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Floral biology of tree fruit rootstocks
Published April 19, 2006
153-161.

The modern nursery industry requires seed sources of a high quality and regular quantity year by year. Besides the seed sources of processed cultivars (Bartlett pear, Shipley, Elberta peach) special seed orchards are planted with selected seed trees producing high quality and genetically determined seed (hybrid seed or inbred lines). Seedlings ...are still the most common commercial source of rootstocks for stone fruits (almond, apricot, peach, plum, prune and walnut). Although clonal rootstocks are spreading, usage of seedlings is still predominant at stone fruits and nuts. For successful seed production and planning of seed orchard the knowledge on floral biology, flower fertility, pollination, blossom time of trees (selected clone or cultivars) used for seed production is essential. In this field very little systematic research was carried out most of the papers were published in the second half of the 20th century. Our mini review gives an overview on the importance of flower fertility in the mating systems applied in seed orchards, and the research results on floral biology of fruit tree rootstocks propagated by seed (Prunus avium, Prunus mahaleb, Prunus armeniaca, Prunus cerasifera, Prunus insititia, Prunus amygdalus, P persica, P amygdalopersica, Pyrus pyraster, Pyrus communis and Pyrus betulifolia) over the last decades.

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The effect of rootstock on the tree size of apricot cultivars
Published August 13, 2004
57-58.

The apricot is propagated on several kinds of rootstocks in Hungary. The main aspects of selecting rootstocks are as follows: adaptability to environmental circumstances, primarily soil conditions, ensuring the tree size that complies with the cultivation method, and compatibility with the grafted cultivar. At advanced, intensive orchards roots...tocks ensuring smaller tree size are privileged. For the establishment of the appropriate cultivation system, it is important to be aware of the expected growing vigour and tree size of certain cultivar­rootstock combinations when the orchard is designed. In the course of our experiment the size of 15-year-old trees of 4 apricot cultivars were examined on several rootstocks at an orchard in Siófok. On the basis of the data measured for each cultivar-rootstock combination, it can be stated that trees on wild apricot (P. armeniaca) rootstocks are the largest in size. Trees on prune (P. domestica) rootstock have 10-15% smaller crown volume than the previous combination. Trees on bullace (P. insititia) rootstock have the smallest tree size and their crown volume is 30-50% smaller than that of the trees on P. armeniaca rootstock. Thus, the application of prune and bullace rootstocks is beneficial at intensive apricot orchards as the size of trees can be reduced by their usage. However, their compatibility with the cultivars and their adaptability to the ecological conditions of the production site have to be tested before applying them widely. In the course of our research incompatibility was not experienced for any of the cultivar-rootstock combinations examined. Nevertheless, the drought tolerance of the rootstocks examined showed significant differences. Trees on P. domestica or P. insititia rootstock requires more water than those on P. armeniaca rootstock, therefore, they have to be irrigated.

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Effects of different pollination treatments in genotypes of Prunus salicina Lindl.
Published April 19, 2006
141-146.

The low productivity in the Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl) is related with self-incompatibility characteristics, so other species or varieties that act as pollinators need to be present to improve fruit production. The objective of this work was to study the efficiency of pollination in different genotypes of P. salicina ...m>using treatments of natural self-pollination, cross-pollination with P. armeniaca cv. Giada and open pollination. These treatments were evaluated through viability techniques and in vitro and in vivo germination of pollen grains; the growth of pollen tubes along the pistil was also observed. Genotypes used in this study showed differences for each one of the pollination treatments. Some genotypes showed signs of self-sterility and interincompatibility with P. armeniaca cv. Giada, while others showed partial self-fertility characteristics or pseudocompatibility. Moreover, some genotypes showed a higher affinity coefficient with cv. Giada and these will be indicating a possible intercompatibility. These studies will be an important contribution breeding and selection of intra and intercompatible genotypes to be used in commercial orchards.

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Molecular characterization of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars using cross species SSR amplification with peach primers
Published June 20, 2006
53-57.

