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Virus and virus-like diseases of grapevine in Hungary
Published June 25, 2011
25-36.

Viruses and viroids are submicroscopic infectious particles which can cause disease symptoms on grapevine. These parasites are depending completely on the energy metabolism of the plant cell. To enter the host cell plant viruses depend on injuries or on transmission via invertebrates (insects, nematodes, etc.). Viruses are classified by many ch...aracters including particle morphology, host range and information content of the genome. At present about 70 viruses including 7 viroids infecting grapevine are known. In single or mixed infections they are potentially detrimental to the quality and quantity of grape production in any growing area of the world. Some viruses can cause severe economic damage in vineyards. In Hungary many important viruses and viroids have been detected in grape. This review summarises characteristics of viruses and the results of detection and characterization of virus and virus like diseases of grapevine in Hungary. The identification of the causal agent, its transmission, geographical distribution and the development of the diagnostic methods are also discussed.

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Certification programme for production of virus-free propagating material of grapevine and its results in Hungary
Published October 16, 2002
39-43.

In Hungary, detection of virus and virus-like diseases of grapevine began in 1960's at the Research Institute for Viticulture and Enology by János Lehoczky and his colleagues. At present, sixteen virus and virus-like diseases of Vitis vinifera are known to occur in Hungary.

Regular virological screening of grapevine varieties ...started in 1972. The present system of screening (visual selection, indexing, ELISA) has been established using methods with continuous improvement according to recommendations of international organizations.

In the first year symptomless grapevine plants are selected and marked during surveys carried out twice in the vegetation period: at about flowering and in the second half of September. At the first selection time plants are sampled for ELISA.

In the spring of the second year, overwintered canes are checked by woody indexing on 8 indicator species in the field.

In the third and fourth years the nursery is evaluated twice again. At the end, the marked grapevine plants, giving negative results on all indicators in every case, are considered virus-free.

In autumn of the fourth year, the virus-free material is planted out under screenhouse and also in a special mother block (nuclear stock) for maintenance and propagation.

Mother blocks of virus-free scion varieties have been established on 2 ha and those of rootstock varieties on 0.5 ha planted with the following number of varieties included in the national list: 71 European scion — and 12 rootstock varieties or variety candidates/clones. It is necessary to increase the area of Pre-base, Base and Certified stocks exclusively with tested virus-free (clean) material.

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The increasing importance of grapevine trunk diseases
Published October 18, 2016
21-30.

Grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) are destroying the woody parts of the plants, resulting decline or dieback of the grapevine. More detailed research of the GTD began in 1950s, when Hewitt et al. (1957) observed that specific symptoms cannot be detected on the diseased trunks every year. Latest results have also proved that abiotic factors affect... the appearance and the severity of the disease. Moreover several pathogenic fungi may play role as causative agents (Bertsch et al., 2013). Eutypa, Botryosphaeria, Phomopsis dieback, esca disease complex, and Petri disease are considered the major GTDs, where a variety of pathogens attack the woody perennial organs of the vine and ultimately lead to the death of the plant (Lehoczky, 1974; Larignon & Dubos, 1997; Rolshausen et al. 2010; Kotze et al., 2011; Bertsch et al., 2013; Fontaine et al., 2015).
The GTD incidence has been reported to be increased during the last decades (Úrbez-Torres et al., 2014). The esca incidence has reached 60% to 80% in some old vineyards in southern Italy (Pollastro et al., 2000; Surico et al., 2000; Calzarano & Di Marco, 2007). The disease incidence of the esca was reported to be increased from 1.83% to almost 13%, between 2003 and 2007 in Hungary (Dula, 2011). There was detected a five times increase in the GTD disease incidence in the Tokaj Wine Region, Hungary between 2014 and 2016 (Bihari et al,
2016).

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Phytoplasma diseases of grapevine and the possible measures to control them
Published June 25, 2011
37-43.

Phytoplasmas are a special group of phloem-living pathogens in several plant species. Grapevine yellows (GY) is a term for phytoplasma diseases occurring on Vitis vinifera and inducing the same or very similar symptoms and causing severe losses worldwide. Flavescence Dorée (16SrV) phytoplasma (FD, species name: ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis...) is considered a quarantine pest in several countries due to its epidemic character and high economic loss it provokes. The leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus is the univoltine and monophagous vector of FD. Bois noir disease caused by stolbur (16SrXII-A) phytoplasma (species name: ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’) is described under different disease names in different countries. Hyalesthes obsoletus (Cixiidae) is the only proved polyphagous vector of BN. However, distribution of BN disease is increasing also on those areas where H. obsoletus is not prevalent or only in a very low number. Therefore the presence of other vectors cannot be concluded. The ‘Tuf-a’ type Stolbur phytoplasma is associated with stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) and the tuf-b type one to field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis). There are only preventive control measures against phytoplasmas: the use of pathogen-free propagating material, hot water treatment of propagating material, as well as control of vectors and weeds. S. titanus can be efficiently controlled by insecticide treatments. However, in case of H. obsoletus, insecticides are not effective due to the biological characters and feeding habits of the vector.Weed control can reduce H. obsoletus specimen and their abundance to a certain extent. Extensive research is needed on wild hosts of GY phytoplasmas especially on BN phytoplasma and its vectors to the better understanding of their epidemiology.

