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Mechanical and physical control in apple orchards as preventative fungal disease management
Published April 10, 2016
19-21.

In this minreview, mechanical and physical control against apple fungal diseases among non-chemical control approaches were summarized. This overview listed five groups of mechanical and physical control methods:  pruning, removal of inoculum sources, shredding of leaf litter, burying of inoculum sources and flaming of leaf litter. These m...ethods were shown to reduce succesfully infection potential of inoculum sources in orchards and these non-chemical control measures are one of the most essential approaches for preventative fungal disease management. However, most of these methods are not widely spread in the apple-growing practice due to relatively low control efficacy, medium to high labour costs and/or time limits during the season.

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The microscopic fungi of orchid species in the Őrség National Park
Published May 20, 2009
31-36.

The wild orchids growing in Hungary are some of the most decorative and interesting members of the country's flora. The majority of species are rarely spotted, and some are only found in very few habitats, though others are quite common .All the species known in Hungary are protected, and 1 1 species are strictly protected. Itis thus important ...to monitor the health status of these plants, to determine what diseases affect them, what pathogens are found on them and how severely they are infected, and to take the necessary precautionary measures. Eleven of the 14 orchid species occurring in the 6rseg National Park were included in the study and the presence of microscopic fungi was detected on eight of these. Pathogenic species were found on lesser butterfly orchid (Platanthera bifolia), green-winged orchid (Orchis morio), burnt orchid (Orchis ustulara), sword-leaved helleborine (Cephalanthera longifolia), common twayblade (Listera ovata), autumn lady's-tresses (Spiranthes spiralis), western marsh orchid (Dacrylorhiza majalis) and broad-leaved helleborine (Epipactis helleborine). A detailed account is given of the symptoms of major diseases and of the microscopic traits of the pathogens. An attempt was made to determine to what extent the pathogenic fungal species found on protected orchid species influence the lives of these plants. Current knowledge on this subject is extremely deficient, as practically no data are available from Hungary.

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Genetic engineering of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) for resistance to fungal diseases using g2ps1 gene from Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae)
Published April 22, 2014
15-12.

In the present study, g2ps1 gene from Gerbera hybrida coding for 2-pyrone synthase which contribute for fungal and insect resistance was used. The aim was to work out an efficient approach of genetic transformation for apple cvs. ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Royal Gala’ and ‘MM111’, ‘M26’ rootstocks for improving their fungal resistance... using genetic engineering techniques. Adventitious shoot formation from leaf pieces of apples studied was achieved using middle leaf segments taken from the youngest leaves from in vitro-grown plants.
Optimum conditions for ‚direct’ shoot organogenesis resulted in high regeneration efficiency of  0%, 95%, 92%, 94% in the studied apples respectively. Putative transgenic shoots could be obtained on MS media with B5 Vitamins, 5.0 mg l-1 BAP, or 2.0 mg l-1 TDZ with 0.2 mg l-1 NAA in the presence of the selection agent “PPT” at 3.0-5.0 mgl-1. Shoot multiplication of transgenic shoots was achieved on: MS + B5 vitamins + 1.0 mg l-1 BAP + 0.3 mg l-1 IBA, 0.2 mg l-1 GA3+1.0 g/l MES+ 30 g/l sucrose + 7.0 g/l Agar, with the selection agent PPT at 5.0 mg l-1 and were subcultured every 4 weeks in order to get sufficient material to confirm transformation of the putative shoots obtained. Six, seven, one and six transgenic clones of the apples studied respectively have been obtained and confirmed by selection on the media containing the selection agent “PPT” and by PCR analysis using the suitable primers in all clones obtained for the presence of the selection” bar gene (447 bp) and the gene-of- interest “g2PS1” (1244 bp), with transformation efficiency of 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.1% and 0.3% respectively. These transgenic clones were multiplied further in vitro in the presence of the selection agent ‘PPT’ and rooted in vitro. Rooted transgenic plantlets were successfully acclimatized and are being kept under-containment conditions according to the biosafety by-law in Syria to evaluate their performance for fungal resistance .

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Pomology of gene resources bearing resistance to Erwinia amylovora
Published August 12, 2005
29-33.

