From the wide range of genetic sources available in Hungary, we have chosen as objective the evaluation of those rose taxa, which — on the base of their quality and morphologic features — are suitable for selecting fruit production varieties or parent varieties for further breeding. We examined physical and inner parameters of fruits of Rosa t...axa, and evaluated the correlations by mathematical statistic methods. Namely, if a correlation can be found between physical and inner parameters, fruit production value can be determined by less examinations in the future. According to our results, there is a large variability in some physical parameters (weight, diameter of fruits; weight, number of achenes) as well as in inner content values (vitamin C, glucose, fructose, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu content) of rosehip, regarding production year, habitat and even the individual of examination. Twice as much ascorbic acid can be found in achene-free fruits, and nearly five times as much in their dry product as in fresh whole fruits. It was established repeatedly, that vitamin C concentrates in fruit flesh, and ascorbic acid content can be preserved better in achene-free flesh. There is no essential difference in citric acid and carbo-hydrate content of whole and achene-free rosehips. However, macro- and microelement content of whole fruits is 30-40% higher than that of achene-free fruit flesh. The connection between fresh weight and diameter, as well as achene number and seed weight of fruits can be described by the function y=axb. A significant relationship can be found in case of K-Fe, Ca-Mg, Ca-B, Ca-Mn and Zn-Cu, between fresh weight and B content of fruits. According to our examinations, fresh weight of rose species with a higher citric acid content is usually higher, while their Fe content is smaller. Glucose content of fruits of rose species is directly proportional to their Ca and Zn contents. Zn content of rose species with higher fructose content is usually smaller.
We analyzed the relationship to sour cherry quality parameters of average temperature, maximum temperature, minimumtemperature, night and day-time temperature, precipitation and climatic water balance variables. Three cultivars of sour cherry were includedin the selection: “Debreceni bôtermô”, “Kántorjánosi”, and “Újfehértói fürt...ös”.We conducted regression analyzes on the three varieties, butpresent only those that proved to be the best fit.We couldn’t find any significant differences in the weather tolerance of the varieties. The database of sour cherry quality parameters covers the 1998 to 2008 intervals. The researched parameters were the following: dry matter content(%), sugar content (%), C-vitamin (mg), total acid content (%). Maximum temperature, the difference of night and day-time temperature andminimum temperature all have a significant correlation with the investigated quality parameters of sour cherry. Minimum temperature showsa quadratic relationship with sugar content, while night and day-time temperature differences show the same with dry matter content. Theother weather parameters had a linear correlation with the quality parameters of sour cherry. The research results show that an increasingamount of precipitation causes decreasing tendency in total acid content of sour cherry, so that increasing temperature has a positive influenceon total acid content. Big differences in night and day-time temperature also has positive effects on the dry matter and sugar content of sourcherry while the amount of precipitation has a negative effect. High minimum temperatures cause decreasing sugar content respiratory energylosses are significant if dawn temperatures do not drop considerably.A more favourable climatic water balance has a positive effect on vitaminC content in cases of a large negative water balance, vitamin C content is generally low.
Summary The aim of study was to investigate growth (crown growth and trunk diameter) and fruit characteristics [dry matter content (%), pectin (%), total acid (%) contents] of 10 pear cultivars ('Móri császár', 'Nyári Kálmán', 'Mogyoródi óriás', 'Fehérvári körte', 'Szegfa körte', 'Piroska', 'Mézes körte'). The crown developm...ent of the cv. 'Fehérvári körte' can be regarded as outstanding among the examined cultivars. The growth of the cv. 'Mogyoródi óriás' was low, this cultivar showed the poorest growth vigour. The width of the crown in several cultivars developed at a similar rate as the height of the crown. Outstanding values were shown by cvs. 'Fehervári körte' and 'Móri császár'. The development of trunk diameter was the highest for cvs. 'Piroska' and 'Hóka', and large growth of trunk diameter can be seen on cv. 'Fehervári körte'. Cvs. 'Mogyoródi óriás' and 'Mezes körte'showed weak growth. Outstanding dry matter content of fruits was measured on cvs. 'Fehervári körte' and 'Mézes körte'. The total acid content of fruits of cvs. 'Mézes körte' and 'Fehérvári körte'' was significantly different from the total acid content of cv. 'Mogyoródi óriás'. Pectin content was low in fruits of cvs. 'Mogyoródi óriás' and 'Fehérvári körte', while cv. 'Mézes körte' contained significantly more pectin. Vitamin C content we found was rather high in cvs. 'Mézes körte' and 'Fehérvári körte'.
