In this paper, important features of symptoms, biology and biological disease management are summarised for brown rot blossom blight fungi of pome and stone fruit crops (Monilinia laxa, Monilinia fructicola and Monilinia mali). Firstly, European brown rot caused by Monilinia laxa is discussed highlighting the blossom...epidemiology features, then host susceptibility of the most important stone fruit species including several Hungarian and international cultivars. At the end of this chapter, recent biological control possibilities against Monilinia laxa are also included. Secondly, American brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola is discussed. Symptoms, biological features of blossom blight and host susceptibility of flowers to Monilinia fructicola are demonstrated. Finally, the symptoms and the biology of the least frequent species, Monilinia mali are shown.
In a two-year Hungarian study, the temporal progress of brown rot incidence and various injury types were studied in organic fruit orchards and the relationship between brown rot and injury types was determined. Results showed that brown rot reached an almost 20% incidence level in both years. Total injury incidence reached up to 5.3 and 19.8%...in the two years. In all cases, insect injury incidence was the highest among injury types in most assessment dates. Incidence levels of other injury types (bird injury, mechanical injury and other injury) began to increase, but none of those reached levels >4%. Pearson’s correlation coefficients showed that brown rot incidence correlated significantly with the incidence of insect injury. In addition, brown rot incidence and the incidence levels of bird injuries was also significantly correlated. High injury and brown rot incidence levels suggest further improvements on organic fruit protection.
In this two-year study, postharvest decays of pear, apricot, sour cherry and peach cultivars under two storage methods (TC and CA) were determined after four monthes storage periods; and then causal agents of postharvest decays of two pear cultvars were idenfified under traditional cold storage conditions. Results showed that postharvest decay...was lower under controlled atmosphere compared to traditional cold one. Decay was lower on pear and the largest deacy occured on peach and apricot cultivars. Cultivars of fruit species also showed differences in incidence of fruit decays. Incidence of decays was independent on year effect. Under controlled atmosphere, postharvest decay ranged between 0 an 8% for pear, and between 5 and 12% for apricot, and between 6 and 11% for sour cherry, and between 5 and 15% for peach. Under traditional cold storage, postharvest decay ranged between 16 an 21% for pear, and between 15 and 39% for apricot, and between 10 and 22% for sour cherry, and between 19 and 33% for peach. Incidence of pear fruit damage ranged between 7.5 and 12.3%. Most damage started from injured fruit or wounded fruit. Five types of damage occurred ont he pear fruits in both years: Penicillium spp., Monilinia spp., Chondrostereum spp., other pathogens and mechanical injury. The most common damage was caused by Penicillium spp., Monilina spp. and Chondrostereum spp. On both pear cultivars in both years.
In a two-year Hungarian study, spore dispersal diurnal periodicity and viability of Monilinia spp. and their relation to weather components were determined in an organic apple orchard. Conidia of Monilinia spp. were first trapped in late May in both years. Low number of conidia were trapped until end-June. Thereafter, number of conidia continuo...usly increased until harvest. Conidia in a 24-h period showed diurnal periodicity pattern, with th highest concentration in the afternoon hours. Spore viability with FDA staining showed that viability of
conidia ranged from 45 to 70% with showing lower viability in the dry than in the wet days in both years. Temperature and relative humidity correlated positively with mean hourly conidia numbers in both years. Mean hourly rainfall was negatively but poorly correlated with conidiacatches in both years. Results were compared and discussed with previous observations.
In this three-year study, incidence of brown rot (Monilinia spp.) on fruit of plum and apricot cultivars were evaluated in Kecskemét, Hungary. Results showed that most plum and apricot cultivars expressed symptoms caused by Monilinia spp, graded between 2 and 4 (10–75%) by the end of the summer in 2008–2010. Assessments on plum showed that... only cultivars ‘Besztercei’, ‘Silvia’ and ‘Tuleu gras’ were partly tolerant to Monilinia spp., while the most susceptible cultivars were ‘Bluefre’ and ‘Stanley’. The most tolerant apricot cultivars were ‘Borsi-féle kései rózsa’, ‘Piroska’, ‘Pannónia’ and ‘Magyar kajszi’ while the most susceptible ones were cvs. ‘Budapest’ and ‘Mandulakajszi’. Susceptibility classes showed that only one plum (’Silvia’) and one apricot cultivar (‘Borsi-féle kései rózsa’) were available with low susceptibility.
