At the experiment orchard of the Fruit Research and Extension Institute, Újfehértó, Hungary in spring 2000 a trial was designed included: Erdi bőtermő, Debreceni bőtermő, and Csengődi sour cherry (Prunus avium L) cultivars which were budded at 1999 on Oblacsinska sour cherry (as a dwarf inter stock), which had been budded on
The modern nursery industry requires seed sources of a high quality and regular quantity year by year. Besides the seed sources of processed cultivars (Bartlett pear, Shipley, Elberta peach) special seed orchards are planted with selected seed trees producing high quality and genetically determined seed (hybrid seed or inbred lines). Seedlings...are still the most common commercial source of rootstocks for stone fruits (almond, apricot, peach, plum, prune and walnut). Although clonal rootstocks are spreading, usage of seedlings is still predominant at stone fruits and nuts. For successful seed production and planning of seed orchard the knowledge on floral biology, flower fertility, pollination, blossom time of trees (selected clone or cultivars) used for seed production is essential. In this field very little systematic research was carried out most of the papers were published in the second half of the 20th century. Our mini review gives an overview on the importance of flower fertility in the mating systems applied in seed orchards, and the research results on floral biology of fruit tree rootstocks propagated by seed (Prunus avium, Prunus mahaleb, Prunus armeniaca, Prunus cerasifera, Prunus insititia, Prunus amygdalus, P persica, P amygdalopersica, Pyrus pyraster, Pyrus communis and Pyrus betulifolia) over the last decades.
Cross-incompatibility is a common phenomenon between various sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars. Traditionally, choosing cross-compatible cultivar pairs is based on test crossings in the field.
There is a lack of information about fertility relations of novel Hungarian sweet cherry cultivars and selections. We have studie...d cross-incompatibility in 42 sweet cherry cultivar pairs by test-crossings in the field. Out of those, 3 combinations showed incompatibility and 15 pairs were compatible.
Test-crossing results proved that with the knowledge of S-allele constitution of Hungarian cultivars incompatible cultivar pairs are recognised in practice reliably. However, we assume that in sterility not only the S-gene system, but other factors (e.g. abnormal development of pollen or flower) also occur, therefore, their examination would be needed.
Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) are generally self-incompatible and pollinator cultivars are needed in orchards for reliable yield. In Hungary, choosing the appropriate cross-compatible cultivar pairs has so far been based on traditional test-crosses in the field. In recent years PCR-based methods that allow the identification of the...S-alleles responsible for compatibility have been elaborated. We have determined the S-allele constitution of 24 cultivars and four selections important to Hungarian growers and breeders using PCR-based methods developed at Horticulture Research International, East Malling. The 28 accessions had various pairs of 9 alleles including one new allele, Sr. They could be assigned to 12 of the existing incompatibility groups or to a new group (S4S12) for which the designation 'Group XXVII' is proposed. The cultivars `Krupnoplodnaja' and 'Rita' had novel genotypes, S5S9 and S5Sx, respectively and can be placed into group 0 that holds universal pollen donors. The genotype of the cultivar ‘Hedelfingeni óriás' grown in Hungary was found to be S3S4 and therefore different from the cultivar `Hedelfingen' that is widespread in Western Europe.
The rain induced fruit cracking is a big, serious problem especially for sweet cherry growers but in some year growers of other stone fruit species had also problem with fruit cracking caused by too much and heavy rainfalls in the ripening and harvesting season. Cracked stone fruits can be easily infected by different diseases like Monillinia s...p. Cracked and infected fruits can not be transported for long distance and using for preservation, they lost their market value by the destroyed fruit quality. It was decided to make a research work to determine the rain fruit cracking susceptibility of few stone fruit species (sour cherries, sweet cherries and European plums). Fruit cracking tests were occurred under laboratory conditions on the most common cultivars grown in Hungary. Furthermore we tried to find correlation between the fruit cracking and some fruit quality parameters (fruit size; total sugar content, fruit flesh firmness).
