In this paper, important features of symptoms, biology and biological disease management are summarised for brown rot blossom blight fungi of pome and stone fruit crops (Monilinia laxa, Monilinia fructicola and Monilinia mali). Firstly, European brown rot caused by Monilinia laxa is discussed highlighting the blossom ...epidemiology features, then host susceptibility of the most important stone fruit species including several Hungarian and international cultivars. At the end of this chapter, recent biological control possibilities against Monilinia laxa are also included. Secondly, American brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola is discussed. Symptoms, biological features of blossom blight and host susceptibility of flowers to Monilinia fructicola are demonstrated. Finally, the symptoms and the biology of the least frequent species, Monilinia mali are shown.
In this study, the susceptibility of 7 commercially important sour cherry cultivars to Monilinia laxa was studied. Artificial inoculation was made with M. laxa isolates, which were isolated from different woody plants. Artificial inoculation was prepared in the laboratory and in the field. In laboratory, flowers of sour cherries while in the fi...eld, the two-year old twigs were inoculated in 2006 and 2007. According to results of stigmata inoculation, there were infection ability differences among the isolates originated from five different stone fruit host. Cultivars could be sorted into two susceptibility groups. In the field, twig inoculation in 2007 was made at blossom period and in 2007 at harvest. Seven sour cherry cultivars were inoculated with 8-day-old mycelial culture of M. laxa originated from sour cherry and almond. The agressivity and pathogenicity of the two isolates were measured by the degree of floem death: Results showed that year and phenological stage considerably influenced the degree of symptoms caused by the fungus. After artificial inoculation, tissue death progression was studied by fluorescent microscope. According to results, sour cherry cultivars were sorted into disease susceptibility groups. Susceptibility orders were identical to results on stigmata inoculation.
In this review, some important features of biology and epidemiology are summarised for apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha). In the first part of the review, the geographical distribution or the pathogen are discussed, then the morphology and taxonomy of the causal organism are described. Disease symptoms or apple powdery mil...dew are also shown and then host susceptibility/resistance is discussed in relation to durability of resistance. In the second part of this review, the general disease cycle of powdery mildew on apple are demonstrated and some basic features of powdery mildew epidemiology (such response of the pathogen to temperature, relative humidity, and rain as well as spore production, spore dispersal, diurnal patterns and temporal dynamics of the pathogen/disease) are also given on apple host.
The analyses of various host-pathogen relationships have established the response reaction roles of carbohydrates — especially monosaccharides — measurable in the vegetal parts of the host. Published results also provide information concerning the way various pathogens utilize carbohydrates and concerning the carbohydrates pathogens prefer ...out of the "selection" provided by the host plant. The role of carbohydrates in the response reactions to abiotic stress has been studied on several plant species as well — currently, too, it is an often discussed area of research. The above-mentioned results form the basis of our intention to study the connection between susceptibility to grey mould and the quantity of measurable carbohydrates in the leaves of grape varieties of various stress tolerance levels.
A useful method was improved to test and to evaluate the susceptibility of plants to fire blight and the virulence of E. amylovora strains. Six Hungarian strains from different host plants were tested on in vitro cultured apple rootstocks. Disease rating was used for the characterization of the process of disease development. ...The different strains had different capacity to cause disease, mainly in the first period of incubation. There were significant differences between the virulence of the strains.
Apple powdery mildew (Podoshphaera leucorticha) occurs wherever apples are grown. One of the most important fungal disease of apple which causing severe econimic loss on susceptible apple cultivars. Biology of the pathogen is widely investigated all over the world in the past 100 years. In this review, a summary from this enormous research is m...ade for biology of apple powdery mildew in the following aspects: geographical distribution, morphology, taxonomy of the causal agent, symptoms, host susceptibility, resistance durability and disease cycle.