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Work organization and economic analysis of the postharvest of an unique Hungarian product
Published September 26, 2006
11-14.

We have viewed a business in the south of the Great Plain Region from an economic point of view in 2004-2005. The main activity there is pear growing and storage. Four varieties of different time of ripening and storing are grown there. We have measured all the relevant activities, worked out a local normative and prepared a detailed technology.... The economic evaluation was based on this data. Activities, like disinfection, pre-storage disinfection and selection, in-storing and out-storing, classification after storage, packaging, as well as loading trucks, were monitored by variety. Storage loss was determined and widely varied according to varieties, length of storage and time of out-storing. Different varieties resulted in different quality classes after storage. Price depended on the quality classes. Economic evaluation was carried out when all the relevant costs and revenues were known. Fixed and variable costs of storage were determined, break-even point was calculate and the market position of the product was evaluated.

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Organoleptic evaluation of sweet cherry varieties
Published December 4, 2011
7-13.

The extraordinary abundance of precipitation in 2010 (somewhere around 1000 mm) influenced highly the development of taste and flavour in cherry fruits. As stated, only a few varieties out of 27 were acceptable as for commercial quality. Under the given climatic conditions, actually ‘Bigarreau Burlat’ earned 965.11 points and proved to be t...he best in the early ripening group. In the mid season group, three varieties earned more than 1000 points (‘Giant Red’, ‘Carmen’ and ‘Vera’ grown at Nagykutas and Pallag), whereas in the late ripening group ‘Germesdorfi’ sent from Csenger (1084), ‘Linda’ (1070.07) and ‘Lapins’ (1052) received recognition. Correlation has been tested on the basis of 27 varieties between the individual properties. We sated that the most important attributes, which influenced the general impression of decision makers are the following: form and size of the fruit (r=0.835 and 0.797), furthermore juiciness (r=0.776), taste (r=0.876) and sweetness (0.875). Crispness was considered to be typical to cherry (r=0.743). Relation between acidity and sweetness was also essential to determine the acceptance of the cherry character.

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Farm economic evaluation of elderberry production
Published September 7, 2014
57-60.

In this present study the efficiency as well as the farm economic advantages and disadvantages of elderberry production are examined. Our objective is to determine the fact that under what conditions the elderberry production may be profitable regarding the present economic and market situations. Our analysis was carried out by a simulation mod...el based on a farm-level data gathering in production enterprises. The total investment cost of an up-to-date, elderberry orchard of traditionally cultivated without irrigation is between 1000 to 1700 thousand HUF per one hectare and turning to productivity is expected within 4-5th years. These orchards are able to produce yields of 8,0 to 9,0 tons per one hectare in the average of the productive years, which makes reaching a revenue of 800 to 1000 thousand HUF possible regarding a per kg average selling price of 80 to 110 HUF. By this a net profit of 200 to 400 thousand HUF may be realized in case of a per hectare production cost of 600 to 700 thousand HUF. At the end of the lifetime of the orchard (12-15th year) an internal rate of return of 10 to 4%, an NPV of 1500 to 2000 thousand HUF per one hectare are typical in an average case, and the payback may be expected in the 6th to 8th year. From the farm economic aspect the elderberry may be considered as an extensive sector, which advantages are low capital and labour need, early recovery, good-acceptable profit on capital and cost to profit ratios, but its disadvantage is low per hectare profit comparing to intensive fruit species and orchards. In this way in general farms of capital-extensive and avoiding risks choose elderberry production.

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Evaluation of fruit tree waterstress condition and transpiration with heat fl ux sensors
Published July 2, 2016
leaf area index, evapotranspiration, water stress

In this study the transpiration properties and response to heat stress of Granny Smith and Jonagold apple species were measured. The examinations were set at an orchard near to Debrecen. The chosen trees were two years old, without fruits, in 20l container, placed in the mixture of mulch matrix, wood chips and sawdust and grown at the same clim...atic conditions. One of the most important goals was to determine the leaf area of the trees which is a basic data for transpiration modeling. Leaf area was larger (signifi cance level p<0.05) in the upper part of the canopy to achieve larger photosynthetic surface. Jonagold species with less leaf number (–18% compared to Granny Smith) reached almost the same canopy area, than Granny Smith, due to larger leaf area of Jonagold. Another aim was to measure the transpiration rate of the apple trees. The transpiration measurements were carried out by sap fl ow meter. Only a small transpiration difference can be found between species. During the investigation time there were wet and cool as well as dry and extremely hot periods. In the case of dry and extreme hot periods the transpiration is decreased, which causes decrease in transpiration and enhanced the water stress of trees.

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Preliminary evaluation of breeding perspectives of Ukrainian sweet cherry cultivars: nutraceutical properties and self-incompatibility
Published March 15, 2011
7-11.

