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Introduction of alkanet (Alkanna tinctoria (L.) Tausch), a traditional dye plant into cultivation
Published June 6, 2001

As a part of the research project to establish natural sources of plant pigments, possibilities of introduction of Alkanna tinctoria (alkanet) into cultivation were studied.

As a result of the germination experiment, the relevance of 21 days' duration of germination procedure was proved. To get high germination rate alkanet fru...its are proposed to pretreat by gibberellinic acid (GA3) in the concentration of 400 ppm, overnight before sowing. This method results approximately 50 % germination rate.

The morphological and production properties of alkanet roots are characterized during ontogenesis. Transplanted populations can be characterized by numerous, thick and heavy roots comparing to the spontaneous ones. Thus, seed sowing and transplantation proved to be an effective method for cultivation of the species.

According to our results it can be concluded that in cultivation the optimal harvesting time of roots is at the end of the second vegetation cycle, when the dry root mass of the individuals is about 10-20 g with 3,0-3,5 % accumulation level of active substances.

Considerable seasonal variability have been found influencing not only the root masses, but also the accumulation levels of alkannin derivatives. In a more humid vegetation cycle the root size and mass as well as the content of active substances are much higher.

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Evaluation of cauliflower genotypes by different growing method
Published July 29, 2019

Cauliflower is currently cultivated on 350-400 thousand hectares in the world and around 1500 ha in Hungary. Its cultivation requires considerable expertise as it is sensitive to environmental factors and adequate nutrient supply. The aim of our experiment was to compare three genotypes (Abeni, SV5777 AC and Telergy F1...em>) by different growing method – under plastic tunnel and on open field. On open field the planting was on 19th of March, 2018, the row and plant distances were 45 and 35 cm. Under plastic tunnel the transplants were set out on the same day with the same genotypes as on open field, with 55x45 cm arrangement. The results have proved that cauliflower curds from plastic tunnel was two times bigger than on open field. The more protected environment had a positive effect not only on the mass of the curd, but also on the biomass production. Among the examined genotypes Abeni showed the highest yield (about 1 kg/plant) under plastic tunnel. The shape of the head is important for the market. According to our data, we measured the width and height of the curd. Open field conditions induced wider curd with longer stem and caused lower product quality and weaker correlation between the parameters than plastic tunnel.

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The effect of rootstock on the tree size of apricot cultivars
Published August 13, 2004

The apricot is propagated on several kinds of rootstocks in Hungary. The main aspects of selecting rootstocks are as follows: adaptability to environmental circumstances, primarily soil conditions, ensuring the tree size that complies with the cultivation method, and compatibility with the grafted cultivar. At advanced, intensive orchards roots...tocks ensuring smaller tree size are privileged. For the establishment of the appropriate cultivation system, it is important to be aware of the expected growing vigour and tree size of certain cultivar­rootstock combinations when the orchard is designed. In the course of our experiment the size of 15-year-old trees of 4 apricot cultivars were examined on several rootstocks at an orchard in Siófok. On the basis of the data measured for each cultivar-rootstock combination, it can be stated that trees on wild apricot (P. armeniaca) rootstocks are the largest in size. Trees on prune (P. domestica) rootstock have 10-15% smaller crown volume than the previous combination. Trees on bullace (P. insititia) rootstock have the smallest tree size and their crown volume is 30-50% smaller than that of the trees on P. armeniaca rootstock. Thus, the application of prune and bullace rootstocks is beneficial at intensive apricot orchards as the size of trees can be reduced by their usage. However, their compatibility with the cultivars and their adaptability to the ecological conditions of the production site have to be tested before applying them widely. In the course of our research incompatibility was not experienced for any of the cultivar-rootstock combinations examined. Nevertheless, the drought tolerance of the rootstocks examined showed significant differences. Trees on P. domestica or P. insititia rootstock requires more water than those on P. armeniaca rootstock, therefore, they have to be irrigated.

