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Chemical analysis of the pollen of plum varieties
Published May 24, 1999

The chemical composition, amino acids and carbohydrates, of the pollen has been analysed in varieties grown in Hungary during the years 1993 at Kecskemet and 1995 at Cegléd and Pomáz. The distinction of 17 amino acids and 7 carbohydrates has been achieved. The aim of the study was to find criteria for the distinction of varieties.

The... total content of amino acids varied between 15.53 and 20.54 %. The highest ratios represented the asparagine and the glutamine acids. The relative content in other amino acids was between 2 and 7 % of the total. The less frequent were cysteine and valine.


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Relationship between zinc and cadmium contents and cultivating conditions of gourmet and medicinal mushroom Agaricus subrufescens
Published December 19, 2019

Almoust half of the world’s population is at risk for inadequate zinc (Zn) intake, a strategic trace element that is necessary for a healthy immune system. A lack of zinc can make a person more susceptible to disease and illness. There is a need of defining additional sources of zinc in diet. Cadmium (Cd), however, and its toxicity in food ch...ain receives considerable public and scientific attention. Cd is primarily toxic to kidney and can cause bone demineralization. In many areas in the EU, intake of Cd is not far from maximum tolerable. Mushrooms are well known for accumulating metal ions such as zinc and cadmium. Objective of this study was to define relationship between cultivation systems and conditions on zinc and cadmium content in fruit bodies of Agaricus subrufescens grown on different substrates. Cultivation was performed on mushroom composts based on increasing amount of digestate from anaerobic digestion treatment processes mixed with wheat straw and paper. The Zn and Cd concentration was defined in fruiting bodies, correlated with yield, flush and element concentration in substrates. Results showed percentage of food waste digestate and other components used in experiment had influence on concentration of Zn and Cd in mushroom compost and in A. subrufescens. Zn accumulated in collected mushrooms in amounts reaching from 42.8 to 126.9 mg kg-1 Cd content ranged 2.6 to 17.9 mg kg-1. Significant correlations for Zn concentration between mushrooms and substrates showed increase of Zn in mushrooms when cultivated on substrates with higher amount of digestate.

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Examination of valuable ingredients of some wild fruits
Published October 16, 2002

A possible way of the development of Hungarian agriculture is the selection and growing of new fruit species and varieties featuring special qualities, with high biological nutritive and health protecting properties due to their natural composition. A reserve for such new fruits is the native dendroflora, e.g. those wild-growing trees and shrub...s of Hungary, which bear edible fruits. The publication is giving a summary of chemical analyses done on the fruits of the plants listed below. The research team on the project started the work in 2001 with

woody species (genera) as follows:

  • common elder (Sambucus nigra) clone named Szcs-1, Szcs-2, Szcs-3, Szcs-4, Szcs-5, SzcsK-1, SzcsK-2
  • dog rose (Rosa canina) types: clones named Sz-1, Sz-2, Sz-3, Sz-4 and Sz-5 .
  • native rowans: Sorbus dacica, S.rotundifolia, S. degenu, S.bakonyensis cv. Fánivölgy
  • hawthorns: Crataegus monogyna, C. orientalis,C..v lavallei.
  • cornel cherry: Cornus mas cv. Császló.

The present paper is reporting on the content of the following compounds in the fruits: dry matter (refractometric values), total acid content, ascorbic acid, 13-carotene, pectin, minerals and carbohydrates. The results have shown that these wild fruits have excellent composition. Besides their curative effects, their content of minerals, ascorbic acid and 13-carotene has surpassed that of the traditional fruits. These fruits are rich in ascorbic acid, 13-carotene and pectin. The high content of the above-listed, biologically active compounds makes the new wild fruits studied suitable for the preparation (and later: mass-production) of special curative and exclusive products.

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Utilisation of subsurface waters for soilless vegetable forcing in the Southern Great Plain region of Hungary
Published March 19, 2007