The ecological farming and an increasing demand for healthy fruits free from chemical residuals necessitated the reevaluation of the existing cultivars and breeding suitable cultivars for the new requirements. We have gathered the old genotypes known in the Carpathian Basin, and we have selected the most suitable ones according to fruit quality... and resistance to diseases in the last fifteen years. The main aim was the selection of resistant genotypes against fire blight and powdery mildew as gene sources for our breeding program. On the other hand, we consider the best quality traditional cultivars as extensive landscape elements (wayside tree rows or extensive squash producing plantations).

During the pathological evaluation 'Szemes alma', 'Pónyik', 'Sikulai', 'Tordai piros 'cavil' and 'Szabadkai szercsika' cultivars proved to be good resistance sources (due to their outstanding resistance to fire blight). The latter four cultivars are not susceptible even to fungal diseases, and their quality is also acceptable so those are commendable for ecological farming or for renewing the sparse orchards. According to fruit quality and low susceptibility to diseases 'Batul' and 'Vilmos renet' can also be offered for extensive organic production.

We have made original or renewed pomological descriptions of the selected cultivars, and we also publish their characters according to the terms of UPOV TG/14/8 based on to our evaluations.

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Examinations of potential environmental friendly materials against tomato and pepper patogens
Published December 8, 2008
49-54.

In organic farming systems the focus is on prevention with regards to plant protection. To follow the rules of Good Agricultural Practice one is able to avoid serious yield losses; if it is not possible the use of allowed materials are permitted. Organic farmers have less material to protect their plants so it is necessary to find effective pot...ential materials. Bacterial and fungal diseases of tomato and pepper can cause serious losses in yield. Different materials were tested against some plant pathogen bacterial (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and fungal (Phytoptora infestans, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotium) strains in order to find potential materials in the field of organic seed treatment. In vitro trials have shown that vinegar, cider vinegar, red wine vinegar, white wine vinegar, cinnamon and thyme oil have inhibiting effect against the causative agent of bacteria and fungi. Germination test has shown that examined vinegar types do not decrease germination ability if the concentration is low, but in higher (more than 5%) concentration it ruins the germination ability. Even in 0,5% concentration of red — and white vine vinegar have good effect on germination capacity.

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Propagation material borne fungus pathogens causing early stock decay in vineyards
Published June 25, 2011
51-57.

A decline, a slow or sudden decay of vine trunks can occur in any phase of trunk life. In senescent or old plantages the increase in trunk decay is quite common but it is unacceptable in young plantage in their best production years.All over the world as well as in Hungary, a drastic decay of young trunks in nurseries and new plantages have cau...sed panic in the past decades. From among the numerous fungal pathogens which are responsible for considerable financial and yield losses and threaten stock vigour Petri disease, esca and Black foot are the most important. In young decaying plants the fungal species Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium spp. and Cylindrocarpon spp. were the most frequent while other fungi causing different trunk diseases, cancer or decay, like Eutypa lata, Botryosphaeria spp. and Fomitiporia mediterranea were also found. The most important infection source is the infected propagation material. Infection is systematic, the disease process is latent, diseased plants cannot be cured, thus, prevention is the only answer to the challenge.

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Yield loss caused by fruit rot fungi on sweet cherry in Kyustendil region, Bulgaria
Published November 15, 2004
49-52.

The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of fruit rot caused by several fungal pathogens from 1999 to 2003. The study was conducted in three sweet cherry orchards at the Institute of Agriculture (Kyustendil, Bulgaria). One copper containing fungicide was applied in late autumn and early spring. During the growing seasons, 2-5 sprays ...were applied against fungal diseases. Trees were not sprayed specifically against fruit rot during the growing season, with the exception of 1999, when a spray of myclobutanil was applied after a long rainy period during the maturity of fruits. In one orchard, two nitrogen fertilization treatments were also prepared. In treatment 1, trees were fertilized with ammonium-nitrate 10 g/m2 and in the other treatments trees were not. Incidence of the five most important fruit rot pathogens, Monilinia fructigena, M. laxa, Botritys cinerea, Alternaria alternata and Rhizopus stolonifer was assessed in all orchards. The most severe yield loss (14.80 %) was measured in 1999, when weather conditions were the most favourable for fruit rot development. In this year, brown rots (M. fructigena and M. laxa) caused the highest damage (9.22 and 4.04 %, respectively) out of all assessed fruit rot pathogens. In all other years, yield loss was significantly lower than in 1999. In 2002, A. alternata caused the main fruit rot (4.46%) and all other fungi were less important, while in 2003, B. cinerea caused considerable yield loss (2.28 %) compared to all other fruit rot pathogens. Experiments on fertilization showed that nitrogen significantly increased fruit rot damage in 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2003. The effect of nitrogen fertilization was higher in years with rainy periods around harvest (1999 and 2002) compared to more dry years (2000 and 2001). Results were compared with similar studies and biological interpretations of the results are discussed.