Some traditional sweet cherry cultivars of Ukrainian origin may represent perspective material for Hungarian cherry breeding. A total of eight cultivars analysed represent great diversity in several phenotypic traits including fruit ripening time or fruit flesh colour. Considerable differences in the anthocyanin content may result in different ...antioxidant capacity of fruits. In the present study, we used ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC) assays to characterize fruits’ nutraceutical properties. These values were compared with the respective values measured for eight commercial cultivars grown in Hungary. The average of FRAP and TPC values was higher for the Ukrainian cherries compared with commercial cultivars suggesting they might be included in functional breeding programs. Since, cherry is a self-incompatible species, the determination of S-genotype is required for both breeding and successful cultivar association in commercial orchards. Complete or partial S-genotypes were determined for 5 and 3 cultivars, respectively.

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Evaluation of precision farming with regard to horticulture
Published August 14, 2002
105-110.

The global positioning system was made available for public use, which made it possible' to apply a new management tool in agriculture. Precision farming gives much more information on plant-growing than former methods, which makes it possible to use technologies more suitable for micro-sites. It is supposed that more profitable production can ...be realised with its aid and the strain on the environment can be reduced, not to mention other economic advantages.

The study makes economic conclusions about the method more and more widely used in plant production taking the yield mapping of Józsefmajor Experimental Farm as a basis and starts ideas about its possible application in arable land olericulture, viticulture and fruit production.

These issues are important because precision farming has existed in glass-culture for a long time from another perspective, which should be spread to open ground horticultural enterprises that are labour and asset intensive, qualitative farming forms with great plantation value.

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Farm economic evaluation of raspberry production
Published September 7, 2014
53-56.

Hungary was considered as one of the most significant raspberry producers in the 1980’ies. The acreage and the produced quantity, however, reflected a decreasing tendency during the past two decades: the 7 000 hectares existing in the year of 1990 reduced to 1 500 hectares, the current territory does not reach the 500 hectares. The annual yie...ld is only 1 to 3 thousand tons. The level of domestic fresh consumption is very low, due to the fact that it is a relatively expensive fruit for Hungarian consumers. The requirement of the processing industry is satisfied by raspberries from mainly Polish and Serbian import. These two countries belong to the biggest raspberry producing countries in the world by producing raspberries of more than 50 thousand tons. Comparing to the Hungarian production costs and yields they are able to transport their products here at a very low price, consequently they hold the prices at a low level. The profitability of the domestic raspberry production is rather unfavourable, production often shows a deficit even in orchards of good standard; furthermore the lack of labour causes an extremely great difficulty, which is an important component of the decline of the production independently from cost conditions.

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The evaluation of grape vine decline pathogens in the experimental field of the Georgikon Faculty of Agriculture in Cserszegtomaj
Published October 16, 2007
19-22.

Vine decline causes important economic loss in viticulture, especially in longer view. Several causal pathogen were described lately, however little is known about the etiology or epidemiology of these pathogens on grapevine rootstock. It is well known that these diseases affect grafted and rooted grapevines and are not specific to any scion-ro...otstock combinations. Our aim was to determine what pathogens are presents in the experimental field, especially causal agents of the rootstock decline. Different grapevine rootstocks and scion varieties were tested in our trial. Isolations were made from the wood tissue and pathogenity tests were done with isolated Cylindrocarpon destructans. The possibility of infection during the propagation process was studied as well. Most commonly Cylindrocarpon sp. and Phomopsis sp. species were identified from the examined varieties. Cylindrocarpon destructans was able to spread to apical (shoot) and basal (root) direction from the point of infection with uneven speed. Callus development is not inhibited by the fungi causing the leaf symptom of the vine decline. Shoot development is reduced if unhealthy parts are grafted to each other.

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Antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content of Lavandula cultivars at different growing areas in Hungary
Published July 29, 2020
65-69.

Lavandula species are worldwide grown essential oil producing medicinal plants with considerable economic value. Beside volatile oil, lavender also contains different phenolic compounds which have been less widely studied till now. Cultivation of lavender has become widespread in Hungary in the recent years, however, growers have limit...ed knowledge on the productivity of cultivars available. In our research we were aimed to studying the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content of samples collected in two growing areas (Dörgicse and Szomód) from flowers of two L. angustifolia (‘Hidcote’, ‘Munstead’) and two L. × intermedia (‘Grosso’, Grappenhall’) varieties, during the full blooming period of 2017. Antioxidant capacity of the samples was determined by FRAP assay (Benzie and Strain, 1996), while total polyphenol content (TPC) was measured by a modified method of Singleton and Rossi (1965). According to our results, varieties of L. × intermedia showed higher values of antioxidant capacity and of total polyphenol content, than those of L. angustifolia cultivars. Among them, both the antioxidant capacity (179.6 mg AAE/g DW) and total polyphenol content values (152.4 mg GAE/g DW) of ’Grosso’ from Dörgicse were the highest. Concerning FRAP values of all the cultivars investigated, larger variability were found in Dörgicse, than in Szomód. Regarding the effect of growing area, each cultivar represented similar FRAP values in Dörgicse and in Szomód, except for ’Grosso’. However, in the case of TPC values, higher variability was observed between the growing areas, especially in the case of ’Grosso’. In the future our studies on lavender polyphenols will be completed with qualitative evaluation of the values obtained by HPLC analysis.

