In the present work we have examined the changes of germination ability of some medicinal plant species belonging to the Solanaceae family (Datura stramonium L., Datura innoxia Mill. and Hyoscyamus niger L.) during 5-6 years' storage period. According to our results, all the three species showed an after-ripening behavior. Potassium nitrate and gibberellic acid increased significantly the rate of germination in the case of Datura species. During the storage period tested (1995-2001), the species maintained their germination ability which is favourably but not significantly influenced by the cooled gene bank conditions. The degree of ripeness affected considerably the proportion of germinated seeds at all the three species. As a consequence of our results we emphasise that propagation with completely ripe seeds is proposed, however, half-ripe seeds developped in an unadvantageous vegetation period can be also utilized in the practice. The effect of vegetation year on stramony seeds manifested in the length of after-ripening period, while in the case of henbane the germination ability was also influenced.
In organic farming systems the focus is on prevention with regards to plant protection. To follow the rules of Good Agricultural Practice one is able to avoid serious yield losses; if it is not possible the use of allowed materials are permitted. Organic farmers have less material to protect their plants so it is necessary to find effective potential materials. Bacterial and fungal diseases of tomato and pepper can cause serious losses in yield. Different materials were tested against some plant pathogen bacterial (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and fungal (Phytoptora infestans, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotium) strains in order to find potential materials in the field of organic seed treatment. In vitro trials have shown that vinegar, cider vinegar, red wine vinegar, white wine vinegar, cinnamon and thyme oil have inhibiting effect against the causative agent of bacteria and fungi. Germination test has shown that examined vinegar types do not decrease germination ability if the concentration is low, but in higher (more than 5%) concentration it ruins the germination ability. Even in 0,5% concentration of red — and white vine vinegar have good effect on germination capacity.
In ecological farming systems farmers can't use chemicals against pests. In ecological plant protection the aim is to prevent diseases; if it is not possible the use of allowed materials are permitted. Until now there haven't been enough effective and environmental friendly materials for seed treatment in organic farming. Seed borne diseases of tomato and pepper can cause serious losses in yield, so finding appropriate inhibitors has a great importance. Different materials were tested against these bacterial strains for seed treatment in this study. In vitro trials have shown that vinegar, cider vinegar, red wine vinegar and white wine vinegar have inhibiting effect against the causative agent of bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis), bacterial speck (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato) of tomato. These materials also have inhibiting impact on the causative agent of bacterial spot of pepper (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria). Seed treatment with (natural alkaline material) sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) had no effect on the examined bacterial strains. Among examined essential oils cinnamon oil seemed to be the most effective, but all oils decreased the germination ability. Thyme and savory teas were effective against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Other examined materials had insufficient bactericide impact (sucrose, NaCI, ethanol, valerian extract, peppermint tea). The germination test has shown that examined vinegar types don't decrease germination ability.
In our country the maindenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba L.) is raised mainly from seeds, so the aim of our experiments was to determine the most useful generative propagation method. However, some experiments have been conducted earlier connected to the germination of the species, but the comparative control of physical seed treatment was done first time by the authors.
After the statistical evaluation of the results it can be stated that the percentage of germination has significantly increased if the seeds received physical treatment (scalding, mechanical scouring). Hereby the pericarp is getting soft or growing thinner, so the germination of the seed is easier. These treatments are extraordinarily simple, easy to carry out and their effect is very favourable, that is why their use is strongly advised.
Comparing the seeds collected at different times was found that the ability of germination is decreasing proportionally with the time spent in the open field. On the basis of our experiments and of earlier practice in Hungarian tree nurseries, our opinion is that the stratification of seeds is not necessary.
This review evaluated previous studies on the effect of pesticide use on flower formation and fertility of some fruit species. The study was divided into two parts. First part of the overview will evaluate the most commonly used fungicides on pollen toxicity and their germination ability under fungicide exposure on different fruit species. Effect of fungicides on fruit set was also critically reviewed. Second part of the study summarised those few studies which determined the effect of some insecticides and acaricides on flower formation and fertility.
Germination and early seedling growth of eight pea genotypes were examined under and soon after different (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) PEG treatments. Seeds were germinated on PEG solution for 3 or 6 days and then further germinated and cultured on filter paper moistened by water for 3 and 6 days. The length and fresh weight of shoots and roots of seedlings were measured and used for evaluation of genotypes. Roots were less inhibited by osmotic stress than shoots similarly to other plant species. The variability among the genotypes was the greatest in the case of shoot growth at 5% PEG treatment and in the case of root growth at 15% PEG treatment. Results suggest that growing responses of genotypes after cessation of stress are more suitable for the evaluation of their osmotic tolerance, than their responses expressed during in vitro stress conditions. Genotypes with relatively high or low osmotic stress tolerance, respectively, could be distinguished with 6 days after recovery from 3-day-long 15% PEG treatment concerning the rate of shoot weight to root weight.