Our conclusions are the followings:
Sour cherries: There were found differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested sour cherry varieties when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. Based on cracking test results under laboratory condition (immersing in distillated water) we made the grouping by cracking susceptibility of sour cherry varieties. Tested cultivars were divided three groups: very susceptible; susceptible; moderately susceptible (tolerant). Groups with varieties are: Very susceptible - ’Maliga emléke’, ’Piramis’, ’Érdi jubileum’,’Érdi nagygyümölcsû’ and ’Meteor korai; Susceptible (Sensitive) – ’Érdi bôtermô’, ’Pándy’ and Cigány 59. Moderately susceptible (tolerant) – ‘Éva’ and ‘Petri’as new rereleases. The most of tested sour cherry varieties are in agreement with the literature (Apostol, 2003) and four of them (’Maliga emléke’, ’Pándy 279’, ‘Éva’ and ‘Petri’) had higher average fruit weight than was mentioned in the literature (Apostol, 2003). Our fruit cracking results are in agreement with Zelinski’s (1964) and Christensen’s (1975) conclusions that there is no close relationship between fruit size and rain induced fruit cracking tendency. We found significant differences between the sugar content of tested cultivars. In contrast of Verner & Blodget (1931) our results confirm Tucker’s opinion that the sugar content is not correlation with the cracking tendency of cherry fruits (Tucker, 1934). Fruits firmness (elasticity) was measured by destructive method when juice was coming out from fruits. There were found big differences of fruit firmness and skin strength of observed cultivars. Our results are only partly agreement with Christensen’s (1996) opinion that cherry cultivars with firmer fruits are more prone to fruit cracking than softer ones. By this was seemingly we did not found close relationship between the fruit firmness and the cracking tendency of sour cherry fruits. We found that during fruits immersing in distillated water the fruit weight was increasing due to the absorbed water. Our opinion is that there is no close relationship between the scale of fruit cracking and the quantity of absorbed water. By results presented above we our opinion is that no very close relationship between the fruit cracking of sour cherries and the observed parameters (fruit size, fruit firmness, sugar content, amount of absorbed water) maybe other varietal effects and physiological characters (fruit skin structural parameters) play more important role in the fruit cracking mechanism of cherries.
Sweet cherries: Similarly to sour cherries in the case of sweet cherries we also did not find close relationship between observed fruit parameters and cracking index. It was differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested sweet cherry cultivars when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. It was found that the cracking ratio of very cracking susceptible sour cherry varieties had the same or higher cracking index than observed sweet cherries. It is in contrast with the general opinion (Chistensen, 1996) that sour cherries are less prone to rain induced fruit cracking than sweet cherries. We found differences between the cracking ration and cracking dynamic of the same cultivar in different years (2006 and 2013). It is in agreement Christensen’s (1996) opinion that the year effect cause big differences in the fruit cracking of cherries.
European plums: We found differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested plum varieties when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. A shorter term (6 hours) immersing in water caused three groups by their cracking susceptibility: „Very susceptible”: ’Révfülöpi’ and ’Szarvasi’; „Susceptible”: ’Besztercei’; „Less sensitive”: ’Bluefre’ and ’Cacanska rodna’. A longer term (24 hours) immersing in water resulted only two groups with significant differences: „Susceptible group”: ’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’; „Less sensitive”: ’Bluefre’ and ’Cacanska rodna’ Similarly the cherries we did not find correlation between the fruit size and cracking susceptibility of European plum cultivars. It was based on: the big fruit sized ‘Bluefre’ and middle sized ‘Cacanska rodna’ cracked in the lowest scale, during the small sized ’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’ cultivars cracked in higher scale We found positive correlations between the cracking susceptibility and total sugar content of tested plum cultivars. Cultivars with significantly lower sugar content (‘Bluefre’ and ‘C. rodna’) showed lower fruit cracking susceptibility than cultivars (’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’) with higher sugar content). We found close relationship between the relative (%) absorbed water amount and the fruit cracking susceptibility. Cultivars with higher absorbed water amount (’Szarvasi’-’Révfülöpi’-’Besztercei’) had higher cracking susceptibility.
Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is an allotetraploid species derived from hybridisation of the diploid sweet cherry (P avium L.) and the tetraploid ground cherry (P. fruticosa Pall.). Although numerous self-incompatible cultivars exist, the most sour cherry cultivars are self-compatible, which might be due to their te...traploid nature. This review is dedicated to show the limited information on the genetics of self-incompatibility in sour cherry accumulated during the last five years. Two different hypotheses (genomic arrangement of the alleles or the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes) are discussed. Heteroallelic sour cherry pollen was shown to be self-incompatible, which is counter to the Solanaceae where heteroallelic pollen frequently self-compatible due to a kind of competitive interaction between the two different alleles. This review highlights some inconsistencies in the hope that clarification will be achieved in the near future.