In this study, the effect of early latent infection caused by Monilina spp. on harvest and postharvest brown rot of sour cherry and peach was investigated. Two field experiments were performed in commercial orchards located at Eperjeske on sour cherry and at Siófok on peach in 2013 and 2014 in order to study the possible relationship between t...he incidence of early latent infection caused by Monilinia spp. and the incidence of harvest and postharvest brown rot. No latent infection was recorded at popcorn phanological stage of the trees at both locations. The maximum incidence was detected during the pit hardening period. There was a positive correlation between the incidence of latent infection and harvest or postharvest brown rot. The average incidence of latent infection during the crop season explained approximatelly 20% of the total variation in the incidence of postharvest brown rot.
Plant disease epidemiology provides the key to both a better understanding of the nature of a disease and the most effective approach to disease control. Brown rot fungi (Monilinia spp.) cause mainly fruit rot, blossom blight and stem canker which results in considerable yield losses both in the field and in the storage place. In order... to provide a better disease control strategy, all aspects of brown rot fungi epidemiology are discribed and discussed in the second part of this review. The general disease cycle of Monilinia fructigena„M. laxa, M. fructicola and Monilia polystroma is described. After such environmental and biological factors are presented which influence the development of hyphae, mycelium, conidia, stroma and apothecial formation. Factors affecting the ability of brown rot fungi to survive are also demonstrated. Then spatio-temporal dynamics of brown rot fungi are discussed. In the last two parts, the epidemiology of brown rot fungi was related to disease warning models and some aspects of disease management.
In the third part of this review, important features of disease management are summarised for brown rot fungi of fruit crops (Monilinia fructigena, Monilinia laxa, Monilinia fructicola and Monilia polystroma). Several methods of brown rot disease management practices were collected and interpreted in five main chapters. In the...se chapters, details are given about the legislative control measures, the cultural, physical, biological and chemical control methods. Chemical control is divided into two parts: pre-harvest and post-harvest chemical control. In addition, host resistance and fungicide resistance statuses are also included in this part of the review. Finally, future aspects of brown rot disease control are discussed.
The brown rot fungi of fruit crops (Monilinia spp.): Important features of their biology (Review paper)
The aim of this study was first to test the in vitro effeicacy of some fungicides against brown rot of sour cherry, and secondly to evaulate the effectiveness of reduced spray programmes against brown rot in integrated and organic sour cherry orchards. In vitro efficacy of 7 fungicides (Champion 50 WP, Kocide 2000, Nordox 75 WG, Olajos rézkén..., Kumulus S, Rézkén, Rézoxiklorid) and another 6 fungicides (Score 25 EC, Efuzin 500 SC, Systane, Folicur Solo, Zato Plusz, Rovral) approved in organic and integrated production systems, respectively, were tested against brown rot of sour cherry. Altogether four spray programmes were performed i) standard integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems during the season, ii) reduced integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems but only 75% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme, iii) standard oragnic: sprays applied every 7–14 days during the season and iv) reduced organic: 60% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme. In vitro results showed that fungicides (with active ingredients of copper and sulphur) applied in organic production showed relatively high percent growth capacity of Monilinia fungus. Rézkén showed the highest and Kumilus S the lowest efficacy against brown rot. Fungicides applied in integrated production showed relatively low percent growth capacity of Monilinia fungus. Score 25 EC showed the highest and Rovral the lowest efficacy against brown rot. Field study showed that reduced spray programmes did not increase significantly brown rot incidence in the integrated field. However, brown rot incidence increased significanly (above 30%) in the reduced spray programme for the organic orchard.