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Incidence of two leaf fungal diseases in two plum training systems
Published December 4, 2018
15-17.

In a two-year study, we aimed to determine the susceptibility of four plum cultivars to two fungal pathogens of plum (Stigmina carpophila and Polystigma rubrum) in two training systems with tree spacings of 4 x 1.5m and 6 x 3m. Results showed that shothole symptoms were not detected on cvs ’Bluefre’ and ’Stanley’ in Au...gust, 2016. Disease incidence was above 50% in the case of ’Čačanska lepotica’ in both training systems in 2016. There were no significant difference between the two training systems. Shot hole incidence was lower in the 6 x 3m spacings compared to the 4 x 1.5m spacings on cv ’President’ in 2016. Cultivar ’Čačanska lepotica’ showed the highest incidence of Stigmina carpophila in the 4 x 1.5m spacing in 2017. Disease incidence of Stigmina carpophila was significantly lower in the 6 x 3m spacing compared to the 4 x 1.5m spacing. Shothole incidences on cv ’President’ were similar to the values in 2016 ranging from 40% to 60%. Leaf disease incidence was higher in the 4 x 1.5m spacing compared to the 6 x 3m plot. Low disease incidence (below 10%) was observed on cv ’Stanley’ in 2017 and only in the 4 x 1.5m spacing. There were no visible symptoms of blackhorn dotty in 2016 due to inadequate weather conditions for the Polystigma rubrum fungus. However, all the four cultivars were infected by Polystigma rubrum in 2017. The most susceptible cultivar was cv ’Čačanska lepotica’ with the highest disease incidence in the 4 x 1.5m spacing. Disease incidence of this cultivar was lower in the 6 x 3m spacing which was significantly less than in the 4 x 1.5m spacing. The least susceptible cultivar was ’Bluefre’ and symptoms were observed only in the spacing of 4 x 1.5m. The disease incidence of cv ’President’ was similarly low to cv ’Stanley’ in both spacings.

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Comparative study of heirloom tomato varieties
Published October 16, 2007
31-33.

The study examined the health status, growth type, berry morphology, berry quality, and gastronomical value of 60 heirloom tomato lines. In the middle of June, the level of virus infection was medium in the plant stock according to the assessments. 21% of the lines did not show symptoms of virus infection. During the vegetation period, the majo...r fungal diseases were Alternaria by the middle of August and Phytophthora from the beginning of September. In spite of the fact that no fungicides were applied, 13% of the lines were healthy and 36% showed medium infection at the end of August. Half of the lines had a strong, 23% of the lines had a medium growth vigour. The majority (74%) of the lines showed strong or medium lateral shoot growth and only 7% of them proved to be less prone to branching. In spite of the rapid growth, 20% of the lines had a weak main stem, the majority of the lines had a main stem medium strength. The different shapes occurred in different colours, in addition to the traditional red colour (53%), there were orange, yellow, wine-red (blackish), lilac, green, almost white or multicoloured varieties. Unfortunately, most of the lines were prone to longitudinal or circular cracking of the berries. Based on the first experiences, all tested variety types had more favourable utilization characteristics then the traditional tomatoes. Varieties with a thick flesh and harmonic acid/sugar ratio such as some of the ox-heart varieties are especially valuable. For drying, the elongated types proved to be the best. The hollow tomato is the most special type which can be utilized most diversely. It is especially suitable for making white tomato soup and, “Concasse" due to its easily removable placenta rich in jelly materials and its thick flesh. In addition, it can be used for preparing stuffed tomato.

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Incidence of fungal diseases on leaves of apricot and plum cultivars in Hungary
Published March 19, 2007
29-31.

