The rain induced fruit cracking is a big, serious problem especially for sweet cherry growers but in some year growers of other stone fruit species had also problem with fruit cracking caused by too much and heavy rainfalls in the ripening and harvesting season. Cracked stone fruits can be easily infected by different diseases like Monillinia s...p. Cracked and infected fruits can not be transported for long distance and using for preservation, they lost their market value by the destroyed fruit quality. It was decided to make a research work to determine the rain fruit cracking susceptibility of few stone fruit species (sour cherries, sweet cherries and European plums). Fruit cracking tests were occurred under laboratory conditions on the most common cultivars grown in Hungary. Furthermore we tried to find correlation between the fruit cracking and some fruit quality parameters (fruit size; total sugar content, fruit flesh firmness).
Our conclusions are the followings:
Sour cherries: There were found differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested sour cherry varieties when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. Based on cracking test results under laboratory condition (immersing in distillated water) we made the grouping by cracking susceptibility of sour cherry varieties. Tested cultivars were divided three groups: very susceptible; susceptible; moderately susceptible (tolerant). Groups with varieties are: Very susceptible - ’Maliga emléke’, ’Piramis’, ’Érdi jubileum’,’Érdi nagygyümölcsû’ and ’Meteor korai; Susceptible (Sensitive) – ’Érdi bôtermô’, ’Pándy’ and Cigány 59. Moderately susceptible (tolerant) – ‘Éva’ and ‘Petri’as new rereleases. The most of tested sour cherry varieties are in agreement with the literature (Apostol, 2003) and four of them (’Maliga emléke’, ’Pándy 279’, ‘Éva’ and ‘Petri’) had higher average fruit weight than was mentioned in the literature (Apostol, 2003). Our fruit cracking results are in agreement with Zelinski’s (1964) and Christensen’s (1975) conclusions that there is no close relationship between fruit size and rain induced fruit cracking tendency. We found significant differences between the sugar content of tested cultivars. In contrast of Verner & Blodget (1931) our results confirm Tucker’s opinion that the sugar content is not correlation with the cracking tendency of cherry fruits (Tucker, 1934). Fruits firmness (elasticity) was measured by destructive method when juice was coming out from fruits. There were found big differences of fruit firmness and skin strength of observed cultivars. Our results are only partly agreement with Christensen’s (1996) opinion that cherry cultivars with firmer fruits are more prone to fruit cracking than softer ones. By this was seemingly we did not found close relationship between the fruit firmness and the cracking tendency of sour cherry fruits. We found that during fruits immersing in distillated water the fruit weight was increasing due to the absorbed water. Our opinion is that there is no close relationship between the scale of fruit cracking and the quantity of absorbed water. By results presented above we our opinion is that no very close relationship between the fruit cracking of sour cherries and the observed parameters (fruit size, fruit firmness, sugar content, amount of absorbed water) maybe other varietal effects and physiological characters (fruit skin structural parameters) play more important role in the fruit cracking mechanism of cherries.
Sweet cherries: Similarly to sour cherries in the case of sweet cherries we also did not find close relationship between observed fruit parameters and cracking index. It was differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested sweet cherry cultivars when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. It was found that the cracking ratio of very cracking susceptible sour cherry varieties had the same or higher cracking index than observed sweet cherries. It is in contrast with the general opinion (Chistensen, 1996) that sour cherries are less prone to rain induced fruit cracking than sweet cherries. We found differences between the cracking ration and cracking dynamic of the same cultivar in different years (2006 and 2013). It is in agreement Christensen’s (1996) opinion that the year effect cause big differences in the fruit cracking of cherries.