Apricot takes an important place in Hungarian fruit production. Considering morphological characteristics of apricots it was concluded that the genetics background of European cultivars is very limited. Molecular markers and their use for genotyping have revolutionized the identification of cultivars. In a classic apricot breeding program, it i...s important to be able to establish unique DNA profiles of selections to identify them unambiguously and to determine their genetic relationship. Presently SSR is far the most frequently performed technique for genetic diversity studies. In this study there were used peach and apricot primer pairs from four different sources in order to examine microsatellite polymorphism among cultivars and investigate relationships among them. The possibility of cross species amplification among different Prunus species using SSR primers allowed us to use primers developed in peach to study genetic diversity in apricot. In this work, 90% of the primers used were able to amplify SSRs in apricot and more than half of them were polymorphic. With the 10 primer pairs utilized were proven to be sufficient to set unique fingerprint for several cultivars studied. The obtained dendrogram classified of the 45 cultivars included in this study into two major groups and several subgroups.

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Variability and differences of growth vigour in the set of 36 genotypes of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).
Published March 21, 2001
30-34.

Growth vigour of 36 apricot cultivars and new hybrids grafted on apricot seedling rootstock (Prunus armeniaca L.) was evaluated on the base of measurements of stem girth from the 411' to the 10th year after planting. There were differences in growth vigour of genotypes under study. In the evaluated set of genotypes the contr...ol cultivar 'Veecor may be classified as a genotype with below-average growth vigour. Only four genotypes (-Reale d'Imola-, Sanagian -Moldavskii krupnoplodnyl and 'LE-2385') were found with significantly higher growth vigour than that of control cultivar 'Veecot' in years of the end of experimental period. Two genotypes (Farmingdale', -LE-SE0-24') were found with significantly higher growth vigour only at the beginning of experimental period and one cultivar ('Vivagold-) with significantly lower growth vigour in the first four years. Genotypes with different growth vigour can be used in further breeding programmes and/or as components inhibiting or supporting the growth in indirect vegetative propagation. Within the whole experimental period, the rank of growth vigour of genotypes practically did not change. This was demonstrated by highly significant or significant coefficients of correlation existing between individual pairs of years (r=0.32+ to r=0.96++). As far as the time difference between years in individual pairs of years was higher, the correlation coefficients were lower. In individual years, variability of growth vigour was relatively low and ranged from 9.83 to 13.64%.

 

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Hazardous element content and consumption risk of 9 apricot cultivars
Published August 16, 2010
61-65.

The heavy metals pollution is one of the problems that arise due to the increased uses of fertilizers and other chemicals to meet the higher demands of food production for human consumption. In order to assess possible health risk of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) consumption, levels of Arsenic, Cadmium, Mercury and Lead were determined in fresh... and dried samples of "Jumbo cot", "Tom cot", "Gold strike", "Gold bar", "Bergeron", "Bergarouge", "Sweet cot", "Yellow cot" and "Zebra" apricot cultivars. Wet digestion of samples with concentrate HNO3 – H2O2 digester mixture and inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectroscopy was used. Highest content of As, Cd, Hg and Pb among all cultivars, were 0.5, 0.04, 1.5 and 0.5mg/kg of dried apricot samples. Fresh fruit samples also contain 0.2, 0.016, 0.6 and 0.2 mg/kg of Arsenic, Cadmium, Mercury and Lead respectively. Daily intake of metals, hazard quotient and health risk index to reveal health risk possibility of dried and fresh fruits consumption were calculate and compared.

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Preliminary results on salicylic acid treatment on brown rot caused by Monilinia laxa on Jumbo Cot fruit, Prunus armeniaca L.
Published July 25, 2013
37-39.

The effect of salicylic acid on reducing brown rot caused by Monilinia laxa infection in postharvest apricot fruit Prunus armeniaca L. Freshly harvest Jumpo Cot fruit were treated with water as control treatment and other group treated with salicylic acid 2 Mm as induced resistance treatment, Fruits were infected by M. laxa (1 × 10-3spores ml-...1) and incubated at 25 oC for 2, 4 and 6 days. Treatment fruits with salicylic acid resulted in direct effect on mycelial growth as in the salicylic acid treatment the growth reached to 45% after 6 days of incubation while in the control treatment it reached to 100%.