Sambucus nigra is a very common elder species in Europe. Due to its excellent composition, natural dye content and healing power it can be considered as a biological active plant. In Hungary the cultivation of Sambucus nigra started in the nineties and since that time there is a growing demand for this plant. Sambucus nigra is a special fruit due ...to its sole.-application for processing industry. Partly fruit products are made of it, partly it is used as a natural dye. In both cases the first step is the knowledge and evaluation of the composition of the various elder varieties and candidates. For that reason composition studies of different elder types were performed in several years at the Department of the Canning Technology of the Szent Istvan University.
The most important sample was the Haschberg variety, which is the sole elder type accepted and allowed for propagation by the government. This plant is grown in the Pilot Plant of the Szent István University in Szigetcsép. Among the studied samples there were some varieties cultivated in the Fertőd Research Station. They were the following types: No. 33, 480 and 481. Besides elder collected wild in Szigetcsep and the very promising early-ripened SZ-CS 21-23 variety originated also from Szigetcsép were investigated. One year it was possible to study the Sambu variety, too. Department of the Fruit Culture of the Szent István University helped to obtain the various elder types and candidates. Along our experimental activities, the following components and parameters were studied: the content of pectin, organic acid, carbohydrate, mineral, vitamin C, total acid, aquesoluble dry material, anthocyanin and the pH.
After having obtained a juice, a concentrate from the species has been made and — after freezing — the aquesoluble dry substance and the acid content, as well as the colour parameters were monitored. Studies were performed in two years (1997-98). On the basis of these results classes were established for all compounds, from which an overall ranking was derived.
It was found that in both years the Haschberg variety proved to have the best composition. Therefore regarding to the overall series of order the experiments performed in the second year supported the results obtained in the previous year. Results have shown that Sambucus nigra has excellent composition beside its curative effect. Its mineral content has surpassed that of the other fruits and it had advantageous acid-and carbohydrate composition. The ascorbic acid content of the Haschberg variety is striking. It can be concluded from the experiments that the Haschberg type has the most advantageous composition, therefore it is suitable for making special curative and exclusive products.
Soluble solids (Brix°), carbohydrate, organic acid, lycopene, polyphenols and HMF content of indeterminate round type tomato Lemance F1 fruits were measured in six ripeness stages from mature green to deep red stage. Color of fruits was determined by CIELab system. The L*, a*, b* values were received directly and used to calculate from which the ...a*/b* and the chroma were calculated. The Brix', carbohydrate, lycopene and HMF content were the highest in the 6111 stake (deep red). Carbohydrate contents constitute nearly 50% of the Brix°. The mature green stage had the lowest acid content but in subsequent stages it was fundamentally unchanged. Polyphenol content changed little during fruit ripening. Lycopene content changed significantly during maturation and accumulated mainly in the deep red stage. Analyses showed that a*/b* was closely correlated with lycopene and can be used to characterize stages of maturity in fresh tomatoes.
In this study, crop yield and fruit quality parameters (soluble solid concentration, sugar, total acid, and vitamin C content) of 15 apple cultivars including old, resistant and currently grown cultivars. The highest fruit yield among all 15 cultivars was obtained on CV. Jonagold with 15.5 kg/tree, while the lowest yield was measured on the resist...ant cultivar Reanda with 8.1 kg/tree. There were no significant differences among the cultivars in fruit diameter ranging from 70 mm in the case of cv. Húsvéti rozmaring to 82 mm for cv. Mutsu. Values of soluble solids concentration of the cultivars varied between 15.5% for cv. Téli Banán and 19.2% for cv. Renora. Sugar content values showed a similar tendency to soluble solids content. The highest and lowest total sugar content was observed on cvs. Jonagold and Renora and cv. Retina with 17% and 12.4%, respectively. Total acid content values ranged between 0.18% and 0.53% for cvs. Jonagold and Remo, respectively. Values of vitamin C content for the 15 apple cultivars varied between 2 mg% and 4 mg% for cv. Retina and cv. Mutsu, respectively.
