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Anatomical relations of root formation in strawberry
Published August 13, 2004

Anatomical relations of root formation are traced throughout the life cycle of the strawberry plant from the germinating seed up to the runners of the adult plant. Histological picture of the root changes a lot during the development of the plant. First the radicle of the germ grows to a main root, which makes branches into side roots and later... adventitious roots are formed on the growing rootstock or rhizome. The anatomy of the different types of roots is also conspicuously different. First tiny branches appear relatively early after germination on the seedling's radicle, but soon the hypocotyl of the seedling thickens and develops side roots, which are already somewhat stronger. During this interval, the first true leaves are formed. The 4th or 5th of them being already tripartite, and the initiation of new roots extends into the epicotylar region of the shoot. The second years growth starts with the development of reproductive structures, inflorescences and runners starting from the axils of the new leaves. Near the tips of the runners below the small bunch of leaves, new root primordia are initiated. The tiny radicle of the germ develops a cortical region of 5-6 cell layers. Cells of the central cylinder are even smaller than the cortical parenchyma and include 3-4 xylem and 3-4 phloem elements as representatives of the conductive tissue. Roots originating from the shoot region are much more developed; their cortical zone contains 17-20 cell layers, whereas the central cylinder is about half as large. In the next year, new roots are formed at the base of the older leaves. These roots differ hardly from those of the last season in size and volume, however, they are recognised by colour and their position on the rhizome. The roots of the last year are dark, greyish-black, and grow on the lower third length of the rhizome, on the contrary, the new ones, on the upper region, are light brown. Roots starting from the shoot or rhizome are, independently from their age or sequence, mainly rather similar in size and diameter, thus being members of a homogenous root (homorhizous) system, i.e. without a main root. Plants developed and attained the reproductive phase develop in the axils of the leaves runners being plagiotropic, i.e. growing horizontally on the surface of the soil. The runners elongate intensely, become 150-200 mm, where some long internodes bear a bunch of small leaves and root primordia on short internodes and a growing tip. Runners do not stop growing, generally, further sections of 15-25 cm length are developed according to the same pattern, with small leaves on the tip. The growing tip of the runners is obliquely oriented, and small, conical root primordia are ready to start growing as soon as they touch the soil. The roots penetrate the soil, quickly, and pull, by contraction, the axis of the runner downwards, vertically, developing a new rhizome. The short internodes elongate a little and start developing adventitious roots. At the end of the growing season, the plantlets arisen on the rooted nods of runners are already similar to the original plants with homogenous root system. On the side of the adventitious roots, new branches (side-roots) are formed. The root-branches are thinner but their capillary zone is more developed being more active in uptake of water and nutrients. The usual thickening ensues later.

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The effect of timing and IBA treatments on the rooting of plum rootstock hardwood cuttings
Published March 2, 2010

In propagation of plum by hardwood cuttings, the success of rooting is affected by several factors. Many authors deal with the timing of cutting collections, others investigate the optimal extent of hormonal stimulation. However, there is no data, as yet, about the coherence between these two factors. The aim of this experiment was to find the ...most advantageous condition s, with regards to both timing and IBA doses, for rentable propagation of the examined varieties. Five varieties were studied: 'INRA Marianna GF 8- 1', 'Myrobalan B', 'MY-KL-A', 'INRA Saint Julien GF 655/2' and 'Feher  besztercei'. Cuttings were collected on  seven  occasions, during  late autumn  and winter, and were treated with IBA solutions of different concentrations. The optimal dose of IBA was found to be dependent both on the variety and the actual date of cutting collection . Results are reported, along with suggestions for optimal doses and collection periods.

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Rhizogenesis in in vitro shoot cultures of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) is affected by ethylene precursor and by inhibitors
Published March 21, 2001

The effects of the ethylene precursor ACC and two inhibitors, AgNO3 and AVG, on root formation were tested in in vitro shoots of passion fruit (Passiflora Midis f.flavicalpa Deg.). The organogenic response was assessed on the basis of percentage of shoot-forming. roots, root number and length. The time course of eth...ylene production was also monitored. ACC inhibited root formation by delaying root emergence and increasine, callus formation at the basis of the shoots. In addition, ACC caused a marked increase in ethylene production, coupled to leaf chlorosis and senescence with lower rooting frequencies, number and length of roots. IAA supplementation increased ethylene production. Both ethylene inhibitors, AgNO3 and AVG, at appropriate concentrations reduced callus formation at the basis of shoots. AVG increased the number of roots per shoot, but drastically reduced length of differentiated roots. Regarding to leaf pigments, ACC promoted a marked reduction on carotenoids and total chlorophyll, whereas AVG and AgNO3 delayed explant senescence and pigments degradation, not differing from IAA supplemented and non-supplemented control treatments. The results confirm previous reports on the beneficial effects of ethylene inhibitors on in vitro rooting and suggest its reliability to be used as an alternative approach to evaluate sensitivity of Passiflora species to ethylene.


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Stimulating effect of distilled water
Published June 24, 2003

It is an early observation that plants in poor soil are developing roots quicker and more abundantly than on rich one. There is a similar correlation between the nutrient status of medium and adventitious root formation.

In order to throw more light on the background of this strange phenomenon we started a systematic experimental progra...m in which the biological effects of distilled water as model factor was investigated.

The experiments proved that the root formation of Pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cuttings with 3 cm long hypocotyls was promoted by distilled water.

The phenomenon above accompanied with slower decline and faster recovery of total and also water-soluble protein content, more intensive efflux of amino acids, greater amount of tryptophane and increased uptake of water compared to those in control hypocotyls. From other data obtained we may suspect that some additional active substance unknown for us also contributes to the stimulation of root initiation in distilled water.

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