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Antioxidant characterization of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars and hybrids
Published October 11, 2005
47-51.

This report forms a part in our long-term study dedicated to reveal the antioxidant properties of apricot fruits through several years. Nineteen apricot cultivars and 8 hybrids were comparatively analysed. Total phenol content and antioxidant activity showed a good correlation. The tested cultivars and hybrids could be arranged in three groups ...representing different antioxidant activities, 12 entries were involved in the group with relatively low antioxidant capacity (FRAP value < 1500 mmol/L); 10 accessions were classified in the group with medium antioxidant capacity (1500 mmol/L < FRAP value < 3000 mmol/L); and 5 genotypes were grouped to the category of high antioxidant value (FRAP > 3000 mmol/L). `Morden 604' produced a surpassingly outstanding antioxidant character. H-donating ability has further supported our results. Phenolic substances were accumulated and ferric reducing ability was increased in the ripe fruits compared to the unripe ones. High levels of variations in the total phenol content and antioxidant capacity in of apricot fruits were revealed in this study. Environment, year or rootstocks may also influence the antioxidant properties of fruits. however it seems to be convincing that crossing parents with outstanding antioxidant character can produce hybrids with higher antioxidant capacity. Hungarian apricots are widely appreciated for their premium flavour and — as it was evidenced in this study — for their relatively good antioxidant properties. However, delicious fruits should be made functional foods having beneficial health effects through accumulating large amounts of antioxidant molecules in the fruit flesh.

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Genotyping Hungarian apricot cultivars for self-(in)compatibility by isoelectric focusing and PCR analysis
Published March 14, 2005
69-72.

Self-incompatibility (SI) in flowering plants is a widespread genetic system that promotes out-crossing. In Prunus species the SI is a gametophytic trait, which is controlled by a single multiallelic locus, termed S-locus. S-alleles codify stylar glycoproteins with ribonuclease activity (S-RNases). Our objective was to assess the S-genotype of ...some Hungarian apricot varieties by isoelectric focusing of stylar RNases as well as by PCR analysis using cherry consensus primers. Consensus primers amplified one or two bands of various sizes. Primers amplifying the 1st intron gained fragments the size of which ranged from 250 to 500 bp; while those amplifying the 2nd intron resulted in fragments of 800-2000 by length. Our data demonstrated that the first intron of the apricot S-RNase gene is shorter than the second one, which coincides with the structure of cherry S-RNase alleles. `Hargrand' (S1S2) and `Harcoe (S1S4) possessed one common S-RNase isoenzyme. Hungarian 'Orias' apricot cultivars showed different bands compared to the previous cultivars, but they shared completely identical patterns confirming that they possess the same S-genotype. 'Bergeron', `Harmat' and 'Korai zamatos' are characterised by an evidently distinct S-RNase pattern. The self-compatible cultivar (`Bergeron') had one allele, which suggests its correspondence to the Sc. Primers for the 2nd intron was unsuccessful in gaining fragments, which indicates that the 2nd intron in the Sc allele is too long to get any amplification. On the basis of our data, identities and differences were revealed in the S-allele constitution of some economically important Hungarian apricot cultivars at protein and DNA levels.

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Factors affecting apricot fruit antioxidant capacity and mineral element contents
Published March 25, 2009
95-99.

Several epidemiological studies revealed that the consumption of antioxidant compounds and the risk of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure or cancer are inversely proportional. The individual amounts and relative proportions of macro- and micro elements present in food is also of great consideration since these are involved in a wide rang...e of physiological processes including the influence of the redox homeostasis. The antioxidant power and mineral nutrient content of fruits might be affected by several factors including genotype, ripening stage, year-effects or a wide range of environmental conditions. This study was carried out to survey the antioxidant power and mineral element content in fresh fruits of apricot and analyse some genetic and environmental factors that may have important contribution to the inner content of apricot fruits. In addition, the influencing effect of the extraction procedure used for antioxidant analyses was also tested. Our analyses indicate that a considerable fraction of antioxidant capacity is attributable to the hydrophilic antioxidants. The genetic background has crucial importance in determining apricot fruit antioxidant capacity and mineral nutrient content; however, the growing season and the ripening time of fruits may have also important effects.

