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Effects of integrated and ecological growing technologies on the growth and development of fruiting structures in new apple plantations
Published December 4, 2011
31-33.

On the Horticultural Station of the Debrecen University, Pallag, two year old apple plantations of two varieties (‘Pinova’, ‘Golden Reinders’) have been studied, in autumn 2011. The growth of the cross section area of the trunk and the central axis were measured and compared to evaluate the effect of two alternative growing technologies...: integrated and/or ecological. ‘Pinova’ proved to grow more intensely than ‘Golden Reinders’ independently from the growing technology. The effect of the technology, however, was expressed in ‘Pinova’, where the integrated technology produced more vigorous growth than the ecological one. The effect of varieties on growing intensity was more distinct than the effect of growing technologies. Under the ecological growing system, the difference between the varieties studied is more accentuated regarding growing intensity. By that reason, in ecological growing plantations of varieties with moderate vigour ought to be stimulated by all possible techniques (as pruning, nutrition etc.).

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The effect of the intensity and method of pruning on the growth and yield of the apple variety ’Idared’ under conditions of ecological and integrated growing systems
Published December 4, 2011
35-39.

Summary: On the Experimental Farm of the Debrecen University at Pallag, a factorial experiment has been started at springtime of 2008 on an orchard of 12 year old apple trees ’Idared’ grafts on M 26 understocks. The first factor was the growing system (integrated versus ecological), the second was the intensity of pruning (strong versus mod...erate thinning of the crown), whereas the third was the method of pruning (shortening versus thinning of individual shoots). Measurements have been concentrated on shoot growth, flower initiation, fruit set and accumulated yield of two successive seasons. The following conclusions are made.
– In the ecological growing system, strong thinning proved to be beneficial for growth as well as for fruit bearing. – Strong thinning combined with shortening of shoots diminished yield in the first year, whereas
moderate thinning combined with shortening of shoots caused favourable growth and fruit bearing.
– In the ecological growing system, the moderate shoot growth was associated with better flower initiation, which increases the chances of alternate yielding.
– According to our results, the flower initiation of the ‘Idared’ was stimulated univocally by the thinning of shoots regardless of the intensity of pruning.
The right choice of the intensity and method of pruning is a decisive moment of a successful yield in the ecological apple growing system

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Comparative organoleptic examination of apple varieties developed by different environmentally safe technologies
Published September 2, 2009
69-70.

Ecological or biological growing techniques are generally recognised as actual trends in agricultural production. The objective of our experiments is a comparison of apple fruits grown alternatively by integrated versus ecological technology. In a collection of varieties, the possibility of the experiment was feasible. At the same time, a compa...rison of the popularity of existing varieties was also actual. The organoleptic consumer’s tests rated the varieties, and the comparison with instrumentally raised “objective” data could be compared with the subjective ratings, which did not coincide with each other. This phenomenon was revealed in the rating of acid-sugar harmony, where the internationally used quality index of Thiault produced a different range of the samples then the consumer’s test. The same contradiction was observed between ratings of firmness and the data raised by penetrometer.

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Flower production of apple varieties grown by different environmental technologies
Published May 10, 2010
47-49.

The flower production of four apple varieties have been observed grown in integrated and in ecological growing technologies during the spring of 2010. The trees produced in the last year (2009) nearly similar yields, so the effect of the technologies may causen differences in the production of flowers. According to our results, the ecological t...echnology produced higher flower densities in the majority of variables, which was in relation with the vigor, branching and thickening of the trunks. The varieties observed displayed substantial differences in the appearance of fruiting structures of different age on the branches. This information may prove to be essential for the decisions to be made in timing and severity at the pruning operations.

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Ecological drought resistance and adaptability of apple varieties
Published January 3, 2010
113-122.

For adequate yields in apple plantations, during the long growing period of the fruit primordia, one of the decisive factors is water supply. Indicators of stress are valuable signs for the diagnosis of drought and necessity of watering, i.e. planning the irrigation of plantations. The aim of the present study was to find reliable signs of wate...r stress on apple trees and at the same time conclude on the drought tolerance of different varieties. The plantation of apple varieties grafted on various stocks and cultivated according to different systems (irrigated, non irrigated, integrate and biological) has been examined continuously by leaf analysis. Along the period of growing fruits, measurements were made in the field, then the leaf samples were analysed in the laboratory for composition of pigments, carbohydrates and antioxidants, as well as the histology of the tissues checked. Without irrigation, the mean leaf mass and the relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) of the variety Idared on M4 stocks increases beyond the values of 50 SPAD, whereas on M26 stock and integrated system, it declines. In the collection of varieties, grown according to the „integrated” system, during the development of fruits, ‘Gála’ and ‘Remo’ varieties have been affiliated to the “less susceptible” group regarding drought tolerance because of the leaf morphology, structure and content of SPAD and antioxidants. However, ‘Idared’ and ‘Jonagold’ belong to the “susceptible” group. To the same group are ranged the ‘Akane, Red Rome vanWell, Pink Lady’ varieties. Those varieties reacted to a short period of drought by increased production (content) of carbohydrates. Regarding changes of carbohydrate content ‘Greensleeves’ and ‘Ozark Gold’ varieties belong to the moderately water dependent (requiring) group. In the field, SPAD-tests facilitated the measurement of nutrient-uptake and incorporation, which is proved by the tight correlation between the data of SPAD and the increment of leaf weight (r=0.76–r=0.88), however, this depends on the variety too. SPAD is an indicator of water supply and is related with the density of stomata, cannot used for the selection of water-exigent varieties but for (drought) tolerant ones. In integrated culture, the (drought) susceptible varieties display (water-soluble) hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants (ACWand ACL resp.) the quantity of which may have some role in drought tolerance.

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Tending operation models for black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stands growing on sandy soils in Hungary
Published September 20, 2015
55-57.

A more intensive integrated research and development approach to the work carried out on the growth on sandy soils of stands of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) has been adopted in recent years, revealing several factors influencing stand growth. The fact that certain ecological factors influencing fundamentally the growth of trees have b...ecome unfavourable in Hungary in recent years has led to the more extensive use of black locust in the course of afforestation and forest regeneration schemes. The study presents a new,  simplified tending operation model for black locust stands and age, growing space and target diameter models suitable for qualitaty log production and for mass assortments. The simplicity of these practice-oriented
models may foster the qualitative development of black locust management in Hungary and in some other countries where this tree species may gain greater acceptance by landowners and the forest industry.

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Comparison of frost damages in apple plantations cultivated with environmental friendly growing technology
Published August 16, 2010
21-24.

The global changes in climate and meteorological conditions have many negative consequences, which may diminished with adequate measures. In our continental climate, the winter frosts but also the late spring frosts are always threatening. There are technologies to avoid late frost damages (with spray irrigation or with smoking), but against wi...nter minima, we are nearly helpless. The different damages experienced recently called our attention on the question of optimal condition, which is a delicate balance between the vegetative activity and the provision of nutrients. The excesses on both ends are increasing the danger of damages (Zatykó, 1980). Our examination was performed in the plantation, which was cultivated according to ecological and integrated technologies. The variable condition of the trees gave opportunity to evaluate the effects of cold temperatures as frost damages. Our results will represent not only the differences between varieties but also the effects of the growing technologies – which influence the condition of the plants – consequently, the measure of frost damages.

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