European plums: We found differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested plum varieties when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. A shorter term (6 hours) immersing in water caused three groups by their cracking susceptibility: „Very susceptible”: ’Révfülöpi’ and ’Szarvasi’; „Susceptible”: ’Besztercei’; „Less sensitive”: ’Bluefre’ and ’Cacanska rodna’. A longer term (24 hours) immersing in water resulted only two groups with significant differences: „Susceptible group”: ’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’; „Less sensitive”: ’Bluefre’ and ’Cacanska rodna’ Similarly the cherries we did not find correlation between the fruit size and cracking susceptibility of European plum cultivars. It was based on: the big fruit sized ‘Bluefre’ and middle sized ‘Cacanska rodna’ cracked in the lowest scale, during the small sized ’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’ cultivars cracked in higher scale We found positive correlations between the cracking susceptibility and total sugar content of tested plum cultivars. Cultivars with significantly lower sugar content (‘Bluefre’ and ‘C. rodna’) showed lower fruit cracking susceptibility than cultivars (’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’) with higher sugar content). We found close relationship between the relative (%) absorbed water amount and the fruit cracking susceptibility. Cultivars with higher absorbed water amount (’Szarvasi’-’Révfülöpi’-’Besztercei’) had higher cracking susceptibility.
Detailed studies and comparisons were carried out on those flower characters of sour cherry cultivars that may affect bee pollination of flowers. Flower characters of sour cherry are fairly similar to other temperate zone fruit tree species. Their relatively small flowers distinguish the Cigánymeggy-types of cultivars from the flowers of tart ...cherries cultivars that are conspicuously larger, almost as large as the sweet cherry flowers. The relative position of flower organs was much more variable according to the season than according to the cultivars. So the differences were rather the consequences of seasonal effects than of variety features of sour cherry cultivars. As far as individual cultivars are concerned differences in the nectar production and the sugar concentration are revealed rather between groups of cultivars than between individual cultivars. The pollen production of flowers was extremely changeable in consecutive years. Most honeybees collected nectar at sour cherry flowers; pure pollen gatherers and mixed behaviour bees were half as frequent but differences among the behaviour of honeybees according to cultivars cannot be stated. The fidelity of honeybees to sour cherry is less expressed than to some other fruit tree species. Accordingly, it is very strongly suggested to take the competitive effect other plant species (weeds) flowering in and around the orchard carefully into account when organizing additional bee pollination in sour cherry plantations. Several sour cherry cultivars possess more or less self-fertilization capacity but this is greatly changeable according to the season. It has been proved that self-sterile sour cherry cultivars are sensitive even on the partial restriction of the effective time of bee pollination and it is to be stressed too that even in the case of partly self-fruitful cultivars bee pollination is also vital in yield formation because medium or strong restriction of the effective bee pollination period is of a definite negative effect on their fruit set and yield. In years with unfavourable weather the yield can dramatically be reduced sometimes down to nil. However, very high fruit set is also unfavourable because a negative correlation was detected between the final set and the mean mass of fruits.
Indeed, in the last decade a large number of new sour cherry cultivars with new notable flavor characteristics have been released. There is no enough information related to qualitative characteristics which consistently segregated based on their predominant sensory characteristics. The present study carried out at tow consecutive years (2008 an...d 2009) and examined some qualitative characters which are the main importance in the specialty cherries trade, The main objective was to determine fruits quality of Érdi bőtermő, Oblacsinszka, Debreceni bőtermő, Csengődi, Pándy 279, Éva, Kántorjánosi, Újfehértói fürtös and Petri sour cherry cultivars. Changes observed in major characteristics such as fruit detachment force, width, length, weight, peduncle length, flesh firmness, brix, citric acid, Suger/acid ratio and pit weigh.While observed no change in flesh/pit ratio and Coordinate of colour (X*, y*, x*), hue angle and chroma value, in different years. In all measured factors, there was significant difference between selected cultivars of sour cherry fruit. Debreceni bőtermő showed higher values of fruit detachment force in 2008, while had the lover of fruit detachment force in 2009. Fruit firmness of “Érdi bőtermő” were monitored at lover value in both 2-year.
Size and surface morphology of pollen has been studied in 87 twit varieties of 10 fruit species during the period of 1990-1995. No preceding work of that type came to our knowledge, yet.
The samples comprised a wide variety of cultivars included male sterile, self-incompatible, partially self-fertile stone fruits, diploid and hexaploid ...plums, diploid and triploid apples.
The large number of species and varieties facilitated the comparison of items within and between the respective species.
It was stated that the size, shape and surface morphology of pollen is genetically determined and those data, combined with other variety characters, are suitable for the classification and distinction of varieties.