During 2000 and 2007, rootstocks of different vigor have been tested in a high density sweet cherry orchard with 'Vera '® and 'Axel'® cultivars at 4 x 2 meter row and plant distance. Trees are trained to Hungarian Spindle with permanent basal branches; in the alley way naturally grown grass is managed by mowing. The first considerable fruitin...g was in 2004. Every year we measured trunk and canopy parameters of the trees, productivity and fruit size. Our conclusion is that the rootstocks considerably affected the growth, precocity, as well as tree and orchard productivity, fruit weight of sweet cherry cultivars, but these rootstock effects are modified by cultivars, except for growth vigor. According to our results Cema, SL 64, and Bogdany are vigorous rootstocks, moderate vigorous are MaxMa 97, Pi-Ku I , and Tabel® Edabriz, Gisela® 5 and Prob are dwarfing rootstocks. Besides the precocious Gisela® 5 also mahaleb rootstocks CEMA, Bogdany and SL 64 showed considerable precocity, which can be explained by the larger bearing surface to the time of turning to bearing, and a similar or relative large density of burse shoots on fruiting branches. Cumulative yield of 'Axel'® was the highest on Bogdany and on Cerna, contrary to Gisela® 5, which produced only 50% of the previous ones. Cumulative yield of 'Vera'® was the highest on SL 64, and no significant difference was found, compared to trees on rootstocks Cema, Bogdany and Pi-Ku I . Cumulative yield production of trees was smaller on Gisela® 5, Prob, Max Ma 97 and Tabel® Edabriz rootstocks. Corresponding to the literature data of yield efficiency calculated on TCSA basis was highest on Gisela® 5 rootstock. but the efficiency calculated on canopy volume of 'Axel•® trees was similarly high on CEMA and Bogdany, and that of 'Vera'® trees relatively high on CEMA, Bogdany, SL 64 and PiKu I rootstocks. When calculating orchard efficiency al spacing 4 x 2 meters (1250 tree/ha), we received highest yield values on Bogdany, CEMA, SL 64, and PiKu I rootstocks, with large fruit weight. Rootstocks also affect fruit weight. We measured the largest fruit weight on trees on Bogdany.
Fruit set of two sweet cherry cultivars (Alex' and 'Stella' ) and four Hungarian selections have been studied over two years following open pollination, unassisted self-pollination (autogamy) and artificial self-pollination (geitonogamy). Among accessions 'IV-6/240' proved to be self-sterile, while the other five revealed to b...e self-fertile. Significant differences have been found in fruit set among years and among pollination treatments but not among self-fertile accessions. Fruit set following unassisted self-pollination was significantly lower than of other pollination treatments. Thus pollen transfer is essential for profitable yield in sweet cherry growing.
There was no significant relationship in the fruit set of open- and self-pollination.
Influence of a three-year-long foliar fertilization on mineral composition of leaf, content of sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose and sucrose) and organic acids (citric, malic and fumaric acid) of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruits was studied. The experiment was conducted during 2005-2007 in West Hungary on mature cv. `Germersdor...fi 3' grafted on Prunus mahaleb rootstock, planted in 1999. Trees spaced 7 x 5 m, and growing in a calcareous chernozem soil. Trees were foliar-fertilized with potassium (K) as KNO3 and calcium (Ca) as Ca(NO3)2. Potassium spraying was carried out 3 (K1) and 5 (K2) while calcium was applied at 3 (Ca 1), 5 (Ca2) and 6 (Ca3) weeks after full bloom. Beside fruit analysis, complete soil and leaf analysis were done to study the rate of nutrient uptake and its effects on fruit quality. Contents of nutrients of soil and leaf were determined by atomic absorption and spectrophotometric method, while sugars and organic acids in fruit were determined by HPLC. The applied treatments (except K1) had been increasing leaf K significantly compared to the control till ripening. Most of treatments had no significant effect on Ca content of leaf till ripening. From applied treatments only the boron treatments had significant increasing effect on contents of all examined sugars, compared the control. Furthermore, the effect of calcium spraying on the contents of organic acids was significant.
The goal of the study was to examine response of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) to boron (B) fertilization. The experiment was conducted during 2005-2007 in West Hungary on mature cv. `Germersdorfi 3' grafted on Prunus mahaleb rootstock.
Sweet cherry trees planted on a calcareous chernozem soil. Tree...s were foliar-fertilized with B. Foliar B sprays were performed: (1) in the spring, at the stage of white bud, beginning of flowering (B1), and (2) repeated 5 weeks after full bloom (B2). In each of spring spray treatments, B was applied at a rate of 0.15 kg ha-I. Trees untreated with B served as a control.
