From the wide range of genetic sources available in Hungary, we have chosen as objective the evaluation of those rose taxa, which — on the base of their quality and morphologic features — are suitable for selecting fruit production varieties or parent varieties for further breeding. We examined physical and inner parameters of fruits of ...>Rosa taxa, and evaluated the correlations by mathematical statistic methods. Namely, if a correlation can be found between physical and inner parameters, fruit production value can be determined by less examinations in the future. According to our results, there is a large variability in some physical parameters (weight, diameter of fruits; weight, number of achenes) as well as in inner content values (vitamin C, glucose, fructose, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu content) of rosehip, regarding production year, habitat and even the individual of examination. Twice as much ascorbic acid can be found in achene-free fruits, and nearly five times as much in their dry product as in fresh whole fruits. It was established repeatedly, that vitamin C concentrates in fruit flesh, and ascorbic acid content can be preserved better in achene-free flesh. There is no essential difference in citric acid and carbo-hydrate content of whole and achene-free rosehips. However, macro- and microelement content of whole fruits is 30-40% higher than that of achene-free fruit flesh. The connection between fresh weight and diameter, as well as achene number and seed weight of fruits can be described by the function y=axb. A significant relationship can be found in case of K-Fe, Ca-Mg, Ca-B, Ca-Mn and Zn-Cu, between fresh weight and B content of fruits. According to our examinations, fresh weight of rose species with a higher citric acid content is usually higher, while their Fe content is smaller. Glucose content of fruits of rose species is directly proportional to their Ca and Zn contents. Zn content of rose species with higher fructose content is usually smaller.
Comparitive histological studies were made on the underground and the aboveground stem parts of Rosa rugosa taken from one year old suckers. The underground stem parts were characterized with thicker primary cortex, phloem and pith, weaker phloem fibers, wider cambial zone, medullary rays, xylem and phloem rays as compared with the aboveground...stem parts. The most marked differences in the underground stem parts were in the wide cambial zone and in the development of some adventitious roots.
Wild roses of the section Caninae, commonly known as dogroses, have been described as more disease tolerant than ornamental roses and could therefore become valuable for breeding improved rose cultivars. Two fields with dogroses, one with plants obtained by open pollination in wild populations, and one with plants obtained from intra-...and interspecific crosses, were evaluated for blackspot, powdery mildew, rust and leafspots in the autumn of 2005. Symptoms of the different fungi on different dogrose species were carefully evaluated in a microscope and documented by photography. Interestingly, almost no symptoms of powdery mildew were found in either field, although the fungus infected wild roses of a different section in a field closeby. Surprisingly few symptoms were found also of blackspot, and they differed considerably from those found on ornamental cultivars, indicating a lower susceptibility in dogroses. The most important fungal disease in 2005 was rust, followed by leafspot symptoms. The latter were apparently caused by Sphaceloma rosarum and Septoria rosae which can be properly discriminated only in a microscope. The investigated dogrose species and their progeny groups varied significantly in disease susceptibility and in the appearance of encountered symptoms but there was no evidence of major resistance genes, except possibly in Rosa rubiginosa which did not show any symptoms of Septoria. In 2006, a subset of the plant material in Field 1 was evaluated to check for consistency between the years. Leafspots had overtaken rust as the most important disease but results were otherwise very similar to those of 2005.
The interest in wild growing fruits was increased considerably by the pharmaceutical industry, the cosmetics as well as by the food industry. (Stefanovits-Bányai et al., 2004). Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L), sand thorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), cornet (Cornus mas L.), dog rose ...>(Rosa canina L. bearing hips) and the Sorbus species (Sorhus ssp.) have been well known medicinal and/or ornamental plants since long. Recently, precious substances have been detected in their fruits, which are indispensable in healthy foods. Several species and micro-species of the genus Sorbus are components of the native flora of Hungary, and the fruit of some of them have been consumed traditionally, however, they are preferably considered as ornamentals. The nursery of Alsótekeres (Balatonvilágos) maintained some 16 clones of Sorbus species, which are mainly apomictic "micro species" of. the collection. In 2003, a comprehensive analysis of sorb fruits born on apomictic micro species was initiated in order to find those, which will be suitable to establish plantations. It turned out that considerable differences exist between the fruits of individual taxa, however, it is largely influenced by seasonal effects. According to physical measurements, a scale of mean fruit masses could be established. As for chemical ingredients of the fruits, those are of special interest, which are involved mainly in anti-oxidant activities of the organisms (calcium, potash, phosphorus, copper, magnesium).
The author dealt with plum species representing different eco-geographic areas by their genetic adaptation and their hybrids, as European (P. domestica, P. italica, P. cerasifera), Asian (P. salicina, P. simonii, P. ussuriensis), American (P. ame...ricana, P. besseyi, P. munsoniana, P. tomentosa). The rootstocks of the trees examined were seedlings of C. 679 myrobalan with the exception of Laroda and Santa Rosa II, which were grown on three different stocks: seedlings of C. 174 myrobalan, C. 449 bitter almond and C. 471 sweet almond. The size of peduncle, length of pistil, stamen number per flower, relative stamen number (SN/PL) have been suitable for description and distinction of varieties. Similarly shape of leaves, length of petiole, length and width of blade helped the identification.
The ratio of the dimensions of leaves, length of petiole and of leaf blade, also contributed to the distinction of European, Asian and American plum species, notwithstanding their relations with ecological conditions as well as historical, technical properties, pomological features, etc. Computed indicators (relative stamen number and shape-index of leaves) also have been useful data.
