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Results on mating disruption by sex pheromones against moth pests of apple in integrated and organic orchards
Published September 19, 2007
51-53.

The study was aimed to study that how mating disruption by hand applied dispensers can reduce the number of damage caused by Cydia pomonella, Adoxophyes orana and Pandemis heparana in four integrated and organic apple orchards. In the first orchard (Gacsály), protection against moth caterpillars ensured by IPM and conventiona...l production systems were equally good, but worse than that of the orchard part where mating disruption was applied by 1000 dispensers/ha. In second orchard (Nyírbogdány), the highest incidence of codling moth damage was measured in the hilly part (17%), while in the plot where 440 dispensers/ha pheromone dosage was applied, the damage incidence was 11%. The smallest damage incidence was at the flat part, where 666 dispensers /ha was applied. In the third and fourth orchards (Eperjeske), codling moth damage on fruits was below 7% in the larger and smaller orchards where 1000 dispensers/ha was applied. At Eperjeske, the codling moth damage increased by 32.3% in the field treated with Bacillus thuringiensis product but without using mating disruption. The results verified that the use of 1000 dispensers/ha as suggested by the manufactures is essential, especially in the first year of application. The results also suggested that better results can be achieved in flat areas and the larger plot size also enables a more efficient reduction of the damage.

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Disease incidence of Monilinia fructigena coupled with codling moth damage and mechanical injury in an organic apple orchard
Published March 3, 2013
55-57.

In a two-year-study, disease incidence of Monilinia fructigena were quatified and the importance of certain fruit wounding agents was determined. The first infected fruits were observed at the beginning of August in 2011 and 2012. Disease development was continuous until fruit harvest in both years. Pre-harvest yield loss caused by M. fructigen...a amounted on average 26.3% in 2011 and 40.4% in 2012 by fruit harvest. All infected fruits were injured mainly by mechanical injury factors and codling moth (Cydia pomonella). In this study, the most important wounding agents were codling moth and mechanical injury factors in organic apple orchards. In both years, our results showed that 65-75% of the infected fruits were damaged by codling moth in organic apple production. Moreover, 5-15% of the infected fruits were mechanically injured in the two years. Our results indicated that most of the damaged fruits fell on the orchard floor before harvest and they became an important secondary inoculum source of M. fructigena. Biological and practical implications of the results are discussed.

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Effect of postharvest sodium benzoate treatment on some fruit parameters of two organic apple cultivars
Published July 29, 2020
35-37.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of postharvest sodium-benzoate treatment on some fruit parameters of two organic apple cultivars (’Topaz’ and ’Florina’). Assessments were made at three times during storage: 17 November 2019, 20 December 2019 and 23 January, 2020. During every assessment dates, each fruit was observed... separately, and determined the proportion of i) healthy fruits (%), ii) post-harvest fruit rot diseases iii) fruits with mechanical injury (%), iv) fruit with russetting (%), v) damage of codling moth and vi) Ca-deficiency symptoms. In addition, fruit weight (g) was measured at each assessment date. Sodium benzoate reduced the fruit decay and the proportion of healthy fruit was higher in this treatment compared to water treated fruit. This effect could be seen in all assessment dates and on both cultivars. Effects on other parameters were various according to cultivar and assessment dates. Loss of fruit weight was similar in both treatments and cultivars compared to control treatment.

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Effect of reduced spray programmes on incidences of apple scab, powdery mildew and codling moth damage in environmentally freindly apple production systems
Published September 2, 2009
75-78.

Still a large amount of pesticides and spary applications are used in environmentally friendly fruit production systems; therefore, the aim of our study was first to test the in vitro effeicacy of some fungicides against a key apple disease (apple scab), and secondly to evaulate the effectiveness of reduced spray programmes against apple s...cab, powdery mildew and coding moth in integrated and organic apple orchards. In vitro efficacy of 7 fungicides (Champion 50 WP, Kocide 2000, Nordox 75 WG, Olajos rézkén, Kumulus S, Rézkén, Rézoxiklorid) and another 6 fungicides (Score 25 EC, Efuzin 500 SC, Systane, Folicur Solo, Zato Plusz, Rovral) approved in organic and integrated production systems, respectively, were tested against apple scab. Altogether four spray programmes were performed i) standard integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems during the season, ii) reduced integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems but only 75% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme, iii) standard oragnic: sprays applied every 7–14 days during the season and iv) reduced organic: 60% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme. In vitro results showed that fungicides (with active ingredients of copper and sulphur) applied in organic production showed relatively high percent growth capacity of the apple scab fungus. Rézkén showed the highest and Kumilus S the lowest efficacy against apple scab. Fungicides applied in integrated production showed relatively low percent growth capacity of the apple scab fungus. Score 25 EC showed the highest and Rovral the lowest efficacy against apple scab. Field study showed that reduced spray programmes did not increase significantly scab incidence in the integrated field. However, scab incidence increased significanly (above 30%) in the reduced spray programme for the organic orchard.Mildew incidence was low (below 5%) in both integrated and organic spray programmes. Mildew incidence on both shoots and fruits increased significanly in the reduced spray programme for the organic orchard. Incidence of codling moth damage was affected the most by standard vs. reduced spray programmes. Though incidence remained below 10% in the integrated plots, the incidence was significantly higher in the reduced spray programme compared to the standard programme. Similar results were obtained for organic spary programmes, but the incidence was 10 times higher and the differences among the two programmes were larger.,

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