For soilless vegetable production of the Southern Great Plain region in Hungary, there is enough water available, however, the origin and chemical composition of it are decisive from the point of view of practicability. The ground water is everywhere accessible, although its sodium and chloride content is almost always significant, moreover, pollution may occur (e.g. nitrates and phosphates). A further unfavourable moment is the seasonal variation observed within the area of the same community. The abundant supply of water in the Quaternary strata are located in more than half of the cases within the upper 50 m region. As by the expected changes of the climate, a strategic increment of the importance of subsurface waters is anticipated. Their composition is relatively stable, and the prognoses are reliable for the same settlement. Salt content of the majority of water resources bearing hydrocarbonates is low, however, streaming of the subsurface waters tend to increase their sodium content and to diminish their calcium and magnesium, whereas the pH increases (mainly by ion-exchange). Water quality is decisive not only because of the interaction with the plants but also from the point of view of the distribution of water. Some micro-elements, mainly iron and secondarily manganese may cause problems, therefore, irrigation water ought to be prepared carefully. Production technology should be completed by a technical equipment using aeration for the elimination of ironinfluence of yields on rate of return of investment; (3) the role of increasing of added value content of products. Importance of the utilisation of alternative channels of distribution and the formation of producers' cooperatives are underlined, being based on calculation of return of investment.

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Comparative analysis of Hungarian Matricaria recutita (L.) Rausch. populations
Published October 20, 2003

Matricaria recutita L. is a traditional medicinal plant in Hungary and its drug is known as „Hungaricum", world-wide. Plant samples and seeds were collected from 12 different habitats of three significant geographical regions of Hungary in 2001. Morphological, production biological and chemical properties of samples were examined. In... relation to the morphological characteristics, a negative correlation (r= -0.75) could be observed between the average height of the plants (height of flowering shoots) and the pH value of the soil. According to the composition of the essential oil, the populations accumulating typically chamasulene (10-20%), a-bisabolol (30-50%) or bisabolol-oxid (30-50%) could be completely distinguished. Concerning the flavonoid composition the quantity of apigenin-7-glucoside was outstanding in the populations originating from the Great Hungarian Plain, it has reached the concentration of 1.8-2.8 mg/g, while the samples collected in Transdanubia could be characterised by much lower level of apigenin-7-glucoside (around 1.5 mg/g).

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Influence of abiotic factors on the green mass and seed productivity of the raw material of Levisticum оfficinalе c. Koch in the conditions of Transcarpathia
Published July 29, 2019

For the wide implementation of Levisticum officinalе C. Koch in Transcarpathia into production it is necessary to widen its sort composition, as it is rather poor in Ukraine. Solving this problem is possible by enriching the source material with the samples of different ecological and/or geographical origin, by studying the influence ...of abiotic factors on the formation of green mass and seed productivity, separating the specimens best adapted to the conditions of growing, involving them into the selection process and creating new, highly productive sorts on this basis. The scientists of the Transcarpathian State Agricultural Experimental Station (TSAES) conducted researches (during 2011-2016) on the adaptive potential of the source material of the type of Levisticum officinalе C. Koch, which counts seven samples (Ukraine – 5 samples, Poland – 1, and Romania – 1), the selection work on creating new varieties for the given region is being done. The investigations were made on soddy podzolic gleyed low-humus soils with low content of nutrients. The results were obtained on the basis of generally accepted methods of investigation, i.e.: laboratory, field, visual, measuring-weighing, biochemical, mathematically statistic, and comparative-calculating. In the conditions of Transcarpathia the spicy greens of the high quality L. officinalе C. Koch are being gathered on days 25-30, the output of the essential oil makes up from 0.72 tо 1.89% on c.d.s., depending on the climate conditions of growing. The plants pass through all the stages of development, the bush is 55.4 to 92.7 сm in height, the plants form a big amount of rosette-shaped stems (11-34 pieces), the productivity of spicy greens is between 9.9 and 42.1 t hа1. The scientists of TSAES created the following sorts – Mriya (А. с. 06131 Ukraine, first registered in the State register of plant varieties of Ukraine) and Coral (Pat. on the variety № 140830). Economic effect from growing of the Coral variety in the conditions of Transcarpathia is 10230 UAH/ha and the level of profitability is 28.4%. The geographic position and agroclimatic conditions of Transcarpathia, as well as the unpretentiousness of L. officinalе C. Koch. tо the conditions of growing contribute to the enrichment of the local flora with useful plants; and the rich chemical composition contributes to the spread of this culture in the given region.