In this two-year study, incidence of Polystigma rubrum on plum, and Apiognomonia erytrostoma on apricot were evaluated on several stone fruit cultivars in Hungary. Results showed that most apricot cultivars expressed symptoms caused by A. erytrostoma, graded between 2 and 3 (10-50%) by the end of the summer in 2005 an...d 2006. The most tolerant apricot cultivars were Budapest and Mandulakaj­szi while the most susceptible ones were 'Magyar kajszi' and 'Piroska'. Assessments made on plum showed that most of the plum cultivars were tolerant or lowly susceptible to P. rubrum such as 'Ageni', 'Althann ringló', 'Bluefre', 'Cacanska najbolja', 'Silvia', 'Ruth Gerstetter', 'Tuleu gras' and 'Utility'. The most susceptible plum cultivars to P. rubrum were 'Besztercei clones' and 'Debreceni Muskotály'.

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Evaluation of fruit quality of old apple cultivars originating from the foot of the Carpathian Mountains, for utilization in breeding and in organic farming
Published August 12, 2005
15-24.

In the frame of the apple breeding program at the Department of Fruit Science old cultivars found in the Carpathian basin were involved in examination as well. Beside testing susceptibility to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora of old genotypes (historical, local and regional cultivars) originating from scattered orchards of Visk (foot of ...the Carpathian Mountains), fruit quality was also evaluated and other open-field observations were made.

According to the results of inner content examinations, 'Szemes alma' and 'Sikulai alma', chosen as gene sources for breeding to resistance against fire blight, had inner content values worthy to mention in some aspects, and competing with those of the control cultivar 'Jonathan'. The quality of 'Pónyik alma', also recommended as a gene source is confirmed by the data of earlier literature. Further three cultivars ('Batul', 'Vilmos renet', 'Zöld sóvári') also proved to be good based on resistance against Erwinia amylovora, the first two cultivars are suitable from the point of view of fruit quality, too.

In our field observations, susceptibility to apple scab and powdery mildew was evaluated. Among cultivars selected from the foot of the Carpathian Mountains on the base of resistance against Erwinia amylovora, the production value of 'Szemes alma' is worsened by its high susceptibility to apple scab. Further selected cultivars ('Sikulai', 'Pónyik alma', 'Batul', 'Vilmos renet') are not too susceptible to fungal diseases and their fruit quality is also suitable, therefore they can be recommended for direct planting in ecological farming or in restoring scattered orchards.

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Incidence of virus fungal diseases on three stone fruits cultivars in Hungary
Published May 10, 2010
107-109.

In this two-year study, incidence of Polystigma rubrum on plum, and Apiognomonia erytrostoma on apricot were evaluated on several stone fruit cultivars in Hungary. Results showed that most apricot cultivars expressed symptoms caused by A. erytrostoma, graded between 2 and 3 (10-50%) by the end of the summer in 2005 and 2006. The most tolerant a...pricot cultivars were Budapest and Mandulakajszi while the most susceptible ones were ’Magyar kajszi’ and ’Piroska’.Assessments made on plum showed that most of the plum cultivars were tolerant or lowly susceptible to P. rubrum such as ’Ageni’, ’Althann ringló’, ’Bluefre’, ’Cacanska najbolja’, ’Silvia’, ’Ruth Gerstetter’, ’Tuleu gras’ and ’Utility’. The most susceptible plum cultivars to P. rubrum were ’Besztercei clones’ and ’Debreceni Muskotály’.

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Mutation induction in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by fast neutron irradiation
Published July 29, 2019
30-38.

Basil species are highly sensitive to exterior environmental conditions and its consequences lead to great economic and agronomic losses. In this research, a mutation method was optimized out for creating a new variety of Ocimum basilicum L., which could tolerate the extreme/extraordinary climatic circumstances or biotic stresses, such... as fungal diseases. Fast neutron irradiation was performed on the Hungarian commercial variety seeds with doses of 5 to 60 Gray and grown into fully developed plants. Numerous phenotypical changes like deformed congestion, leaf mutation, and low growth occurred, especially at higher dosages. Then to confirm whether the plantlets had mutation or not, and to detect the molecular variation and relationship, fingerprinting profiles of the developed mutant regenerants and donor plant have been assessed using ISSR markers. 115 loci were yielded, ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 kb, out of which 110 loci were polymorphic in nature, representing 95.6% polymorphism. The most suitable primer to determine the genetic diversity within the Ocimum species was the UBC-856 with 0.42 PIC and 4.1 MI values.

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