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Comparison of three soil cultivation method in case of grape
Published September 6, 2010

Our results show that the different cultivation methods have effect on the yield and the grape quality as well. In 2008 and 2009 the straw mulch proved to be the best solution regarding the yield. The soil compaction was reduced in these plots and the photosintetical activity was also higher. Straw mulch could conserve the moisture content of t...he soil. The less yield was observed in case of barely covered vines and also the vegetative growth of the grape was less intensive in case of these vines, but it seems to be contributed to the conformation of suitable microclimate for Botrytis infection.

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Sensory evaluation of white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) hybrids
Published October 18, 2016

Comprehensive system of sensory evaluation was developed to obtain information on the different varieties by determining asparagus quality parameters. 9 sensory characteristics were estimated to describe flavour differences. The tests were carried out in 4 varieties of white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) grown on brown humus sand soil by... etiolate method in ridge cultivation. The experiment was performed at the University of Debrecen in Debrecen-Pallag. To increase the Hungarian asparagus consumption, a classification of varieties
regarding to asparagus flavour is necessary. In our experiment it could be stated that there are strict correlations (0.892) between the sweetness – total impression and between lacks of unpleasant aftertaste – total impression (0.870). The result of surveys can lead to higher popularity of the asparagus. These results are presented in order to recommend the varieties to producers for a successful marketing. The taste of asparagus is mostly influenced by variety, soil type and growing conditions. In our experiment, ‘Vitalim’ hybrid exceeded by several sensory parameters. This hybrid scored 788.38 over 900. The elder population showed more interest in asparagus consumption than younger ones. 50% of the participants are able to pay only 500-600 HUF/kg. It could be realized to ensure the proper growing place, hybrid and direct trade. Marketing and more information is necessary to increase the popularity of this vegetable among the younger generation.

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Micropropagation of Rudbeckia hirta L. from seedling explants
Published May 18, 2005

We conducted experiments for developing an in vitro micropropagation protocol starting from meristems of Rudbeckia hirta L seedlings. We pre-soaked the seeds in sterile ion-exchanged water for 17 hours, and then achieved surface disinfection in two separate steps. First, we used concentrated household sodium-hypochloride solut...ion for 20 minutes and, also for 20 minutes, we applied hydrogen peroxide of 10%, which was followed by washing with sterile ion-exchanged water three times. For the propagation of seedling meristems, the combination of half-strenght solid Murashige and Skoog (1962) culture medium containing 10 mg/1 of kinetin or 2 mg/I of kinetin + 0.1 mg/1 of 2iP proved to be the most suitable. The average number of shoot-buds developed from the seedling axillary meristem in the best culture media varied between 5 and 17. Without separating them, we inoculated the shoot-bud clusters on MS culture medium containing 2 mg/1 of IAA. After four weeks of incubation we obtained elongated shoots which we separated and inoculated into a new culture medium and we obtained elongated roots. The rooted plants were gradually acclimatised in the cultivation room, potted and carried to a greenhouse, and then planted in open field for subsequent observation. By adopting this method, our laboratory started the micropropagation of the superior and/or elite genotypes of the Rudbeckia hirta L. being of special value in respect of breeding.

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Callus induction on standard type Cymbidium cultivars
Published August 23, 2000

Tissue cultured Cymbidium PLBs (protocormlike body) were used as starting material to induce embryogenic callus which could serve as objects of genetic transformation. We obtained callus using two methods. The first method was culturing the PLB segments for one month in liquid MS medium in the presence of 0.5 mg/1 benzyladenine and 0.0...5 mg/1 naphtylacetic acid followed by cultivation on the same composition solid medium with 0.5 g/l activated charcoal for an additional month. Callus formation was observed on 30% of the explants. The second way was to propagate the PLB segments on solid MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/1 thidiazuron. In these cultures we also observed callus formation on 20% of the explants.