In assessment of pollen size and shape, their moisture content is crucial. The major diameter of the swollen pollen as well as the length and width of the dry grains are characteristic to species and/or to variety.
The width and shape changes largely with moisture content. Large grains are proper to quince, apricot, peach and almond, medium sizes are found in apple, sweet cherry, sour cherry, European plum, whereas small size is typical to Japanese plums.
The low number of varieties studied does not allow conclusions concerning differences within pears, quinces and almonds as species. In the rest of species, valid differences have been registered as between varieties.
Within species, as apple and plum, the effect of ploidy (i.e. number of chromosomes) was expressed in the size of their pollen. In stone fruit species, the correlation between size. of anthers and size of pollen grains was positive.
Genetic relations between the self-fertile sour cherry varieties of the Pándy type (Debreceni bőtermő, Kántorjánosi, Újfehértói fürtös) as well as the self-incompatible apricots of "giant" fruit size are supposed to be analysed by pollen studies but there did not turn out any decisive conclusion, yet. Other characters also should be considered.
The assembly of pollen characters is decisive in the determination of the variety. The ratio of empty pollen grains, the grain size and the density as well as the size of the pits on the surface are best suited to distinguish pollen lots.
Sour cherry growing and consumption grows dynamically around the world. The present volume of 1 million tons will incerase within 10 years with 20-30, or even with 50%. In the world wide sour cherry production, Europe is a decisive factor, i.e. 2/3 of the volume is grown there. Prominent capacities are concentrated in East-Central Europe, mainl...y Poland, Germany and Hungary. In the future, new concurrent exporters are expected on the European market as Turkey, Iran, Serbia-Montenegro. Hungarian sour cherry production has rich traditions, so the growing techniques and the assortment of sour cherry varieties make Hungary a „Great Power" on this field. Fresh fruit and products developed from sour cherry represent values distinguished as „Hungaricum" on the markets. Sour cherry growing and the path of its products are one of the „pulling branches" of Hungarian fruit growing. Sour cherry occupies 15% of area for fruit growing and 40% within the stone fruits. Sour cherry was grown widely in Hungary, it was grown everywhere as for utilizing waste areas. This is the main reason that yields are low as a mean of 15 000 ha and the volume is low (50-60 000 tons) only. To that poor figure the heavy infections of Monilia contributed substantially in the last couple of years. The two most valid arguments of using the present varieties as the best solution are 1) the cross bred new varieties, and 2) the selections of local, traditional varieties, which substituted the earlier dominant 'Pándy meggy' variety, which had a good quality but yielded poorly. Sour cherry growing of Hungary shifted from the dry regions of the country toward the cooler and more humid regions, where the weather excesses secure a less risky production. The most decisive region is the Norther Great Plain Region comprising SzabolcsSzatmar-Bereg county, where more than the half of the Hungarian sour cherry volume is produced, and which is bound to increase its production in the future. The majority of sour cherry produced in Hungary is processed, moreover, an important fraction of the exported fresh fruit is also used by the industry. The main importer of Hungarian sour cherry is Germany. The industry manufactures mainly canned products, a smaller fraction will be processed to other products. The expected volumes of sour cherry grown in Hungary in the next 5 and 10-year-period was estimated from data based on the ratio of young plantations, predicted consequences of the global climatic changes, phytosanitary aspects, furthermore, on the development of the technological level. In the region, the volume grown within 5 years, 40 000 t/year will increase within 10 years to 55 000 t/y. The processing in Hungary is not sufficiently differenciated, which is attributed partly to the characters of the varieties, partly to the weaknesses of the processing industry. One of the reasons is the suitability of varieties mainly for canning products. Processed sour cherry products could not be sold at the same price levels achieved by concurrent sour cherry growing countries. The vertical structure of the path of products of sour cherry disposes of adequate processing capacity being ready to be developed or there is sufficient intention of making investments for the purpose of manufacturing special sour cherry products. Significant tasks of development are actual in the field of the ecological and biological conditions of production. Volume and yield security as well as the maturity time and diversification of processing possibilities are the main endeavours in widening the assortment of varieties to be grown in the near future. The main objective in growing techniques is the modernization of phytotechnical procedures, and new solutions of methods of mechanical harvesting and related technical innovations are necessary in the sour cherry verticum. A key question is the effectiveness of phytosanitary procedures with special reference to the Monilia fungus and to the cherry fruit fly as the most important pest. There are two points of break through in the Hungarian sour cherry verticum. On the one hand, meeting the increasing demands in fuits for fresh consumption, on the other hand, the diversification of processed sour cherry products and their introduction to the markets. Both are aiming to increase the competitiveness of the Hungarian sour cherry. For that purpose, outstanding varieties and excellent as well as internationally recognised fruit qualities are ready to be utilized. The most susceptible problems of the Hungarian sour cherry verticum are associated with marketing, alliance of the grower-and processor organisations and their co-operation because no overall integration within the sour cherry verticum has been established yet. Most urgent necessity as well as possibility of changes are felt in the Northern Great Plain Region.