A possible way of the development of Hungarian agriculture is the selection and growing of new fruit species and varieties featuring special qualities, with high biological nutritive and health protecting properties due to their natural composition. A reserve for such new fruits is the native dendroflora, e.g. those wild-growing trees and shrubs o...f Hungary, which bear edible fruits. The publication is giving a summary of chemical analyses done on the fruits of the plants listed below. The research team on the project started the work in 2001 with
woody species (genera) as follows:
common elder (Sambucus nigra) clone named Szcs-1, Szcs-2, Szcs-3, Szcs-4, Szcs-5, SzcsK-1, SzcsK-2
dog rose (Rosa canina) types: clones named Sz-1, Sz-2, Sz-3, Sz-4 and Sz-5 .
native rowans: Sorbus dacica, S.rotundifolia, S. degenu, S.bakonyensis cv. Fánivölgy
hawthorns: Crataegus monogyna, C. orientalis,C..v lavallei.
cornel cherry: Cornus mas cv. Császló.
The present paper is reporting on the content of the following compounds in the fruits: dry matter (refractometric values), total acid content, ascorbic acid, 13-carotene, pectin, minerals and carbohydrates. The results have shown that these wild fruits have excellent composition. Besides their curative effects, their content of minerals, ascorbic acid and 13-carotene has surpassed that of the traditional fruits. These fruits are rich in ascorbic acid, 13-carotene and pectin. The high content of the above-listed, biologically active compounds makes the new wild fruits studied suitable for the preparation (and later: mass-production) of special curative and exclusive products.
Foliar nutrition experiment was made to investigate the effect of algae products on fruit quality of apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). The study was conducted in 2011 at Siófok inWest-Hungary on cv. ‘Jonagored’ and ‘Idared’grafted on M9 rootstock. In our trial leaf diagnostic and fruit quality measurements were made to study the effectiven...ess of applied products. Relative leaf chlorophyll content was determined by a portable chlorophyll meter. Fruit weight and shape index were measured. Fruit inner qualifying parameters like titratable acid content and Brix value were also determined. It can be stated that the used products had traceable effect on investigated fruit parameters. Although, leaf N content was not effected by treatments significantly, relative leaf chlorophyll content significantly increased by both treatments. Used products significantly increased the fruit weight and shape index. Applied treatments significantly decreased the pH of pulp. Treatments increased the acid contents (fumaric, citric, malic) of apples and decreased the amount of monosaccharides. It means that the applied treatments pushed out the ratio of acid/sugar.
Phaeodactylum tricornutum UTEX 640 strain of microalgae was screened under different culture conditions for their capacity to produce eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). In our experiments, the effect of sodium chlorid, nitrogen source, phosphate, initial pH, as well as the CO2 content of the medium on ...production of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by P. tricornutum were investigated. The EPA content of biomass was enhanced by the low pH of the medium, with increased concentrations of B17 vitamin and nitrate, and also with decreasing concentrations of sodium chlorid. The EPA is most likely associated with polar (membran) lipids and the role of EPA appears to be involved with membran permeability in microalge. The synthesis of phospholipids, enhances the EPA content of the cells, as expected. The maximum EPA yields were observed under optimum culture condition 43 — 48 mg/g of dry cell weight.
An investigation was conducted on uniform, healthy, eight year old trees of Nagpur mandarin (citrus reticulata Blanco) at Fruit Research Farm, Department of Fruit Science at College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar during 16 September, 2014 to 1 March, 2015. Various doses of calcium nitrate (1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0 %), boric acid (0.2 %, 0.4 % an...d 0.6 %) and zinc sulphate (0.2 %, 0.4 % and 0.6 %) were sprayed before harvesting and compared with untreated ones. The results obtained indicated that the trees sprayed with T27 i.e. (calcium nitrate 3.0 % + boric acid 0.6 % + zinc sulphate 0.6 %) showed maximum increase diameter of fruit, fruit weight, fruit volume, number of fruits per plant, fruit yield per plant, estimated yield per hectare, reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, total sugar, juice per cent, sensory score and reduced peel thickness over control. Further, T24 treatment combination (calcium nitrate 3.0 % + boric acid 0.4 % + zinc sulphate 0.6 %) has also significantly increased number of segments per fruit, TSS, TSS: Acid ratio, ascorbic acid content, and reduced number of seeds per fruit and acidity percent of fruits.