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Fruit production and research in Hungary - An overview
Published November 15, 2004

Hungary is traditionally a food producer country. 63% of its total land area can be cultivated. Horticulture is one of the fundamental agricultural branches. The country has a moderate continental climate, with a mean temperature of 10 °C. The average hours of sunshine ranges 1,700 to 2,100 hours. Under the geographical condition in the Carpat...hian Basin the chemical composition of the fruits has a good harmony. The total fruit acreage is 97,000 ha with a crop of 800,000 to 900,000 tons yearly. In 1982 1,934,000 tons of fruit crop were produced since then it has decreased. The most important fruits are apple, European plum, sour cherry and raspberry. The percentage of apple reaches almost up to 60%. In the new plantings sour cherry, apple and black elderberry is popular. The most important fruit-producing region is situated at the North-eastern part of the country. More than 40% of Hungary's fruit production is concentrated there. In ranking the 2nd place is taken by fruit growing area in the middle of Hungary, where the production of stone fruits and small fruits has a considerable proportion.

In the 70s and 80s of last century there was a developed research structure and wide range of research activity in Hungary. From that time the research capacity has considerably decreased first of all in the field of technological development. The main research area is fruit breeding and variety evaluation.

Fruit scientists and fruit grower specialists are held together by the Hungarian. Society for Horticultural Sciences which has a membership in ISHS. Fruit researches and scientists having academic degree are belonged to the Horticultural Board of Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

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Evaluation of supercritical plant extracts on volatile and non volatile biologically active lipophil components
Published June 6, 2001

Authors dealt more than ten years with the analysis of supercritical extracts. For extraction (SFE) carbon dioxide was used as supercritical solvent. Fractionation of extracts was carried out by releasing the separations pressure at two stages. The extracts were collected as separate samples successively in time.

The traditional extract...ions were carried out with steam distillation or by using n-hexane and ethanol in Soxhlet apparatus. For the analysis of volatile compounds GC, GC-MS; of non volatile compounds TLC-densitometry and spectroscopic methods were used.

The following general characteristics were established comparing the composition of steam distillated oils with that of volatile SFE fractions. The SFE fractions were richer in monoterpene-esters and poorer in alcohols than the essential oils prepared by traditional way (clary sage, lavandel). Regarding the distributi,n of the monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds, the SFE fractions contained sesquiterpene hydrocarbon in higher percentage than the distillated oils (e.g. 13-caryophyllene in Salvia fruticosa, (3-caryophyllene, y­muurolene, y-cadinene in Ochnum basilicum). Further the proportion of sesquiterpenes increased in SFE fractions collected successively in time.Significant difference was remarkable in respect of the optical rotationability of lovage oil and SFE fraction which was probably caused by the different ratio between the two ligustilid enantiomers. It was verified in some cases that a part of mono- and sesquiterpenes were present originally in a bounded form (glycosides) in plants. Therefore they appeared in essential oil fractions only after previous acidic treatment (Thymus, Origanum species). During the supercritical extraction the azulenogene sesquiterpene lactones did not transform to azulenes (in chamomile, yarrow), but the non volatile SFE fractions of some Asteraceae plant contained sesquiterpene--lacton of unchanged structure in high quantity (e.g. cnicin in blessed thistle, parthenolide in feverfew). Authors obtained also SFE fractions which were rich in triterpenoids and phytosterols (marigold, common dandelion).


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Utilisation of nutrients by cucumber plants oil rockwool substrate
Published May 18, 2005

Cucumber production by soil less culture on rockwool substrate in Hungary is an open system regarding its water and nutrient supply. Environmental and economical reasons require the recycling of nutrients of the system. Experiments have been planned in order to estimate the utilisation of individual nutrient elements applied. All around the veg...etation period, chemical analyses monitored the depletion of the elements initially administered by sampling the solutions at successive phases from the injection to the overflow. The results have been compared with earlier experiences refering to general rules. It has been stated that the intensity of photosynthesis is decisive in determining the composition of the overflow. The less changes are observed during the period of frequent watering.

The absorption of the nutrient elements varied between 25-51% deperiding on the individual elements. The differences are significant. Further examinations are needed in order to clear:

  • which are the main elements of technology, which are decisive in utilisation of nutrients
  • what are the possibilities of the secondary utilisation of nutrients.
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Allelopathic effect of the Cladonia verticillaris lichen extracts and fumarprotocetraric acid on the early growth of germinating seeds and seedlings in Allium cepa L.
Published September 13, 1999

The allelopathic activity of the different extracts of the lichen Cladonia verticillaris and fumarprotocetraric acid on the early growth of A cepa (IPA 6) seedlings depends on their chemical composition and concentration, respectively. It was observed that the length of the radicle was significantly stimulated by fumarprotocetraric acid at high... concentrations and by the total extract of C. verticillaris thalli, which contained a high level of fumarprotocetraric, acid confirmed by HPLC-technique. In addition, it was found, that the phosphate buffer extract, which contained high level of methyl (3-orcinol carboxilate measured by HPLC, reduced the length of the hypocotyls significantly. Under our experimental conditions there was no influence of the different types of extract and fumarprotocetraric acid on the ratio of seed germination, in relation to the control. From the study of HPLC it was found that fumarprotocetraric acid and methyl 13-orcinol carboxilate were present in all extracts at different concentrations, depending on the method of extraction.