In the present study histology of the leaves of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) variety Elsanta was the objective, which has been performed with the beginning of seedling stage, cotyledons, primary leaves and later true leaves, first cataphyll of the runner shoot as well as the bracteoles of the inflorescence. Structures of the le...af blade, the upper and lower epidermis, the petiole have been also observed. The leaf blade of cotyledons already contains a typical palisade as well as spongy parenchyma tissues, i.e. being bifacial showing a structure similar to that of the true leaf. However, the petiole displays differences from the true leaf. There are a narrow (4-5 layer) primary cortex and a tiny central cylinder. Primary leaves bear already hairs on the adaxial surface and the transporting tissue-bundles are recognised in cross sections having a "V" shape. The first true leaf composed by three leaflets is of a simple structure showing characters reminding of cotyledons and primary leaves. Leaves of intermediate size continue to grow, whereas their inner anatomy changes dramatically. In the central region of the leaflets, near to the main vein, a second palisade parenchyma appears, further on, transporting tissue bundles are branching in the petiole. Collenchyma tissues enhance the stiffness and elasticity of the petiole. Older true leaves develop thick collenchyma tissues around the transporting bundles being represented by increasing numbers. The doubled palisade parenchyma layers of the leaf blades are generally observed. The cataphylls of the runners have a more simple structure, their mesophyll is homogenous, no palisade parenchyma appears. It is evident that leaves grown at successive developmental stages are different not only in their morphological but also anatomical structure. There is a gradual change according to the developmental stage of the leaves.
The black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) is a native plant in Hungary represented by extended and very variable populations. Cultivation of elderberry started during the late 90-ies because of the growing interests of the processing industry. High anthocyanin content, nutritive value of the berries and aromatic compounds of the flowers have been the... esteemed constituents.
At the moment, there are about 3000 hectares elder plantations in Hungary, which is more than of any of the other European countries. Unfortunately, the cultures are planted to the Austrian selections of Haschberg, in spite of the fact that about 10-15 other selections of other foreign countries have been registered and planted elsewhere. In addition to that, the wild population of Hungary may offer a precious opportunity of further selection. Since 1970, Aladár Porpáczy at Fertőd and the Department of Fruit Growing of the former University of Horticulture in the 1980-ies started the selection in Hungary too.
The present study deals with 7 genotypes, their morphology of berries and inflorescences. Results are concentrated on four genotypes: Szcs1, Szcs-2, Szcs-3 and Szcs-5, which are all earlier ripening than the Haschberg varieties, and are superior in characters of fruit and inflorescence.
Genetical alterations and phytosanitary status promote the variability and modify the appearance of vine. Old vine varieties in old vineyards are highly variable and well adapted to selection. Clonal selektion is based on a visual performance: valuable individuals (clones) are picked out according to visible symptoms or characters. The genetica...l stability of clones is proved by testing the vegetatively propagated progenies on the basis of morphological and molekular (SSR, AFLP, SMPL, RAPD) markes. Authors take great care of the visual phytosanitary selection as part of the clonal selection being the oreliminary step to develop pathogen-free propagation stocks. In Serbia (Vojvodina) the selection breeding has been carried on for several decades resulted in comparative clone trials with home and imported clones of Welsch Riesling, Chardonnay, Pinot gris, White Riesling. Among the clones of home selection SK.54 Welsch Riesling clone is the most valuable. Its clearing from pathogene is being carried on in an interregional IPA programme (HUSRB/0901/214/123) in Kecskemét. In Kecskemét, the centre of the Hungarian Danube vine region 5 vine clones have been registered (Cegléd szépe K.73, Irsai Olivér K.11, Kövidinka K.8, Hárslevelû K.9, Pannónia kincse K.56). Besides them 18 virus-tested clones have also been qualified.Works aiming at their complete exemption are going on in order to obtain clones free of propagation wood-borne diseases.