Several epidemiological studies revealed that the consumption of antioxidant compounds and the risk of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure or cancer are inversely proportional. Fruits of sour cherry contain a wide range of antioxidant compounds including melatonin, perillyl alcohol, ellagic acid, several flavonoids, polyphenolics, and anthoc...yanins. This study was carried out to survey the antioxidant power and mineral element content of seven commercial sour cherry cultivars and three cultivar candidates and to assess the influence of some external conditions on fruits' functional properties. Our analysis revealed nearly 5- and 2-fold differences between the lowest and highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolics content, respectively. Some cultivars (`Kántorjánosi' and ‘Újfehértói fürtös') and cultivar candidates (D, 'Petri' and 'Éva') showed outstanding antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content; in addition, mineral element content in fruits of the ‘Újfehértói fürtös' cultivar was also favourable. Redox parameters of fruits were influenced by the cultivation plot or fruit positions within the canopy in about half of the cultivars tested. Genetic background of cultivars forms the decisive factor in determining fruits' antioxidant capacity, although external factors may have also sizeable modifying effects. Enhanced functional properties of the fruit may also be further increased through breeding programs since considerable variation exists within the tested germplasm.
In our research project under cultivation we examined 4 cultivars ('Soroksári 40', 'Lutea , 'Goral', 'Bona') and 28 wild populations of chamomile assuring all of them the same environmental conditions. Plant height, flower-diameter, essential-oil content, and the main terpenoid and flavonoid composition were analysed. The aim of our study was to ...establish the genetic background of breeding a new cultivar as well as encircle those natural habitats that give chamomile drug with the best quality.
In the case of plant height populations from the Great Hungarian Plain were lower than plants from Transdanubia and the control cultivars. Between the wild and the standard individuals we found significant differences with relevance to the flower-diameter. With regard to the essential oil content the populations were very heterogeneous even those, which came from the same habitat. Populations form Transdanubia and Nagyiván reached the essential oil level of the cultivars (0.721-0.931 gi100g), and 75% of the examined plants exceeded the minimum requirement of the PhHg VIII.
According to the essential oil composition our previous statement was confirmed that in the populations of Transdanubia and Northern part of Danube—Tisza Mid Region the main component is bisabolol-oxide A (30-41.2%), while plants native to the territory cast of the river Tisza are mainly characterised by a-bisabolol (32.3-48.4). In some samples the ratio of bisabolol-oxide B was more than 10%. The chamazulene content was higher in the cultivars selected to this component (above 20%), than in the wild populations (varied between 1.22 and 17.2%). Populations originated from the central part of Hortobágy region had extremely high apigenin content (10-13 mg/g), but in the case of chlorogenic acid, hyperoside and quercitrin we did not find any differences affected by the origin.
A rootstock trial planted at the Szigetcsep experimental station in 1989 involved the study of two cultivars- `Germersdorfi FL 45' and 'Van' -grafted on four different rootstocks — 'Colt', `MxM 14 — Brokforest', `MxM 97 — Brokgrow' and 'Saint Lucie 64' as a control. The trees were trained to the "Modified Brunner-spindle" system and came int...o bearing in 1993. The yield per tree, fruit weight and fruit diameter have been measured each year since then. The refractivity, the acid content of the fruit juice, fruit cracking after four hours' dipping in water and stone weight ratio have also been measured since 1995. In 1997 and 1998 these parameters as well as fruit cracking after 24 hours' dipping were measured. Fruit firmness and fruit colour were also estimated. In almost every observed parameter significant differences were found between the scion cultivars. Yield efficiency was significantly higher on 'NUM 14' and 'Saint Lucie 64' than on the other two rootstocks. As regards fruit weight, in both cultivars and over an average of six years, it was found that trees on low yielding tree on 'Colt' rootstock had the highest fruit weight values and on heavy producing `MxM 14' the smallest. Soluble solids content was higher on 'Colt' and `MxM 97'. No significant differences between the rootstocks were found in acid content of the fruit juice. There were significant differences between the rootstocks in fruit cracking after 4 and 24 hours' dipping in water. Seemingly with respect to cultivars and rootstocks the year has a considerable effect on fruit cracking.