The results showed that B fertilization had effect on B concentration in leaf tissues, mostly after ripening. B was present significantly higher amount in leaf in treated samples after ripening.
Mean fruit weight was slightly increased by B fertilization. Fruit sensitivity to cracking was not influenced by B fertilization. Nevertheless, from our data it can be conclude that the sensitivity of fruit to cracking is improved when the fruit is riper, the fruit density and fruit weight are higher. The soluble solids varied between 15.0 and 15.9% according to the treatments. Our results for the monosaccharides investigated varied between 5.1 and 7.2 as glucose and fructose as well. Galactose and sucrose was detected very small amount in the unprocessed cherries. Applied B treatments increased sugar contents but decreased organic acid contents in sweet cherry fruits.
It is concluded that under conditions of this experiment, B fertilization can be recommended in sweet cherry culture to improve fruit quality and their appearance.
Sour cherries developed in the northern hemisphere, an alloploid hybrid of dwarf sour cherries (Prunus fruticosa) and bird cherries (P. avium), born in the confluence of the two species. However, the ecological and, above all, cold tolerance of the ancestor of cultivated sour cherries is higher than that of wild cherries (De C...andolle, 1894; Rehder, 1954; Terpó, 1974; Iezzoni et al., 1991; Faust & Surányi, 1997). The cultivation limits are in the northern hemisphere 38-44. degree. The Carpathian Basin, the Balkans and Asia Minor are considered to be the main birthplaces for sour cherries. The genetic and morphological diversity of sour cherries is greater than that of the basic species (Iezzoni et al. 1991; Faust & Surányi, 1997). In the study, 472 sour cherry cultivars were compared based on 7 relative ecological indicators and 3 biological values. Compared to other Prunus species, we mostly found less variability in sour cherries - not counting their salt tolerance (SB). The partial similarity between open pollination (OP), frost tolerance (FR) and disease resistance (DR) - partly true in terms of varieties, but also reflected the effects of purposeful breeding and selection. The cultivars together - in comparison, showed balance, but in the highlighting, the differences of the 3 cultivar groups became significant. Indeed, the differences between the species of the former Hungarian cultural flora are clearly different (Surányi, 2004), which is also the case when comparing a large number of apricot (Surányi, 2014), plum (Surányi, 2015) and peach (Surányi, 2020) varieties.
In this study, the pollen of 14 sweet cherry cultivars (‘Anella’, ‘Duroni 3', 'Badacsony', 'Cristalina', 'Ferbolus', 'Ferrovia',
'Georgia', 'Hudson', 'Kordia', 'Sam', 'Schneiders’, ‘Spate’, ‘Knorpelkirsche', 'Skeena', 'Summit', 'Sylvia') was used to fertilize the emasculated flowers of sweet cherry cv. 'Regina'. Fruit set...was assessed three times during fruit development: 14 May, 30 May and 27 May 2007. We observed full incompatibility among the 14 cultivars for cv. 'Cristalina', which is in the same S-allele group as cv. 'Regina'. After analysis of our data, we have results about fertilization efficiency of the cultivars. Most of the evaluated cultivars are inadequate to fertilize cv. 'Regina' to a sufficient degree. There were two exceptions, cv. 'Sam' and cv. 'Skeena', where percentage of ripened fruits was above 20%. These two cultivars can guarantee such a pollination, which ensures ample quantity of ripened fruits. Results of this study have proved three other cultivars to be quite good pollinators for cv. 'Regina'. In conclusion, ideal pollinators for cv. 'Regina' could be — apart from above-mentioned two cultivars, 'Sam' and 'Skeena' — cvs. 'Sylvia' and 'Bianca', which was suggested by more literature sources.
Some traditional sweet cherry cultivars of Ukrainian origin may represent perspective material for Hungarian cherry breeding. A total of eight cultivars analysed represent great diversity in several phenotypic traits including fruit ripening time or fruit flesh colour. Considerable differences in the anthocyanin content may result in different...antioxidant capacity of fruits. In the present study, we used ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC) assays to characterize fruits’ nutraceutical properties. These values were compared with the respective values measured for eight commercial cultivars grown in Hungary. The average of FRAP and TPC values was higher for the Ukrainian cherries compared with commercial cultivars suggesting they might be included in functional breeding programs. Since, cherry is a self-incompatible species, the determination of S-genotype is required for both breeding and successful cultivar association in commercial orchards. Complete or partial S-genotypes were determined for 5 and 3 cultivars, respectively.