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Evaluation of foreign apricot cultivars in Hungary
Published August 13, 2004
51-55.

The extension and renewal of cultivar assortment is one of the key elements in the improvement of apricot production. Competitiveness can only be achieved by planting cultivars which meet all market requirements and yield reliably under the environmental conditions of the given production site. Beside breeding programmes, the range of cultivars... can also be extended by the domestication of foreign cultivars. Most apricot cultivars have low ecological tolerance, therefore, cultivars improved or developed in other countries should only be involved in production after due consideration. The suitability of such cultivars has to be examined for several years. Foreign apricot cultivars have been tested in our cultivar collection for over 10 years. Hereby, the most important aspects of market value and the adaptability to the environmental conditions of the production site are demonstrated. According to the results of our examinations the production of early ripening 'Orange Red' and `Goldrich' can be promising in Hungary. From cultivars ripening in the peak season only those are expected to be widely produced which differ from Hungarian cultivars or surplus them in some respects. From the cultivars examined 'Harogem' which ripens at the same time as `Gönci magyar kajszi' has remarkably aesthetic fruits with glossy surface, while the large fruits of `Hargrand' has firm pulp. Late ripening cultivars have significant importance in the northern border of production. According to our examinations the cultivars 'Callatis', `Comandor and `Sirena' are applicable in Hungary to extend the harvesting season.

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Changing of inert content values of apricot varieties
Published March 2, 2010
39-41.

The consumers have been exigent increasingly about excellent quality. The speci fie flavour and fragrance of apricot evolve during ripening. We need to be acquainted with changing of inert content during ripening to the choosing of optimal harvest time. The Regional University Knowled ge Centre -Research and Development in Foodstuff Chain proje...ct had presented an opportun ity to study the inner content of apricot. Our aim was to study evaluation of health care attributes of apricot fruit. We investigated different ripeness samples of four apricot varieties ('Mandulakajszi', 'Pann 6nia', 'Gonci magyar kajszi'. 'Harcot') in our study of 2007-2009. Samples were taken the orchard of Sóskútfruct Ltd. Hungary. We had measured the water soluble antioxidant capacity, polyphenol-, f3-carotene content and the dissimilar sugar­ and acid-fractions during ripening. We had experienced significant different in inert content between varieties.

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Inheritance of male sterility in apricot
Published September 11, 2001
12-14.

Progenies (total of 1,114 seedlings) from crosses representing all possible genotypic combinations between 4 male-fertile and 1 male-sterile apricot parents were scored for the male sterility trait. Crosses between putative heterozygous normal cultivars yielded 25% of male-sterile seedlings, which supports a previous hypothesis that male steril...ity is controlled by a recessive allele of one nuclear locus. Crosses between those parents and putative homozygous normal cultivars did not produce any male-sterile tree. Finally, the proportion of male-sterile progeny in crosses between a male-sterile and two male-fertile cultivars depended on the genotype of the male parent. When it was heterozygous approximately 50% of the progeny was sterile, whereas when a homozygous fertile parent was used, no male-sterile progeny was obtained. These results confirm a previously proposed model, in which the male sterility trait in apricot is controlled by a single recessive gene.

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Levels of some micronutrient in dried and fresh fruit samples of apricot cultivars
Published April 25, 2012
25-30.

Concentration of Boron (B), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn) and Zinc (Zn) was analyzed in fresh and dried fruit samples of “Jumbo cot“, “Tom cot“, “Gold strike“, “Gold bar“, “Bergeron“, “Bergrouge“, “Sweet cot“, “Yellow cot“ and “Zebra“ apricot cultivars. Concentration of the studied el...ements was strongly affected by cultivars. B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn content of “Tom cot“ was significantly higher than other cultivars. “Gold strike“ had the highest amount of Mg. Similar tendency was observed in “Zebra“ and “Sweet cot“ where Mn content was significantly higher than the other element contents.