Thinning is a h ighly crucial point of the apple production technology. According to results of numerous studies the earliest thinning is deemed to have the best amending effects. There can be considerable difference between trees of the same cul tivar and age in a plantation in respect to their flowering, in the numbers of fruits set and also in ...their canopy volume. Thus it can be crucial -just l ike in the case of pruning- to establish a fruit thinni ng su i ted for specif ic characteristics of actual trees. This experiment was established to examine how does primary fruit set (fruit load before thinning) and further on specific (fruit/TCS cm2) and absolute (fruit/tree) fruit-load of the trees affect quality attri butes at harvest. Our experiment was establ ished in a plantation on medium-tight loamy soil in north-east of Hungary. Harvest date was determined w ith the joint observation of the calendar date, starch-index, flesh firmness, background colour and fruit weight. Three fruit-load levels were established based on local experience and on data of several years, I Ot/ha lower and higher besides the advised optimum yield in the same orchard with slender-spindle shaped 'Gala must' cultivar standing on M9 rootstock in 1m x 3,8 m spacing. In the establishment of the 15, 25 and 35t/ha fruit-load levels on 20-20 apple trees total number of fruits set was counted at each tree. After this number of apples due to be removed was defined using an objective index on the basis of trunk cross sections (fruit/TCScm2) (Lafer, 1999). The following attributes were measured: weight (g), flesh firmness (lb/cm2) total soluble solid content (Brix %) and total titrate-able acid content (g/J).From the data on sugar and acid content quality index (Pomona value) was determined (Thialult, 1970). We could ascertain, that in an orchard, of the same aged but in concern to trunk cross sections somewhat different trees besides the specific index (apple/TCS cm2 the absolute fruit load (fruit/tree) can also be an important data, that has considerable effect on the internal quality. Secondly we could observe, that higher level of fruit load before thinning (primary fruit set) negatively affects quality index of the apples irrespective of the specific fruit load level (fruit/cm2 TCS) set later. Results underlines necessity of the earliest chemical thinn ing.
Mineral composition of wines is affected by many ecological and technological factors. These variables are mostly discussed focusing on certification of origin and human health. This paper gives data on possible changes in mineral composition and pH of wines due to 4 hours skin maceration (1st trial) and fermentation sur marc (2nd trial). Experime...ntal site is situated on acidic sandy soil in middle east Hungary. The variety collection was established in 2003 with own rooted planting material in 3x1 m spacing, trained for single curtain trainingsystem. Mineral composition of wines was determined with ThermoFischer Scientific iCAP 6300 ICP-OES, pH was measured with pH10pen (VWR International) in field, and with SevenEasyTM pH meter (Mettler Toledo) in laboratory. 1st trial with 9 PIWI white wine grape varieties pointed to demonstrate effects of skin maceration, which is abundantly used to elevate aroma content. 2nd trial with the use of ‘Medina’ red PIWI grape variety aimed to demonstrate effects of double pasta skin maceration in rose and red wine technology. Data of 1st trial show, that K, Cu, Mn and P respective increase with skin maceration, despite Fe show considerable decrease. Data of 2nd trial show, that K, Mg, Mn, P, Sr and B increase with longer skin contact and higher fermentation temperature, despite Fe and Ba decrease with this technology. In regard to pH, data show, that skin maceration and fermentation sur marc increase K content with about 30-70% respectively, withstanding that pH also increase with a considerable 0,4-0,5 value. K content can be higher in the end product, despite to earlier higher level of tartrate formation. An attention should be driven to lower level of tartaric acid and consequently higher pH characteristic for wines produced with the application of skin maceration or fermentation sur marc.
