Studies available up to now usually report changes in populations of Camel-cola ohridella and its parasitoids in a period of 3 years or shorter. Due to the limited duration of investigations, no tendencies of changes could be disclosed and, according to the general idea, the infestation level of the horse-chestnut leafminer
...and the rates of parasitism do not change significantly. Based on our examinations carried out throughout 7 consecutive years we suggest that the infestation level of C. ohridella is generally decreasing and the rate of parasitism is increasing. A possible adaptation of the parasitoids to this new host is showed on the changes of parasitism. In contradiction with earlier studies, authors assume that a partially stable permanent parasitoid community is being developed around the horse-chestnut leafminer. Proportions of adult moths and parasitoids hatched in the same year of sampling or the next year were determined.
In Romania, walnut Juglans regia L. is an important fruit crop, although most of the fruit production comes from non-grafted walnut trees, which are natural hybrids. Breeding programs have been launched during last 30 years to develop new cultivars with uniform fruit quality. In addition, foreign cultivars have been introduced and test
...ed to establish a valuable walnut genepool. To improve the present assortment of generative rootstocks in walnut and to examine the infestation level, a long term survey was carried out in Eastern Transylvania. The main physical characteristics of fruits and its variation to the infestation level were considered. The cumulative distribution of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis and Gnomonia leptostyla were relatively low and the maximum value was around 15%. The highest infestation of husk with X. arboricola pv. juglandis was observed for roundish forms and differences were statistically significant comparing with other phenotypes. Infestation with G. leptostyla was similar for roundish, elliptic and thwarting egg-shaped phenotypes, while the husk infestation for egg-shaped phenotypes was not observed. The walnut population studied in our experiment can be considered as a genetically valuable population. More than 20% of them have upper class quality fruits with at least or more than 50% of nutmeat. Do to the large scale climate variation in Eastern Transylvania and the high humidity favourable for pathogen infestations, these population can be considered resistant and well adapted to abiotic and biotic factors.