Significant correlations have been found between colour of nectaries and mean values of variety-groups. The potential values of non-European varieties for purposes of commercial production could be forecasted from the point of view of quality, ecological, pomological as well as market value. It is important, however, to know the effect of the rootstock and growing site as well as their interaction, on the one hand, whereas the resistance or tolerance of the varieties as limiting factors, at least to the sharka (Plum pox) virus, Xanthomonas pruni, on the other hand (cf. Surányi & Erdős, 2004a and 2004b).
In order to improve the post production quality of cut flowers of Rosa hybrida L. cv. Baroness, the effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate (8-HQS), silver thiosulfate (STS) and 1-methylcyclopropene ( I-MCP) were investigated. 8-HQS was used at 200 and 400 ppm with or without sucrose at 50 g LI. STS was used at 0.2, and 0.4 mM with or wit...hout sucrose at 50 g 1-I. l-MCP was used at 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 g in-3 for 6h.
The postproduction quality was improved as a result of using any chemical treatment comparing with untreated control. All the treatments of 8-HQS increased the vase life and minimized the percentage of weight loss of rose cut flowers compared to the control. The vase life was lorger when 8-HQS was combined with sucrose. The best treatment of 8-HQS was 400 ppm 8-HQS + 50 g 1-1 sucrose. STS treatment led to prolong the vase life and minimized the percentage of weight loss compared to the control. In addition, the effect was better when sucrose was added to STS. The treatment of STS at 0.4 mM + 50 g 1-1 sucrose was the best one. l -MCP treatment prolonged the vase life and lowered the percentage of weight loss at any level compared with untreated control. The best treatment in this concern was l -MCP at 0.5 g m-3 for 6h. The chlorophyll content (chl.a and chid)) of the leaves for the best treatment of each chemical was higher than the control. The treatment of STS at 0.4 mM + 50 g 1-1 sucrose gave the best results in this respect.
The effect of STS and 1-MCP on the postharvest quality of carnation and rose cut flowers was studied. Cut flowers of Dianthus c..aryophyllus L. cv. Asso and Rosa hybritia cv. Baroness were treated with silver thiosulfate (STS) at 0.4 mM with sucrose at 50 g 1-t and 1-methylcyclopropene ( I -MCP) at 0.5 g m<...sup>-3 for 611.
Pretreatment with STS and 1-MCP significantly extended the vase life and minimized the % loss of initial weight of carnation and rose cut flowers comparing to the untreated control. The two chemicals applied inhibited the chlorophyll degradation and carbohydrate loss and hence, significantly improved the postharvest quality of carnation and rose cut flowers comparing to the control. Ethylene production by cut flowers was inhibited as a result of using these chemicals. In general, there were no differences between STS and (-MCP but the later does not have the heavy metal implications of STS treatment, and hence, using 1-MCP pretreatment for extending the vase life of carnation and rose cut flowers was recommended.
The effect of 1-MCP on rose cultivar 'Bordeaux ' was studied in combination with different preservative solutions. The flowers were treated with 1-MCP for 6 hours at 17 °C and for 18 hours at 4 °C. As for the diameter of flowers the best resu lts was achieved, when applying 20 gL- 1 sucrose + Clorox (2 ml L- 1), as well as preservative "Sprin...g" ( I 0 gL-1) + 1-MCP ( 18 hours). Similar results were measured in the case of Spring + Clorox + 20 gL-1 sucrose with 1-MCP (6 and 18 hours). The longer MCP treatm ent gave better results as compared to the shorter ones, because the flowers were much more open.The condition of flowers was the best in the solution of Clorox + 20 gL-1 sucrose and Spring solution combined with the longer MCP treatment. and Clorox + 20 gL- 1, on the IQ1h day. The longest vase life ( 10,3 day) was observed in the case of Spring application combined with 18 hours of MCP treatment. ln this treatment the vase life was prolonged by 3,3 days. As regards the calculated ornamental values, the following sequence could be established :"Spring" + l-MCP ( 18hrs) 134 points, Clorox + 20 gL-1 sucrose + 1-MCP (l8h) with 129 point, and the third was the Clorox + 20 gL-1 sucrose with 1 19 point.
A possible way of the development of Hungarian agriculture is the selection and growing of new fruit species and varieties featuring special qualities, with high biological nutritive and health protecting properties due to their natural composition. A reserve for such new fruits is the native dendroflora, e.g. those wild-growing trees and shrub...s of Hungary, which bear edible fruits. The publication is giving a summary of chemical analyses done on the fruits of the plants listed below. The research team on the project started the work in 2001 with
woody species (genera) as follows:
- common elder (Sambucus nigra) clone named Szcs-1, Szcs-2, Szcs-3, Szcs-4, Szcs-5, SzcsK-1, SzcsK-2
- dog rose (Rosa canina) types: clones named Sz-1, Sz-2, Sz-3, Sz-4 and Sz-5 .
- native rowans: Sorbus dacica, S.rotundifolia, S. degenu, S.bakonyensis cv. Fánivölgy
- hawthorns: Crataegus monogyna, C. orientalis,C..v lavallei.
- cornel cherry: Cornus mas cv. Császló.
The present paper is reporting on the content of the following compounds in the fruits: dry matter (refractometric values), total acid content, ascorbic acid, 13-carotene, pectin, minerals and carbohydrates. The results have shown that these wild fruits have excellent composition. Besides their curative effects, their content of minerals, ascorbic acid and 13-carotene has surpassed that of the traditional fruits. These fruits are rich in ascorbic acid, 13-carotene and pectin. The high content of the above-listed, biologically active compounds makes the new wild fruits studied suitable for the preparation (and later: mass-production) of special curative and exclusive products.