During in vitro multiplication of Nidularium ‘Kertész Jubileum’, 20 g/l sucrose, 5 g/l agar, 100 mg/l inositol, and different concentrations of benzyladenine (BA), benzyladenine-riboside (BAR), kinetin (KIN), meta-topolin (mT) were added to the MKC (Knudson, 1946) basal medium. Furthermore, 0.1 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid was used to every me...dium. Number of shoots, length of leaves, number and length of roots, chlorophyll (a+b) content were examined and evaluated with Ropstat statistical software. As compared to the other cytokinin, significantly most shoots were obtained in the case of applying BA. Increasing of BA-concentration (as far as 2 mg/l) enhanced shoot number (from 10.92 to 19.26) but 4 mg/l BA resulted only 6.63 shoot. The less efficient cytokinin was KIN, in most cases no more than about 2 shoot was achieved. Regarding the length of leaves, the higher level of BA effected averagely the shorter leaves (from 24,46 to 7.31 mm). KIN effected significantly the longest leaves (43.4-61.29) in inverse proportion to the concentration. The same cytokinin resulted the most (and the longest) roots with the highest rooting percentages, but more KIN decreased the number and length of roots (from 7.95 to 4.4 and from 38.49 to 22.73 mm). There were no definite correlation between cytokinin concentration and chlorophyll (a+b) content, but the highest doses resulted decreasing (except of meta-topolin which leads to the lowest values). Summarizing, BAR effected the highest contents (mostly more than 1400 μg/g), particularly in the case of 1 mg/l (1807.3 μg/g).
Influence of a three-year-long foliar fertilization on mineral composition of leaf, content of sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose and sucrose) and organic acids (citric, malic and fumaric acid) of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruits was studied. The experiment was conducted during 2005-2007 in West Hungary on mature cv. `Germersdorfi 3' grafte...d on Prunus mahaleb rootstock, planted in 1999. Trees spaced 7 x 5 m, and growing in a calcareous chernozem soil. Trees were foliar-fertilized with potassium (K) as KNO3 and calcium (Ca) as Ca(NO3)2. Potassium spraying was carried out 3 (K1) and 5 (K2) while calcium was applied at 3 (Ca 1), 5 (Ca2) and 6 (Ca3) weeks after full bloom. Beside fruit analysis, complete soil and leaf analysis were done to study the rate of nutrient uptake and its effects on fruit quality. Contents of nutrients of soil and leaf were determined by atomic absorption and spectrophotometric method, while sugars and organic acids in fruit were determined by HPLC. The applied treatments (except K1) had been increasing leaf K significantly compared to the control till ripening. Most of treatments had no significant effect on Ca content of leaf till ripening. From applied treatments only the boron treatments had significant increasing effect on contents of all examined sugars, compared the control. Furthermore, the effect of calcium spraying on the contents of organic acids was significant.
Aim of this research/project to determine the external and internal preferences of pear using descriptive sensory analysis, consumer preference. The research was performed on local consumers. Destructive measurements included fi rmness by puncture tests, soluble solids content (SSC), titrated acidity (TA). While there is a general positive trend f...or increasing preference with fi rmness, some consumers will prefer softer apples, and some will dislike the fi rmest pear. Sensorial judgement is able to classify the attractiveness, preference of properties specifi c for pear. Tests were performed by 13 persons on 4 pear varieties (Bosc kobak, Conference, Packham’s Triumph, Dessertnaia) checking 11 sensorial properties on a scale of 1 to 100 points. Relations of measurements and judgements were processed by correlation analysis. For analysis, the objects were furnished in 2011 from different growing sites (Csenger, Mérk and Nagykanizsa), taking from the store (in January) immediately. Among those the best notes were given to Bosc kobak and Conference coming from Mérk and to Packham’s Triumph grown at Nagykanizsa. It was stated that the success of sensorial judgement depends on the state of maturity, which is diffi cult to guarantee to be synchronous among samples of different varieties. Mature fruits are more praised as a sample of Bosc kobak taken from a chain of department store proved to be of balanced composition regarding its sugar/acid ratio (0.12) and the optimal fi rmness (5.75 N/cm2). Results of the correlation analysis suggest that the thickness of the skin is a decisive component of preference (r= 0.857), the typical pear flavour (r= 0.948), the taste as sweetness and acidity (r= 0.930 and r= 0.813). At the same time, no valuable relation could be detected between the data raised in the laboratory and the preference expressed by the sensorial tests, which should signalise that the opinion of consumers does not depend on any individual parameter obtained in the laboratory (sugar- or acid content, fi rmness) but rather on the complexity of several decisive components together (sweetness, acidity, fl avour, skin, etc.). The consumers’ preference cannot be measured objectively without the aid of adequate expertise and a prosperous surrounding, samples of optimal maturity and a thoughtfully edited judging form.