Interaction between the rootstock and scion varieties (clones) was examined. Berlandieri x Riparia T. K. 5BB, Berlandieri x Riparia T.5C being the most widely used varieties in Hungary, Fercal, Ruggeri 140 being recently used on special soil conditions ; Georgikon 28 a new established variety and Berlandieri x Riparia T. 8B GK 10 clone were the... rootstocks used. The V. vinifera L. varieties were a clone of Italian Riesling and two new hybrids from the same cross population f ( Noble Italian Riesling X Ezerjó) X ( Noble Italian Riesling X Pinot Gris ) }. This study presents the results how the growth habit depends on different scion/stock combinations in the first three years.
Shoot growth characters were observed during the initial years after plantation in the vineyard until we got the first yields. Our results did not agree with those of Pospisilova (1977) that the anticipated vigour of shoot growth will appear later in the vineyard only. However we agree with Zimmerman (1970), who showed that the differences are caused by the rootstocks in the growth habit of vines during the first two years already. The differences in shoot elongation decreased similarly to the rootstocks in the first year of fruit production. It shows us that the intense root development caused vigorous shoot growth, which we think to be a rootstock effect. When the vegetative and generative development are balanced already, the effect of scions in shoot elongation became stronger than the effect of rootstock.
We also found great differences in the maturation of wood each year from planting of the vineyard to the year of fruit production.
During the first years the differences of cane maturation were greater according to the scion varieties, the means were significantly different. In the first ripening year the differences dwindled or increased due to the rootstocks. This means that the effect of the rootstock on cane maturation became stronger in the first year of fruit production.
The ecological farming and an increasing demand for healthy fruits free from chemical residuals necessitated the reevaluation of the existing cultivars and breeding suitable cultivars for the new requirements. We have gathered the old genotypes known in the Carpathian Basin, and we have selected the most suitable ones according to fruit quality... and resistance to diseases in the last fifteen years. The main aim was the selection of resistant genotypes against fire blight and powdery mildew as gene sources for our breeding program. On the other hand, we consider the best quality traditional cultivars as extensive landscape elements (wayside tree rows or extensive squash producing plantations).
During the pathological evaluation 'Szemes alma', 'Pónyik', 'Sikulai', 'Tordai piros 'cavil' and 'Szabadkai szercsika' cultivars proved to be good resistance sources (due to their outstanding resistance to fire blight). The latter four cultivars are not susceptible even to fungal diseases, and their quality is also acceptable so those are commendable for ecological farming or for renewing the sparse orchards. According to fruit quality and low susceptibility to diseases 'Batul' and 'Vilmos renet' can also be offered for extensive organic production.
We have made original or renewed pomological descriptions of the selected cultivars, and we also publish their characters according to the terms of UPOV TG/14/8 based on to our evaluations.
In this study, the rate of scab infection and quality parameters (content of vitamin-C, dry matter, sugar, total acids, specific weight, quality index and flesh firmness) of some apple cultivars are given, moreover, the relation between those characters was examined in two environmental systems (organic and integrated) in a rainy season. In the... organic fruit production, scab infection of leaves was significantly higher than in the integrated system, in case of the same cultivars, which means that the rate of decrease in leaf area was heavier in the organic production. Cultivars did not differ statistically in parameters of inner content when the integrated system was compared to the organic one. Results did not show statistical difference between loss of leaf area caused by apple scab and the parameters of inner content, which is attributed to the regeneration of leaf area due to favourable weather conditions. Data on apple scab and inner content of the fruit justify essentially the environmental systems of apple production.