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A review of the orchard management in organic fruit production
Published September 19, 2007

The elements of orchard management have a determining role in the success of organic fruit production, therefore, it is essential that they are applied properly. The present review gives describes some aspects of the orchard management such as site selection, orchard soil, rootstocks and cultivars, planting materials and plant density, crown sh...ape. Then, one of the most important elements, pruning is discussed with special emphasis on winter pruning, condition and apical dominance, degree and method of pruning, summer pruning. After pruning, an overview of fruit thinning, irrigation, soil cultivation, soil protection (cover plants and mulching) and fertilization is given.

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Work quality assessment of a cherry sorting machine
Published March 15, 2011

The conditions of the cultivation of marketable cherries are diverse. Choosing the production site on the basis of the climatic conditions, selecting the most appropriate variety taking into account the region and the purpose of the production, utilization of the optimal production method, to ensure the required water and nutrients supply, fros...t and hail protection techniques, modern technology in crop protection, and professional performance of harvesting and handling, to name just a few of the most important issues. The objective of present study is to determine the qualitative characteristics of the UNITEC cherry sorting machine.

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Antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content of Lavandula cultivars at different growing areas in Hungary
Published July 29, 2020

Lavandula species are worldwide grown essential oil producing medicinal plants with considerable economic value. Beside volatile oil, lavender also contains different phenolic compounds which have been less widely studied till now. Cultivation of lavender has become widespread in Hungary in the recent years, however, growers have limit...ed knowledge on the productivity of cultivars available. In our research we were aimed to studying the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content of samples collected in two growing areas (Dörgicse and Szomód) from flowers of two L. angustifolia (‘Hidcote’, ‘Munstead’) and two L. × intermedia (‘Grosso’, Grappenhall’) varieties, during the full blooming period of 2017. Antioxidant capacity of the samples was determined by FRAP assay (Benzie and Strain, 1996), while total polyphenol content (TPC) was measured by a modified method of Singleton and Rossi (1965). According to our results, varieties of L. × intermedia showed higher values of antioxidant capacity and of total polyphenol content, than those of L. angustifolia cultivars. Among them, both the antioxidant capacity (179.6 mg AAE/g DW) and total polyphenol content values (152.4 mg GAE/g DW) of ’Grosso’ from Dörgicse were the highest. Concerning FRAP values of all the cultivars investigated, larger variability were found in Dörgicse, than in Szomód. Regarding the effect of growing area, each cultivar represented similar FRAP values in Dörgicse and in Szomód, except for ’Grosso’. However, in the case of TPC values, higher variability was observed between the growing areas, especially in the case of ’Grosso’. In the future our studies on lavender polyphenols will be completed with qualitative evaluation of the values obtained by HPLC analysis.

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Influence of environment in electro-chemical quality of tomato
Published September 6, 2010

The aim of the research was to investigate the impact of different cultivation environments of tomato cultivars, the electro-chemical and the qualitative traits of the tomato fruits. The quality of tomato fruit harvesting was evaluated at the Laboratory of Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture University of Natural Resources and Applied Lif...e Sciences, Vienna. Two hybrids of tomatoes were tested Belle-F1 and AmaF1, in two locations and two different treatments (open field and plastic tunnels). Model of experimental fields was based on random method and included three replications. Following parameters were analyzed and tested: pH, Rh, P-Value, Nitrates and the content of vitamin C. The values of pH for treatment in the open field and indoor production system were not significant (4.47 to 5.05). For P-Value derived from the two treatments the maximal values were without significant differences, while minimal values were significant. Study has shown also that the highest values of nitrate content (16.34 mg, open field) compared to average value differences were + 0.384 mg or 43.83% higher. In indoor production the nitrate content was lower in compared with plants cultivated in open fields, so these differences were +3.81 mg or 26.4 0%, and highly significant for both levels. In relation to vitamin C content, the highest value was identified in the indoor systemof 298.6mg, with variations from the overall average of 16.43% or + 42.15 mg. The coefficient of variation values for both levels was of 29.96 respectively 27.31%.

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