Effect of the foliar boron (B) application on nutrient uptake and fruit quality of tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) was investigated from 2008 to 2009 on mature four favourite Hungarian tart cherry cultivars like ‘Oblacsinszka’, ‘Érdi bôtermő’, ‘Újfehértói fürtös’ and ‘Petri’. Tart cherry trees grown in Eastern Hungary (Újf...ehértó) on an acidic sandy soil with low B content. Trees were treated with B by foliar application (0.5% B) at full bloom and untreated with B served as a control. B sprays strongly affected on B content of inflorescences. However, B sprays had no consistent effect on summer leaf B status. In our experiment stronger year effect was observed at leaf B status than flower B status. The effectiveness of early spring boron applications are limited and mostly affected the flower B status only. Moreover, treatments had inconsistent effect on studied fruit inner parameters. Monosaccharides, vitamin C and organic acid contents of sour cherry were stronger affected by cultivars than applied treatments.
Hyperhydricity was observed throughout in vitro multiplication phase of a Eucalyptus grandis clone. Ultrastructural approach of tissue and cell differentiation, izoenzyme patterns, binding protein (BiP) expression, and pigment content were performed. Hyperhydric tissues showed a reduction in cell wall deposition, reduction of membranous organelles..., higher cell vacuolation, and more intercellular spaces than its normal counterpart. Additionally, several vesicles were present in hyperhydric cells suggesting the occurrence of organelle autophagy by autophagic vacuole. Lower pigment content, intercellular spaces on the epidermis and the induction of a molecular chaperone (BiP) were observed in hyperhydric phenotype. Evidences of schizolysigenous process of intercellular space formation are compatible with a stress condition. Although plastoglobulli were observed in normal and hyperhydric chloroplasts, they were more evident in the normal ones. Abnormal stomata also reflected a disruptive situation and morphogenesis disturbances which would difficult plant acclimatization. Further observation of the epidermis ultrastructure allows us to conclude that the presence of intercellular spaces on its surface may be constraining the recovery and development of hyperhydric plants. Similarly to BiP, other proteins such as esterase (EST), acid phosphatase (ACP), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and peroxidase (PDX) are possible to be used as stress markers in in vitro conditions. Our results confirm earlier findings about negative effects of hyperhydricity on in vitro plant morphogenesis and ultrastructure, which in eucalypt is associated with a stressful condition contributing to lower propagation ratios.
Cucumber leaves have been sprayed with a solution of hydrogen peroxide (H202) or Pharmaplant-turbo combined with organic or inorganic fertilizers under plasic house. Under the influence of H202, leaves exhibited resistant against Podoshaera fusca fungus, the causal agent of cucumber powdery mildew. H202 (15 mM) was able to decrease the disease sev...erity from 90.4% to 12% in two experiments conducted in two seasons. Pharmaplant-turbo (Turbo) is new chemical compound and used as an antifungal compound. Turbo in 1 ml/L was able to decrease the disease severity from 90.4% to 11.5% in the both experiments as well. Both of H202 and Turbo were combined with organic treatment (compost + compost tea + seaweed extracts) which showed significant effect against cucumber powdery mildew fungus and strongly suppressed it as compared to control leaves. Organic treatment produced higher vegetative growth characters and greater early and total yields as compared to inorganic treatment, also organic fruits produced the lower nitrate content and the higher ascorbic acid content as compared to inorganic fruits. Our study have indicated that, H202 and Turbo combined with organic fertilizers play a role in the resistance of cucumber against powdery mildew by decreasing the disease severity. We suggest to give more attention to the direct application of H202 in low concentration and Turbo against powdery mildew diseases and other plant diseases.
