Quince (Cydonia oblongaMill.) is a minor fruit crop, which is primarily used for marmalade, jam and sauce.Very few quince cultivars are known all over the world and in many cases similar names are used for presumably different cultivars. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and characterize the genetic diversity of 36 quince cultivars a...nd selections with SSR markers. Seven out of 8 SSR markers designed from apple sequences could successfully yield amplification also in quince cultivars. Number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 3 alleles. These allele numbers are quite low when compared to apple. It is supposed to be the consequence of a genetic bottleneck. In spite of the low allele number per locus, the 36 quince cultivars formed 30 different genotypes. The ratio of homozygosity was low, which might be coupled with the self-(in)compatibility phenotype of quinces. SSR markers proved unable to differentiate putatively closely related cultivars (e.g. ‘Bereczki’ and ‘Bereczki bôtermő’). In general, the level of polymorphism among the tested quince genotypes was much restricted due to the low allele number detected. However, it must be considered that the number of analysed SSR loci is not enough high to estimate the overall heterozygosity of the quince genome. Further experiments are needed and the SSR markers proved to be a reliable and useful tool for such analyses.
The identification of plant species and study of their genetic relatedness is an important object of plant genetics. The Rosaceae family contains a lot of economically important fruit, ornamental, and wild plant species. The microsatellite markers have been proven to be an efficient tool for description of the genetic relatedness among varietie...s and species. Their evolutionary conserved regions enable them to differentiate among various accessions. This article intends to show proceeded identification and characterization projects on Rosaceae species by using SSR markers. The article presents sources of already published primer sequences. The use of already published primers can highly reduce the cost and duration of this kind of researches.
Twenty-four sour cherry cultivars (genotypes), belonging to four cultivar groups were fingerprinted using microsatellite markers. All genotypes have been arisen from the Carpathian basin, which could be secondary gene centre of sour cherry, since its progenitor species, ground cherry and sweet cherry overlap here. Five SSR primer pairs, earlier... used for fingerprinting Turkish sour cherry germplasm were tested. None of the five primer pairs showed any polymorphism within the cultivar groups. The primer pairs were able to distinguish between the cultivar groups. The Oblacsinszka and the Cigánymeggy cultivar groups were the most difficult to separate, while the Pándy cultivar group was the most distinguishable.
Apricot takes an important place in Hungarian fruit production. Considering morphological characteristics of apricots it was concluded that the genetics background of European cultivars is very limited. Molecular markers and their use for genotyping have revolutionized the identification of cultivars. In a classic apricot breeding program, it i...s important to be able to establish unique DNA profiles of selections to identify them unambiguously and to determine their genetic relationship. Presently SSR is far the most frequently performed technique for genetic diversity studies. In this study there were used peach and apricot primer pairs from four different sources in order to examine microsatellite polymorphism among cultivars and investigate relationships among them. The possibility of cross species amplification among different Prunus species using SSR primers allowed us to use primers developed in peach to study genetic diversity in apricot. In this work, 90% of the primers used were able to amplify SSRs in apricot and more than half of them were polymorphic. With the 10 primer pairs utilized were proven to be sufficient to set unique fingerprint for several cultivars studied. The obtained dendrogram classified of the 45 cultivars included in this study into two major groups and several subgroups.
A DNA marker-based study was undertaken to identify the occurrence of major scab resistance genes in some apple cultivars and selections of importance for apple breeding. Unfortunately none of the RAPD-based markers previously reported to detect the Va, Vb, Vr and Vx genes produced unambiguous results.... By contrast, the CAPS marker MI8 produced the expected three bands in all cultivars and selections already known or suspected to have the Vf gene, as well as in the Russian cultivar 'Antonovka Polotora Funtovaja' suspected to have Va resistance which however may be allelic to Vf. Vf-carrying selections and newly named cultivars 'Frida' and 'Fredrik' are grown successfully in Sweden without fungicides, suggesting that the Vr resistance breaking scab races 6 and 7 have not yet become a problem. The SCAR marker B12 detected the Vm gene in 'Prairifire', 'Rouville', clones 'OR45T132' and 'OR48T70', and selection '16-36-193'. The SSR locus 0102b10 detected one band at 118 by in 'Reka'. This is presumed to be identical to the Vr gene marker previously reported.
Grapevine cultivars and clones traditional in Hungary and in the Carpathian Basin are maintained in the genetic collection of the Corvinus University of Budapest. Mostly ancient varieties and clones were genotyped using microsatellite loci. The investigated 6 loci were sufficient to distinguish all cultivars. Some clones could also be separated... based mostly on the variable VVS2 loci. For 17 out of the 31 investigated cultivars this is the first report on characterization of the polymorphism of the allele lengths by microsatellite markers on loci: VVS2, VVMD7, VVMD27, vrZAG62.
Thirty-one old Hungarian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars were investigated on 7 microsatellite loci to characterize them, to separate the cultivars from synonym names, and to confirm parent-offspring connections. Conculta (group of cultivars or bud sports) members, such as `Goher' and Tajor' representatives, we...re studied to find a suitable locus for the separation. Synonyms, conculta members, subcultivars and clones of Turmine, which was the most important cultivar of Tokaj, were also analyzed to separate the members of the different taxonomic levels. Pedigree of 'Kiralyleanyka' was examined to find the missing ancestor, because the parent-offspring connection between the natural hybrid and `Koverszolo' is questionable.