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Determination of quality in stored pear fruits by chemical analysis and sensorial judgement
Published July 2, 2016

Aim of this research/project to determine the external and internal preferences of pear using descriptive sensory analysis, consumer preference. The research was performed on local consumers. Destructive measurements included fi rmness by puncture tests, soluble solids content (SSC), titrated acidity (TA). While there is a general positive tren...d for increasing preference with fi rmness, some consumers will prefer softer apples, and some will dislike the fi rmest pear. Sensorial judgement is able to classify the attractiveness, preference of properties specifi c for pear. Tests were performed by 13 persons on 4 pear varieties (Bosc kobak, Conference, Packham’s Triumph, Dessertnaia) checking 11 sensorial properties on a scale of 1 to 100 points. Relations of measurements and judgements were processed by correlation analysis. For analysis, the objects were furnished in 2011 from different growing sites (Csenger, Mérk and Nagykanizsa), taking from the store (in January) immediately. Among those the best notes were given to Bosc kobak and Conference coming from Mérk and to Packham’s Triumph grown at Nagykanizsa. It was stated that the success of sensorial judgement depends on the state of maturity, which is diffi cult to guarantee to be synchronous among samples of different varieties. Mature fruits are more praised as a sample of Bosc kobak taken from a chain of department store proved to be of balanced composition regarding its sugar/acid ratio (0.12) and the optimal fi rmness (5.75 N/cm2). Results of the correlation analysis suggest that the thickness of the skin is a decisive component of preference (r= 0.857), the typical pear flavour (r= 0.948), the taste as sweetness and acidity (r= 0.930 and r= 0.813). At the same time, no valuable relation could be detected between the data raised in the laboratory and the preference expressed by the sensorial tests, which should signalise that the opinion of consumers does not depend on any individual parameter obtained in the laboratory (sugar- or acid content, fi rmness) but rather on the complexity of several decisive components together (sweetness, acidity, fl avour, skin, etc.). The consumers’ preference cannot be measured objectively without the aid of adequate expertise and a prosperous surrounding, samples of optimal maturity and a thoughtfully edited judging form.

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Sensory analysis as a supporting method for marjoram breeding
Published June 6, 2001

Marjoram is one of the most important spices in Hungary, which is utilized both in phytotherapy as well as in alimentary industry. Organoleptic quality of the drugs of two Hungarian varieties of Majorana hortensis /'Francia' and 'Magyar'/ were investigated by two different methods of sensory analysis. The chemical composition of the ma...terial was checked by GC analysis of the distilled essential oil. Although their main compounds and proportions showed similar patterns, both the human and instrumental sensory tests based on the complex odour and aroma of the drug, proved a significant differentiation of the two varieties.

On the basis of our results, sensory evaluation may be a useful tool in the practice in determination of complex aromatic values of marjoram, as a spice. At the same time it seems to be a suitable method in promotion of breeding efforts.


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Levels of some micronutrient in dried and fresh fruit samples of apricot cultivars
Published April 25, 2012

Concentration of Boron (B), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn) and Zinc (Zn) was analyzed in fresh and dried fruit samples of “Jumbo cot“, “Tom cot“, “Gold strike“, “Gold bar“, “Bergeron“, “Bergrouge“, “Sweet cot“, “Yellow cot“ and “Zebra“ apricot cultivars. Concentration of the studied el...ements was strongly affected by cultivars. B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn content of “Tom cot“ was significantly higher than other cultivars. “Gold strike“ had the highest amount of Mg. Similar tendency was observed in “Zebra“ and “Sweet cot“ where Mn content was significantly higher than the other element contents.

