The influence of nitrogen-fertilizer applied in 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha dosages, as well as the time of the harvest carried out in full flowering and early fruit set stages were studied on the herb and essential oil production of garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). The small plot experiment was installed in the Experimental Field of Ta...rbiat Modarres University near Teheran, under sandy loam soil conditions. On the basis of the results the nitrogen-fertilizer had a significant effect on the dry-matter production of the species: the herb yield, calculated on one hectare, increased from 671.88 kg up to 1021.00 kg value as a result of 150 kg nitrogen dosage. The essential oil yield proved to have a similar tendency because neither the accumulation level of essential oil, nor the ratio of thymol were effected by the nutrient supply. Analyzing the effect of harvest time changes in both dry-mass production and essential oil accumulation were observed. The highest herb yield (1238.20 kg/hectare) was obtained in early fruit set, when about.50 per cent of fruits reached their full size in the inflorescence. The accumulation level of essential oil also reached its maximum at the sane development stage, showing 0.75 per cent value, which is about two fold higher comparing to the accumulation level was measured at the time of full flowering (0.41 %).
Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is an economically and ethnobotanically important aromatic, medicinal, ornamental and culinary herb, with a very wide gene pool, that is sensitive to cold and prone to several plant pathogens that can demolish harvest and lessen yield. In this research, the effects of BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) and TDZ...(Thidiazuron) on different genotypes for in vitro cloning were determined, in order to provide a detailed protocol guide concerning Ocimum basilicum L. propagation. The results from the O. basilicum seed propagations revealed that the best condition for the secondary shoot growth is with 5.0 mg/l TDZ or 1.5 mg/l BAP on all types of explants except the root, the secondary root growth can be obtained on all types explant with any BAP concentration and all cytokinins can induce callus on all types of explants. On the whole, it shows that multiple secondary shoot induction and regeneration in Ocimum basilicum L. is regulated by appropriate cytokinin concentration.
Virginia mallow (Sida hermephrodita Rushby), Malvaceae family, is a perspective perennial herb able to yield a biomass crop through the last two decades. In our previous studies, we examined two factors relating to seed germination percent and seed germination power during our research: the influence of hot water treatment and the effect of exo...genous or endogenous infection of seed. Following these recognition we modifi ed our technique, in such a way that we fractionated the seeds based on their fresh weight / or relative density before we carried out the treatment. When we fi ltered the fl oating seeds on the surface of water, the hot water treatment was performed considerably better on the sink seeds after separation. Therefore, by this special priming process we were able to reach 80% germination capacity of Virgina mallow seeds under laboratory conditions (26 oC without illumination). From all nurseries tray methods preliminary results, it is clear that, Sida seeds, which were treated with these methods, gave the best growing rate for industrial uses.
Sida hermephrodita or virginia mallow is a perspective perennial herb in the Malvaceae family able to yield a biomass crop through between ten and twenty years. Additionally, the plants have a lot of uses and benefits for instance it can use it as a fodder crop, honey crop, ornamental plant in public gardens. It has favorable features like fast... growing and resistance against the disease and climatic fluctuations, etc. Sida is in base stage of domestication therefore has a serious disadvantage the low and slow germination as a big part of wild plants. Due to the expressly low germination percent the need of seed showing of driller is should tenfold, 200 thousand seed/acre instead of 10-20 thousand what is not available and expensive Therefore practical purposes of our research of seed physiology was to increase the seed germination percent in a disposable ,basically wild Sida population. We examined two factors relating to seed germination percent and seed germination power during our research: the influence of hot water treatment and the effect of exogenus or endogenus infection of seed. However, in our germination tests, utilizing scarified seeds with hot water (65, 80 and 95 oC), 29,33 to 46% germinated of the seeds collected from the population of S. hermaphrodita in Debrecen. The average germination for all season was 5-10 % wihitout treatment and rised using hot water up to almost 50%. When physically scarified used, the oldest seeds showed the best germination (46 %) after the hot water operation in spite of the previus studys (Spooner 1985; Chudik et al. 2010; Doliński R. 2009.). We discovered that there are a distinguished close relationship between the seeds collecting time and the infection, as well as germination percentage. Thus, 2009 season was the most favourable in case of contamination (control:17,33 and 80 oC treatment:0%) as well as germination percent. It could be concluded that, the best season for our findings was 2009 due to autumn harvest of Sida seeds. In our oppinion, the autumn harvesting should be the best time to overcome the problem of the low germination and high infection percentage.