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The evaluation of grape vine decline pathogens in the experimental field of the Georgikon Faculty of Agriculture in Cserszegtomaj
Published October 16, 2007
19-22.

Vine decline causes important economic loss in viticulture, especially in longer view. Several causal pathogen were described lately, however little is known about the etiology or epidemiology of these pathogens on grapevine rootstock. It is well known that these diseases affect grafted and rooted grapevines and are not specific to any scion-ro...otstock combinations. Our aim was to determine what pathogens are presents in the experimental field, especially causal agents of the rootstock decline. Different grapevine rootstocks and scion varieties were tested in our trial. Isolations were made from the wood tissue and pathogenity tests were done with isolated Cylindrocarpon destructans. The possibility of infection during the propagation process was studied as well. Most commonly Cylindrocarpon sp. and Phomopsis sp. species were identified from the examined varieties. Cylindrocarpon destructans was able to spread to apical (shoot) and basal (root) direction from the point of infection with uneven speed. Callus development is not inhibited by the fungi causing the leaf symptom of the vine decline. Shoot development is reduced if unhealthy parts are grafted to each other.

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Bacterial diseases of grapevine
Published June 25, 2011
45-49.

Grapevines are affected by three major bacterial diseases worldwide, such as bacterial blight (Xylophilus ampelinus), Pierce’s disease (Xylella fastidiosa) and crown gall (Agrobacterium vitis). These bacteria grow in the vascular system of their host, thus they invade and colonize the whole plant, independently on symptom development. Latentl...y infected propagating material is a major factor in their spreading. Therefore the use of bacteria-free planting stock has a basic importance in viticulture. Today several innovative diagnostic methods, mostly based on polymerase chain reaction, are available to detect and identify bacterial pathogens of grapevines. For production of bacteria-free plants, the use hot water treatment followed by establishment of in vitro shoot tip cultures is proposed.

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The importance of clonal selection of grapevine and the role of selected clones in production of healthy propagating stocks
Published June 25, 2011
15-24.

Genetical alterations and phytosanitary status promote the variability and modify the appearance of vine. Old vine varieties in old vineyards are highly variable and well adapted to selection. Clonal selektion is based on a visual performance: valuable individuals (clones) are picked out according to visible symptoms or characters. The genetica...l stability of clones is proved by testing the vegetatively propagated progenies on the basis of morphological and molekular (SSR, AFLP, SMPL, RAPD) markes. Authors take great care of the visual phytosanitary selection as part of the clonal selection being the oreliminary step to develop pathogen-free propagation stocks. In Serbia (Vojvodina) the selection breeding has been carried on for several decades resulted in comparative clone trials with home and imported clones of Welsch Riesling, Chardonnay, Pinot gris, White Riesling. Among the clones of home selection SK.54 Welsch Riesling clone is the most valuable. Its clearing from pathogene is being carried on in an interregional IPA programme (HUSRB/0901/214/123) in Kecskemét. In Kecskemét, the centre of the Hungarian Danube vine region 5 vine clones have been registered (Cegléd szépe K.73, Irsai Olivér K.11, Kövidinka K.8, Hárslevelû K.9, Pannónia kincse K.56). Besides them 18 virus-tested clones have also been qualified.Works aiming at their complete exemption are going on in order to obtain clones free of propagation wood-borne diseases.

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The importance of pathogen-free grapevine propagation material in regards to clonal selection and rootstock breeding in Germany
Published June 25, 2011
11-13.

High performing propagation material is essential for a reliable and economical production of quality grapes. Apart from genetic aspects pathogen-freedom is of prime importance in propagation material. In particular virus diseases cause major yield and quality losses and reduced longevity. This is also reflected in the current EU legislation, w...hich focuses on the most common and dangerous viruses: GFLV, ArMV, GLRaV-I and GLRaV-III.Apart from these, locally occurring pathogens, e.g. phytoplasms or agrobacterium, are important as well and should not be present in propagation material. There are several ways to develop pathogen-free clones. Starting with already pathogen-free material is certainly the easiest case, but might not be feasible in local varieties with small acreages and limited vine numbers. In these cases the elimination of pathogens is required, either by heat therapy, tissue culture or somatic embryo genesis.

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