The content of different auxins of soft-wood cutted plum rootstock 'Marianna GF8/1' (Prunus cerasifera x P. munsoniana) was determined during the rooting period. The level of auxin-concentration (exogenous and endogenous) of basic and intemodal part of cuttings was determined by WATERS HPLC equipment every 7 days during rooting period. The lengths... soft wood cuttings were app. 30 cm long. The basal part of shoots were treated with 2000 pg/g concentrated indole-butiryc acid in talcum powder. After treatment the cuttings were placed in propagation green-house under intermittent mist. The plant hormones were extracted by methanol the solution was cleaned by paper-filter, and further cleaned by centrifuge. The effluent was examined by reversed phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography, with WATERS 2487 dual detector at 220 am on Symmetry C18 4,6x 150 column. Recovery and reproducibility assessment indicates good accuracy and acceptable relative standard deviation (RSD) 5%. Linear responses (r20.997) for calibration curve was obtained with IAA, IPA and IBA standard in range, with a limit of quantification of 0.15 g•m1-1. The concentration of IAA, IPA and IBA in the basal part of cuttings were measured, during the rooting period. We proved the external IBA was taken up by the plants. In the plants were found the IBA, and the IAA concentration of IBA treated cuttings was higher, than the untreated one.
Oxygen free radicals play an important role in the development of different disorders like inflammatory-immune injury, carcinogenesis, hepatic toxicity and artherosclerosis. The antioxydant role of a wide spectrum of natural products has been established. Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds (proanthocyanidins, rosmarinic acid, hydroxicinnamic ...derivatives, catechines, etc.) of plant origin have been reported as scavengers and inhibitors of lipid peroxidation.
We have studied the antioxidant activity as well as content and composition of natural phenolics in a series of medicinal plants with phytotherapeutical significance. Thus we determined the total phenol contents and studied the composition of flavonoids, polyphenols, phenolic acids of different vegetative and reproductive organs of medicinal plants: Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm., Petroselinum crispum L., Cichorium intybus L., Helichrysum arenarium D.C.„cempervivum tectorum L., Taravacum officinale Web.
Characteristic constituents in the various crude drugs were determined by chromatographic (TLC, HPLC) and spectroscopic (UV, UV-VIS) methods. The non specific scavenger activities of the medicinal plant extracts were studied by the chemiluminometric technique. The changes of chemiluminescence intensity of the H,G,•0H-luminol system at increasing concentrations of the H702/ -OH were measured. Inhibitory effects of selected standardized fractions from plants were tested on ascorbic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver and homogenates.
The best correlation were established with total phenolics in some medicinal plants (S. tectorum, T. officinale) while activities in other cases seem to be influenced by flavonoids (P. crispum, H. arenarium, A. cerefolium) and by hydroxicinnamic derivatives (C. intybus).
The Hungarian cultivar Sorbus redliana 'Burokvölgy' was proliferated on Murashige and Skoog (MS, 1962) medium with half-strength macroelements and 100 mg/1 meso-inositol, 20 g/1 sucrose, 11 g/1 agar-agar. Different combinations of kinetin (KIN), metatopolin (mT), benzyladenine (BA), benzyladenine-ribosid (BAR) and indolebutiric acid (IBA) were te...sted, and pH was adjusted to 5.6 every case using KOH. The cultures were incubated at 20-24 °C in 8/16 hours dark/light photoperiod for 50-52 days. The main aim of our research was to find the optimal growth regulator and its optimum concentration. Purthermore, to determine the chlorophyll contents of the in vitro propagated plants' leaves. During the proliferation, the highest number of shoots were observed in the case of using BA + IBA, and on the medium containing 0.75 mg/I BA + 0.05 mg/1 IBA 8.93 shoots were found. The addition of KIN + IBA decreased the number of shoots and increased the sizes of leaves — the widest (11.2 mm) and longest (17.8 mm) leaves were obtained on the medium containing 1.00 mg/I KIN + 0.05 mg/1 IBA. The longest shoots (36.46 mm) were found in the case of applying 0.75 mg/1 BAR + 0.05 mg/I IBA. The BA + KIN + IBA combination resulted the shortest shoots. Sometimes not only shoot regeneration but spontaneous rooting was observed during the multiplication. The highest chlorophyll content (1.569 mg/g total chlorophyll, 1.132 mg/g chlorophyll-a, 0.437 mg/g chlorophyll-b) was obtained in the presence of 1.0 mg/I KIN + 0.05 mg/1 IBA.
It has been established, that thiamin content added in 3 mg/I concentration to musts before fermentation resulted in the enhanced storability of sparkling wine base at lower SO2 levels. Fermentation rate is not increased by this concentration and it causes no "thiamine taste" in organoleptic evaluation.