Hungarian sweet cherry production has been changed recently. Thanks to the favourable selling prices many new plantations were established in the last years. In the new orchards mainly spindle canopy are trained, although many type of crown forms are used all over the world. In our study slender spindle and bush canopy were evaluated with three... cultivars (‘Petrus’, ‘Vera’, ‘Carmen’) grafted on Prunus mahaleb rootstock. Vigor of the 3-4 years old trees showed spectacular differences. The highest vigor with Spanish bush was found for cv. ‘Vera’, but on slender spindle canopy the thickness values were medium. Meanwhile cv. ‘Petrus’ showed the highest trunk thickness with spindle canopy, but the lowest with Spanish bush. On spindle canopy cv. ‘Carmen’ presented the highest ramification ability, but its 2-3 years old twigs started to bald very early, which can be considered an unfavorable phenomenon. Bush canopy still can be described with strong vegetative growth on 3-4 years old trees, as vigor of spindle trees are more moderate.
In vivo as well as in vitro pollen tube growth studies along the style were performed, each with two pairs of sweet cherry cultivar combinations by means of fluorescence microscopy. In vivo studies showed that the percentage of pollen tubes penetrating the middle and basal section of the style was higher in the fully...compatible 'Margit' x 'Alex' combination than in the half compatible `Germersdorfi 3' x `Alex' cross. The year effect was significant at P=0.] probability level. All pollen tubes in vitro stopped at the upper third of the style in the incompatible 'Vera' x 'Van' cross, whereas in the half compatible 'Alex' x 'Van' 50% of the pollen tubes penetrated to the lower third of the style. By in vitro fluorescence microscopy, it was possible to distinguish half compatible combinations from incompatible ones. Results obtained by in vivo technique only were much ambiguous.
In this study. we are partly focusing on consumer acceptance of fruit, like fruit cracking, weight and flavours, and maturation, fruit density and content of nutrients which are undelie consumer acceptance, and important equally to the growers and marketers. the results on the dynamics of N-uptake corresponded ti thephenological phases of cherr...y and independent on the applied treatments. Younger leaves contain more N than elder due to the effective N uptake of young leaves. Based on the measurements conducted in June, the P content of leaves was in low P supply category at the control and the Benefit treatment, while was in the lower range of optimal category at Damisol treatment. According to our measurements, the K of cherry leaves decreases continuosly until September, expcept the control at which it increased from the end of June to September. the fruit weight was increased significantly by applying Benefit PZ. the best results for fruit cracing observed at Benefit treatment too. The best result for fruit density was observed at Damisol treatment.
The rain induced fruit cracking is a big, serious and costly problem for cherry growers. Cracked fruits lose their value and they are not marketable because of the poor fruit quality. Cracked fruits have different storage diseases and shorter storage and shelf life.
There are many influencing factors of the cherry fruit cracking such as...: water uptake; fruit characteristics (fruit size, fruit firmness; anatomy and strength of the fruit skin, stomata in fruit skin, cuticular properties, osmotic concentration, water capacity of the fruit pulp, growth stage of the fruit,); orchard temperature and other environmental conditions;
The most effective protection technique is the plastic rain cover over the tree rows. The installation of these equipments is too expensive for the cherry growers. That is the reason why researchers tried to find other less expensive and sufficiently effective ways against the Lim induced fruit cracking.
Several calcium formulas: calcium chloride (CaC1,), calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH)2) and calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2 ) can be sprayed in appropriate concentration. Spraying with other mineral salts (aluminium and copper salts, borax) and PBRs (Plant Bioregulators) may be also effective to reduce fruit cracking.
The seasonal dynamic of macro- and micronutrients uptake of a sweet cherry cultivar cv. 'Katalin' (Prunus avium L.) was studied according to apply different flower thinning techniques. Beside control treatment, three thinning treatments were performed: (I) thinning for I flower/inflorescence, (2) thinning for 2 flower/inflorescence, (3...) thinning for 3 flower/inflorescence. Soil examination was carried out to establish the growing conditions of orchard site. Moreover, for studying the temporal dynamic of nutrient uptake plant analytical examination was performed four times per year based on leaf collecting according to the phenological phases. It was found that the macro- and micronutrients contents of leaves were showed significant differences between treatments before ripening, at ripening and after ripening stage. It was found that thinning has influence on mineral composition of leaf. Flower removal unbalanced the equilibrium of generative and vegetative processes. The applied manual flower thinning treatment resulted improving vegetative processes like nutrient uptake and storage.