Due to the geographical situation of Hungary the introduction of late ripening apricot varieties holds great interest. In apricot production floral bud development during winter, blooming time, and the fertilisation properties are important factors. These characters were studied in six late ripening Romanian apricot varieties (Callatis, Com...andor, Litoral, Selena, Sirena, Sulmona) in Szigetcsép representing the northern site of the lowland growing area. During the mild winter of 1997/98 the dynamics of floral bud development in the Romanian varieties was a few days slower during the whole examination period compared to Gönci magyar kajszi. Their meiotic divisions occurred between 1 and 5 February. Next winter the meiotic division started later at 28 February, due to the cold weather. In these conditions the dynamics of bud development was similar in all the varieties. Averaged over seven years blooming of the Romanian varieties started 1-3 days later than in Gönci magyar kajszi. All the Romanian varieties showed self-fertility to some extent, however, application of other pollen donor sources is necessary for the safety of production, with the exception of Callatis.
The program of the Research Institute of Cegléd, comprises the acclimation and selection of 7 Prunus-species and 39 cultivars grafted on Myrobalan C. 679 (P. cerasifera) seedling stocks. In addition two varieties have been investigated on three different rootstocks each: Myrobalan C. 174 (P. cerasifera),... Bitter almond C. 449 (P. arnygdalus var. amara) and Sweet almond C. 471 (P. amygdalus var. dulcis). Fruits of commercial quality are produced maroly on some cultivars of P. salicina-, P. italica- and P. cerasifera character. Authors explain the three possible causes of low yields experienced in non-European plums:
1/ unfavorable environmental conditions
2/ lack of irrigation and
3/ superficial information concerning the variety, rootstock and adequate traditions as well as growing practices.
A rather tight correlation has been stated between blooming dates and the main ripening period. However, the early blooming time alone cannot be considered as the cause of low productivity. The decay of plum trees is attributed to special ecological requirements and phytosanitary problems of the foreign plum cultivars. The analysis of regression revealed stochastic relations involving several other characters too, which facilitate the planning of cross-combinations in the breeding program.
Regular observations and experiments were performed during a 14 year period on 6 sour cherry varieties. The morphological traits of leaves and fruits were compared, and the phenology of blooming as well as of ripening dates served to start an estimation of the possibilities of mutual pollination and the planning of harvest operations. Experimen...ts involved obligate autogamy, artificially controlled allogamy and open pollination in order to reveal self-fertility, self-sterility or inter-incompatibility relations.
The varietal characters represent, each, different values in the distinction of the items, because of their intra-varietal variability. From that point of view, the most reliable are the data of blooming and ripening time, fruit size and the fertility relations.
Inter-incompatibility was observed between the group of self-fertile, "Pándy type" varieties (`Újfehértói fürtös’, ‘Debreceni bőtermő’, ‘Kántorjánosi’) on one side and the selection of Pándy 7', a self-sterile variety on the other side. Unilateral incompatibility has been detected within the former group of new, self-fertile varieties, the combinations: (`Újfehértói fürtös’ x ‘Debreceni bőtermő’ as well as `Újfehértói fürtös’ x Kántorjánosi’.
Our results prove the close kinship between those three new varieties and the original Pándy variety on the base of being highly similar in their morphology and also of the fact of their inter-incompatibility, though unilateral.
In the recent years, several disease-resistant apple varieties appeared through the modern breeding technologies. These varieties can be grown with low usage of pesticides, which mean not only environment friendly fruit growing, but the production costs are also lower. In Eastern-Hungary — it is one of the main apple growing regions — a new... apple growing structure started to form by the investment of the German Wink Ltd. — several resistant apple varieties were brought from Germany. 'Resistant' refers genetic resistance that usually transferred from the genome of wild apple species. But the fruit of these apple species is not only resistant to diseases, but its quality is poorer, too. In Germany the Re-apples are grown only for the processing industry. Due to climatic circumstances in Eastern Hungary, the first experiences showed better parameters during laboratory measurement, the fruits have more beautiful view, shape and inner characters than usual industrial apples.