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Volatile constituents of Nepeta cataria L., N. glechoma Benth. and N. parviflora M. Bieb. from Hungary
Published June 6, 2001

In the temperate zone live about 150 species of the Nepeta genus. Our investigations covered the examinations of the volatile oil containing species of the genus endemic in Hungary, Nepeta cataria and Nepeta parviflora. Latter is a relict of the ancient steppe-flora and endemic in Hungary as well. Phytochemical examin...ation of the volatile oil containing plant material has also been carried out. Catnip growing in the Botanical Garden of PTE Department of Botany contained 0,67% volatile oil in May and 0,14% in November. Chemical character of the volatile oils were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and citronellol, citral-A, citral-B and geraniol components were identified. The composition of the oil of November samples shifted towards citronellol (65%). In both samples insecticide and repellent activity bearing compounds (+)-cis-p-menthane-3,8-diol, and (—)-trans-p-menthane-3,8-diol in 2-2.5 and 4-4.5% amount have been found. The catnip sample deriving from Germany contained a small amount of anetol, citronellol, neral, geraniol and geranial (6-13%), and possibly two isomers of nepetalactone in 23-31%.

The Nepeta parviflora endemic in the Nagyvolgy valley near Nagykaracsony consisted of the same compounds in the investigated years (1998-2000). Its limonene, methyl chavicol, b-cariophyllene, b-selinene, b-cubebene, davanone, germacrene-D constituents have been identified. In the year 2000 different GC % of these compounds were detected in the different organs of the plants.

The closely related species Nepeta cataria var. citriodora contained 83% citral, and the N. glechoma (= Glechoma hederacea) contained 41% a-cubebene, 20% patchoulenol, 7,7% spathulenol respectively. These compounds were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography / mass spectrometry.


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Hazardous element content and consumption risk of 9 apricot cultivars
Published August 16, 2010

The heavy metals pollution is one of the problems that arise due to the increased uses of fertilizers and other chemicals to meet the higher demands of food production for human consumption. In order to assess possible health risk of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) consumption, levels of Arsenic, Cadmium, Mercury and Lead were determined in fresh... and dried samples of "Jumbo cot", "Tom cot", "Gold strike", "Gold bar", "Bergeron", "Bergarouge", "Sweet cot", "Yellow cot" and "Zebra" apricot cultivars. Wet digestion of samples with concentrate HNO3 – H2O2 digester mixture and inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectroscopy was used. Highest content of As, Cd, Hg and Pb among all cultivars, were 0.5, 0.04, 1.5 and 0.5mg/kg of dried apricot samples. Fresh fruit samples also contain 0.2, 0.016, 0.6 and 0.2 mg/kg of Arsenic, Cadmium, Mercury and Lead respectively. Daily intake of metals, hazard quotient and health risk index to reveal health risk possibility of dried and fresh fruits consumption were calculate and compared.

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Evaluation of essential oils by gas-chromatography and a new method: "electronic nose"
Published March 21, 2001

The chemical quality of the essential oils is determined by their composition as well as by the complex aroma features. For the evaluation of odour and aroma, sensory tests are practised, especially for applications such as aromatherapy, food industry or perfumery. In the recent studies we investigated eight Mentha origins (populations... of Mentha iperita, M. spicata and M. arvensis) of our genebank collection using a new and effective instrumental sensory evaluation method parallelly with the usual GC analysis.

The results show that the examined mint clones possess different essential oil accumulation levels and special flavour characteristics, too. The GC analysis of the essential oil revealed characteristic differences at both inter- and intraspecific level in the proportion of mentol, menthon, carvon, limonene, menthyl acetate and in two not identified monoterpenes.

In the sensory tests the special complex aroma enables a reliable distinction with a single exception among the populations by the help of the "electronic nose" equipment. The distinction among the samples based on the sensor signals of the instrument — evaluated by multivariate methods — shows a close relation with the detected monoterpene components of the essential oil.


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Effect of different starter and foliar fertiliser rates on some compositional parameters of sweet corn (Zea mays convar. saccharata Koern.)
Published December 8, 2008

In recent years consumers tend to pay ever greater attention to food ingredients looking for foods with favourable compositional characteristics. Researches nowadays aim to find out what role the different vegetable species play in protection of the human organism. Consumption of vegetables and fruits more times a day plays an important role in... this process. The valuable chemical components in plants can eventually be influenced, besides, by environmental characteristics, also by the elements of the production technology applied. Our work aimed to find out what eventual changes occur in the composition parameters of sweet corn (Zea mays convar saccharata Koern.) receiving different NPK fertilizations and top dressed with foliar application of Zn and Mg, destined chiefly for fresh consumption, in response to the treatments mentioned above. The fertiliser rates were compared with the help of the variety Spirit (normal sweet, very early ripening).

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