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Morphological examination of Hungarian apricot rootstock varieties
Published June 20, 2006
59-63.

Apricot seedlings are one of the most widely used rootstocks in apricot growing of Hungary. The National List of Hungary contains 7 apricot seedling rootstocks varieties. The production of apricot graft on seedling rootstock takes 3 years from the seed production to the complete graft and requires more space. It is important to provide the true...ness to variety name during this process. In the genus Prunoideae not only the plant but also the stone should have typical characteristics. It seems to be useful to examine the morphology of stone. The observed varieties were 'Tengeribarack C.1300', 'Tengeribarack C.1301', 'Tengeribarack C.1650', 'Tengeribarack' C.1652', 'Tengeribarack C.145', 'Tengeribarack C.1426' and 'Tengeribarack C.2546`.1t seems to be the most suitable characteristic to make a distinction between these varieties by stone, the ratio height of stone to lateral width of stone, the ratio of height of stone to ventral width of stone, the ratio of lateral width of stone to ventral width of stone and the ratio of ventral zone to ventral width. From not measured characteristic seems to be most utilizable to make distinction: the fusion of dorsal groove margins, the shape of apex, the presence of a mucro of the apex, the shape of stalk end in lateral view and the texture of lateral surfaces.

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Effect of modified atmosphere package on apricot fruit storability
Published December 9, 2018
30-32.

The aim of this work was to study the effect of modified atmosphere package (MAP) on apricot storability. Apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivar Jumbo cot were harvested at commercial ripening stage. The fruits were treated with different storage treatments as following: i) control storage for 13 days at 1 °C, ii) stored fruit at 1 ...C for 10 days then 3 days at shelf at 25 °C, iii) fruit stored in MAP at 1 °C for 13 days and iv) fruit stored in MAP at 1 °C for 10 days then 3 days at shelf at 25 °C. Data showed the positive effect of MAP in keeping the apricot fruit for long time with better quality than the control fruit. MAP showed positive effect by recording the lowest fruit weight loss, the highest firmness and lowest chilling injury and fruit decay.

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Flower bud differentiation in apricot
Published December 8, 2008
19-21.

The flower bud development is an especially complex process from initiation to blooming. Our main objective was to analyze paradormancy; the first stage of this process in our collection of varieties in the vicinity of Budapest, in Hungary. We have analyzed three varieties with different winter hardiness. `Ceglédi bíborkajszi' is one of the m...ost frost susceptible in our collection of varieties, when the flower bud differentiation started in early August, and all flower organ initials evolved in beginning of September. The flower bud differentiation of the most winter hardy variety, `Rózsakajszi C.1406' started in the end of August, and all flower organs were noticed at middle of September. `Gönci magyar kajszi' is a medium frost hardiness apricot variety, its phenological process composes transition between two mentioned above varieties.

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Floral bud development, blooming time and fertility relations of some Romanian apricot varieties in Hungary
Published June 6, 2000
41-43.

Due to the geographical situation of Hungary the introduction of late ripening apricot varieties holds great interest. In apricot production floral bud development during winter, blooming time, and the fertilisation properties are important factors. These characters were studied in six late ripening Romanian apricot varieties (Callatis, Com...andor, Litoral, Selena, Sirena, Sulmona) in Szigetcsép representing the northern site of the lowland growing area. During the mild winter of 1997/98 the dynamics of floral bud development in the Romanian varieties was a few days slower during the whole examination period compared to Gönci magyar kajszi. Their meiotic divisions occurred between 1 and 5 February. Next winter the meiotic division started later at 28 February, due to the cold weather. In these conditions the dynamics of bud development was similar in all the varieties. Averaged over seven years blooming of the Romanian varieties started 1-3 days later than in Gönci magyar kajszi. All the Romanian varieties showed self-fertility to some extent, however, application of other pollen donor sources is necessary for the safety of production, with the exception of Callatis.

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