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Drought stress monitoring by laboratory and satellite spectral methods in an apple orchard
Published April 22, 2014
7-9.

An orchard can be examined on the basis of spectral data, using such methods with which the reflected radiation can be divided into a large number of (several hundreds) small spectral channel (some nm). Based on the spectral characteristics of the canopy, or the different index numbers calculated from hyperspectral data the water supply conditi...ons of foliage can be well characterized. The research site is an intensive apple orchard, which located in Debrecen University, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Farm and Regional Research Institute at Pallag. During our experiments the evaluation of spectral, non-invasive measurement method are carried out for detecting stress symptoms caused by drought. Furthermore, MODIS NDVI time series data were analyzed for orchards situated in North-Eastern part of Hungary in drought effected and wet years in order to detect differences. Significant differences in NDVI values were detected after the end of June.

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Treatments for improving tree growth, yield and fruit quality and for reducing double fruit and deep suture incidence in “Desert red” peach trees
Published October 18, 2016
7-19.

Five years old “Desert red” peach trees budded on Nemaguard rootstock and grown in sandy soil at commercial orchard Al-Nubaria city, El-Behira Governorate-Egypt were treated with some agricultural treatments involving thinning out pruning, fruit thinning and foliar application of potassium silicate (25% S +10% K2O) at 0.1% and super grow (2...0% N, 20% P2O5 and 20% K2O) at 0.3% in 2014 and 2015 seasons, to study their effects on yield and fruit quality and the relationship between nutrient balance and yield of “Desert red” peach trees. Beside, testing the influence of used treatments on two physiological disorder, double fruit and deep suture %. Also, economic evaluation of different treatments was done. All obtained data were statistically analyzed using a randomized complete block design. Depending on the obtained results in this study, it could be concluded that application of thinning out pruning 35%, fruit thinning by leaving 15 cm between fruits on one-year old shoot at 20 days after full bloom and foliar application of potassium silicate which sprayed five times during each growing season at fruit set, the second fruit development stage, the beginning of the fruit color change and twice after month from harvest, most profitable treatment for peach trees grown under conditions of this investigation. This treatment gave the best vegetative growth, yield, fruit quality, higher crop value with high net income /fed. from “Desert red” peach trees, in addition, reduced the percentage of double fruit and deep suture by more than 50% in both seasons, therefore, the study recommends this treatment for “Desert red” peach growers.

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Effects of different cytokinins on the shoot regeneration from apple leaves of 'Royal Gala' and 'M.26'
Published March 16, 2004
69-75.

The effects of different types of cytokinins on the shoot regeneration from leaf explants of apple scion 'Royal Gala' and apple rootstock 'M.26' were evaluated. Regeneration media contained either thidiazuron, or 6-benzylaminopurine, or meta-topolin, or zeatin, or kinetin, or their N9-ribosides, respectively, in the concentration ran...ge 0.5 to 8.0 mg 1-1. Effects of 'these cytokinins were evaluated on the percentage of regeneration (R%) and that of vitrification (V%) and on the number of regenerated shoots per explant (SN). Organogenetic index (0I) calculated from these data was used for the evaluation of efficacy of cytokinins. The course of shoot organogenesis also was followed using stereomicroscope. Types and concentrations of cytokinins applied in the regeneration media influenced each parameter significantly and the regeneration answer was strongly genotype-dependent. The best regeneration (SN: 11.08, 01: 7.5) was achieved in `Royal Gala' by using TDZ in concentration of 0.5 mg 1-1 (2.271,1M). There was a clear relationship between the effect on the regeneration efficacy and the chemical structure of cytokinins considering classical cytokinins, namely N9-ribosides applied in less concentration than non­ribosides have the same or best regeneration effects except for 6-benzylaminopurine riboside. However, similar relationship could not be detected in the case of 'M.26'. SN was the highest (3.22) using 6.5 mg 1-1 (18.2011M) 6-benzylaminopurine riboside or 8.0 mg 1-1 (21.44 µM) meta-topolin riboside (3.18). SN was not significantly lower (3.12) by using 2.0 mg 1-1 (9.08 1M) TDZ, however, OI was about half as big (0.63 compared to 1.29 or 1.74 with 6-benzylaminopurine riboside or meta-topolin riboside, respectively). 'Royal Gala' had higher organogenetic ability, than `M.26': 3.5-fold higher shoot number per explant and more than 4-fold higher organogenetic index was reached with this cultivar than with 'M.26'. Moreover, the similar developmental stage of shoots could be observed 3-5 days earlier than in 'M.26' and if explants of 'Royal Gala' were further cultured with 3 weeks, SN increased from 11.08 to 24.42 on TDZ-containing regeneration medium, which might suggest higher organogenetic ability, too.

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