chips and sawdust and grown at the same clim...atic conditions. One of the most important goals was to determine the leaf area of the trees which is a basic data for transpiration modeling. Leaf area was larger (signifi cance level p<0.05) in the upper part of the canopy to achieve larger photosynthetic surface. Jonagold species with less leaf number (–18% compared to Granny Smith) reached almost the same canopy area, than Granny Smith, due to larger leaf area of Jonagold. Another aim was to measure the transpiration rate of the apple trees. The transpiration measurements were carried out by sap fl ow meter. Only a small transpiration difference can be found between species. During the investigation time there were wet and cool as well as dry and extremely hot periods. In the case of dry and extreme hot periods the transpiration is decreased, which causes decrease in transpiration and enhanced the water stress of trees.

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157
Preliminary study on micro area based spatial distribution of powdery mildew in an organic apple orchard
Published September 7, 2014
35-37.

In this study, the objective was to report a preliminary study on micro area based spatial distribution of powdery mildew in an organic apple orchard. Results showed that number of symptomatic plant part ranged between 11 and 20 on shoot and between 9 and 24 on fruit. Number of asymptomatic plant part ranged between 85 and 109 on shoot and betw...een 133 and 206 on fruit. Disease incidence ranged between 13.8 and 17.6% on shoot and between 9.1 and 11.3% on fruit. Disease aggregation index ranged between 0.098 and 0.228 on shoot and between 0.043 and 0.108 on fruit. One of the four trees showed significant within canopy aggregation of disease for shoot powdery mildew symptoms in both years. For leaf powdery mildew, all tree exhibited random patterns in both years.

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154
Rate of scab infection and quality parameters of apple fruit in organic and integrated production systems
Published August 23, 2000
63-67.

In this study, the rate of scab infection and quality parameters (content of vitamin-C, dry matter, sugar, total acids, specific weight, quality index and flesh firmness) of some apple cultivars are given, moreover, the relation between those characters was examined in two environmental systems (organic and integrated) in a rainy season. In the... organic fruit production, scab infection of leaves was significantly higher than in the integrated system, in case of the same cultivars, which means that the rate of decrease in leaf area was heavier in the organic production. Cultivars did not differ statistically in parameters of inner content when the integrated system was compared to the organic one. Results did not show statistical difference between loss of leaf area caused by apple scab and the parameters of inner content, which is attributed to the regeneration of leaf area due to favourable weather conditions. Data on apple scab and inner content of the fruit justify essentially the environmental systems of apple production.

 

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Micro area based spatial distribution of apple scab in an organic apple orchard
Published September 20, 2015
21-23.

In this study, the objective was to report a two-year investigation on micro area based spatial distribution of apple scab in an organic apple orchard. Results showed that number of symptomatic plant part ranged between 587 and 623 on leaf and between 46 and 78 on fruit for an individual tree. Number of asymptomatic plant part ranged between 10...34 and 1321 on leaf and between 119 and 193 on fruit. Disease incidence ranged between 35 and 40% on leaf and between 27 and 33% on fruit. Disease aggregation index ranged between 0.115 and 0.298 on leaf and between 0.117 and 0.221 on fruit. Three of the four trees showed significant within canopy aggregation of disease for leaf apple scab symptoms in both years. For fruit apple scab, two of the four trees showed significant random patterns in both years.

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