In our paper we discuss the results of sensory (consumer) tests, carried out in Eastern Hungary and in the Budapest-region the data analysis of systematic storing experiments (refraction, flesh firmness, weight loss, etc.) and profile analysis of fresh and stored Re-apples. (In the profile analysis the ProfiSens software [4,5] has been used.)
One of the most demanded research projects is the intensification of fruit production. The use of dwarfing stocks is a moderate solution as their effect is scarcely satisfactory. Climatic conditions of Hungary are continental in Eastern Europe, where Atlantic and Mediterranean effects are interacting with the continentals in a kind of basin wit...h characters of its own. Capricious meteorological episodes are often disturbing the security of development and fruiting of trees:
• winter frosts are damaging the cambium and fruiting structures of trees
• late spring frosts destroy cambium and flowers
• early autumn frosts hurt the leaves
• excessive precipitation impairs the growing fruits
• drought periods during the summer caused water stress disturbing water husbandry.
Vigorous stocks still prevail in the practice, and they ought to withstand challenges of weather hazards. The strong vigour of plants delaysthe process of senescence and the tendency of getting bald, and regeneration of plants is a sign of vitality. In present research, the trees have been trained on vigorous Prunus mahaleb stocks. Summer pruning was one of the important tools of intensive growing techniques. They were compared with traditional techniques and with plastic foil protected trees observing the vegetative as well as generative growth of them.
It was stated as a summary that a system of testing pear varieties on scale of 100 degrees, weighing 11 properties, gives a comprehensive information on qualities of pear varieties. The points of the form to be filled out, distinguishes the appreciation of accessory flavours and tastes from the main properties. Under the title of taste, sweet a...nd acid taste are evaluated separately. The presently used system is a step forward as the composed characters do not influence the judgement of each other. In the representation of results, the 100 degree system was more efficacious than the usual 5-point system because there was no need of using fractions, and the graphic profile is more expressive, so the commodity is better visualised. The assembly of the jury was divided into two groups as below and above 35 year old persons. The two groups judged differently the acidity, sweetness and the thickness of the fruit peel. It was suggested that the choice of the produce should consider the differences in taste and give up the idea of being equally favourable for both groups. The samples of different growing sites revealed that the best quality is produced at Nagykanizsa, and this capacity would be able to supply the market also in the large super-markets and chain of department stores in Hungary.
Several morphological characters of the hypanthium (size and form of the surface, the shape of the hypanthium) and anatomical traits (number and pattern of stomata) of apple cultivars (Malus domestica L.) with different susceptibility to fire blight were studied. The size of hypantium surface was calculated by modelling the hypanthium ...with a truncated cone. Three types of hypanthium surface form have been revealed: straight, convex and a complex "shouldered" one. The angle between the style and the wall of the hypanthium was narrow or wide. The stomata on the hypanthium surface can be arranged in a zone in the middle third of the hypanthium or dispersed more or less evenly. The number of stomata/flower substantially differed among the cultivars examined. The highest stomata number was detected in the flowers of the tolerant cultivar (Freedom)
No single characteristics of the hypanthium could convincingly be correlated with susceptibility to fire blight. We suggest, however, that combination of morphological properties that sustain moist environment in the hypanthium contribute to susceptibility.
Two strains of Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi were isolated from Forsythia sp. and Nerium oleander in Hungary in 1997. The effects of growth regulators produced by the bacteria were studied in different experiments. The strains were co-cultured with Sorbus redliana in vitro shoots without being in contact with the plant on solid media. ...Further culture filtrates in different concentrations were added to the culture medium. The growth regulators presented in the agar caused knot formation on the shoots and on the leaves in both kinds of culture. There were significant differences in the cultural and physiological characters, auxin and cytokinin activity of the strains of different origin.
The evaluation of a produce is an important moment of predicting its success on the market. The general impression, which is decisive, when a consumer chooses to purchase the commodity, should be interpreted in more objective, measurable terms. Primary data have been collected on fresh fruits derived from different growing technologies by organ...oleptic tests and the data filled up in the forms are processed with correlation analysis. The components were: taste, aroma, flesh firmness. The coefficients of correlation showed that the rest of characters as the appearance, juiciness, and the sugar/acid ratio.