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45-48.
Vol 17No 4-52011

Intensive sour cherry production is concerned to find the most productive varieties under special growing conditions. High planting density, adapted to manual picking or on the other hand to mechanical harvesting. Almost as important is the prolongation of the ripening season by enlarging the choice of varieties. Unfortunately, three of our fou...r leading commercial varieties are ripe almost at the same date.
Therefore, new varieties ought to be examined thoroughly. In the Pallag Experimental Station of the Debrecen University, five European varieties have been grown (’Schattenmorelle’, ’PI-SA 12,100’, ’Jade’, ’Gerema’, ’Achat’) and a Hungarian one, ’Debreceni bôtermô’ used as a check for the experiments to compare their growing and yielding habits in 2010. The plantation was three years old, standing on Prunus mahaleb rootstocks, in high density (5 x 2 m) and trained to slender spindle crowns. The results are proving that some of the varieties in
question are suitable to prolong the harvesting season. Growing habits and yields of the varieties related to the variety ’Debreceni bôtermô’ were similar or even better as ’Jade’, ’Gerema’ and ’Achat’. The ’Jade’ excelled with its vitality and ’Gerema’ with its generative character. Further studies are expected to prove the utility of
one of them at least to enlarge the ripening season on the fruit market.

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55-59.
Vol 16No 32010

Six peach varieties (’RedMoon’, ’Early Redhaven’, ’Rich Lady’, ’Suncrest’, ’Silver King’, ’Royal Glory’) grafted on seedling stock have been trained alternatively, to caldron (kettle) and to slender spindle, are compared in dormant stage regarding their variety-specific growing habits. According to our results, marked di...fferences have been stated in vegetative vigour of varieties measured as the length, thickness and number of shoots. The caldron crowns displayed more vigour whereas the spindle trees produced more balanced and moderately growing shoots. The differences due to varieties were more conspicuous that due to the training. An intrinsic knowledge of growing habits of varieties may facilitate the development of variety-specific pruning technologies beginning with the training for crown forms.

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72
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55-57.
Vol 16No 12010

Cherries belong to the group of fruit trees, which require little attention in pruning. The process of getting bald branches is less accentuated, which is associated with the light requirement of organs changing along with the aging process. The growing habits of the varieties (length and number of growing shoots, etc.) is closely related with ...the productivity of fruiting parts. The ability of regeneration and the functional effectiveness of fruiting structures are expressed by the distribution according to their age. The differences registered justify the necessity to develop pruning policies for each particular type of variety. For that purpose, we have to examine the age dependency of the processes related to regeneration, which may serve as starting point of a pruning strategy. Growth of some parts should be stimulated in order to develop or regenerate fruiting parts. Some branches need to be rejuvenated, partially, as an antidote to progressive senescence. Every intervention is aimed to strengthen the development of the most productive constructions. Reactions induced by rejuvenation should be expressed in fruiting intensity. A pruning program adapted to the particular variety as well as to the actual phase of a rotating pruning system should anticipate results.

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45-48.
Vol 16No 42010

In sweet cherry growing, intense technology is introduced as the up to date development. Among the elements of the technology are the choice of variety, planting design and pruning are the main elements. The methods, intensity and the timing of pruning are largely dependent from the growing habits of the varieties, the light demand of the parts... of different age and their tendency of getting bald on the aging zones. One of the main limiting factors of production, the frost damages are outstanding. In choosing the site of plantation, we must avoid the places, where spring frosts used to occur, the next moment is the role of the variety and the technology applied. In Hungary, the late or spring frosts are considered, however, the winter frosts may also cause heavy losses, which depend also on the health and nutritional condition of the trees when being exposed to temperature minima. Our present study is based on a 9-year-old plantation trained to slender spindle as well as to free spindle crown. We observed the development of fruiting structures and their frost damage also in relation with the timing of the pruning operations during the winter or summer, and compared also the varieties with each other.

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51-53.
Vol 16No 32010

In cherry production all over the world, intensification of the technology is the main objective of research. Small crowns and high planting densities are aimed to attain high yields per hectare and easier harvesting. Rootstocks of reduced vigour for cherries are more difficult to find than in other fruit species, and the rejuvenation of fruiti...ng structures by pruning is aggravated by the reduced vigour. Intensity of the technology ought to be achieved by a thoughtful application of the technological elements (timing of pruning by various intensity) moreover, by finding different policies for individual varieties. Sweet cherry varieties dominating the assortment proved to be very variable regarding their growing habits. In our experiment, we dealt with the slender spindle and free spindle forms, and how to train the trees to develop and to maintain the desirable form depending on the respective variety in order to achieve the right load of flower buds and yields repeatedly. In this paper, we examine the most important practical issues with the training and maintaining of the crowns of cherries with circular projection and central axis grafted on Prunus mahaleb rootstocks

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39-46.
Vol 24No 1-22018

Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a perennial, herbaceous grass, it has been spread all over the world from continent to tropical conditions by human activities. In continental climate, especially Hungary, it has been considered as ornamental species, due to its decorative appearance, striped variants’ colour of leaves, long growing season and ...low maintenance requirements. It does not produced viable seeds, so it can be propagated vegetative ways by rhizomes or stem cuttings and by in vitro biotechnology methods. Because of its growth habits and good adaptation capability, it has been considered invasive weed primarily in coastal regions in warmer climate areas. In the previous century, giant reed produced for paper/cellulose/viscose production, woodwind musical instruments, stakes for plants or fishing rods etc. Over the last few decades, it has been produced for bioenergy purposes (bioethanol, biogas, direct combustion) or utilize as chemical basic compounds or construction materials. It has been considered a dedicated promising biomass crops thanks to high biomass production, high energy balance of cultivation and adaptability of different kind of soils and conditions. The objective of the present paper is to overview the most significance literature data on giant reed production and utilization, compare to own experimental data and economic calculations and to determine some critical factors, advantages and disadvantages of giant reed production compare to other biomass species.

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