Angel's trumpet (Danira = Brugmansia arhorea) is a common, popular ornamental plant in Hungary. On the basis of thin layer chromatographic and densitometric alkaloid studies of leaf and flower samples collected from several places in Somogy and Baranya counties it can be stated that in samples of cultivars with different flower colour, taken approximately at the same time, the atropine and scopolamine content varies: there are samples free of alkaloids, but most of them are rich in alkaloids. Although the means do not reflect the extremes, they are suitable for determining the alkaloid accumulating capacity of flowers. Generally the amount of atropine and scopolamine is significant both in the leaf and the flower. It is conspicuous that the flower can be characterised by an extremely high scopolamine content (mean in mg/g dry matter of leaf: atropine 0.34, scopolamine 0.31; of flower: atropine 0.26, scopolamine 0.85). Thus it can be stated that the leaf, and especially the flower of angel's trumpet is a potential hallucinogen, just like in the case of Datura stramonium.
The importance of hydro-cultural growing is significantly increasing.We have been dealing with the hydro-cultural growing of cut flowers at the Department of Ornamental Plant Growing and Maintenance of Gardens at the College Faculty of Horticulture at Kecskemét College since 1988.We started our experiments by growing carnation in growing establishment without soil then we introduced other species of cut flowers and potted ornamental plants into our research work.
Polymerase chain reaction driven by sequence specific primers has become the most widely used diagnostic method to detect and identify plant pathogens. The sensitive and cost-effective pathogen detection is exceptionally important in the production of propagating material. In this paper we have collected primer sequence data from the literature for the detection of the most important grapevine pathogens disseminated by propagating stocks by conventional polymerase chain reaction. Basic protocols to obtain template nucleic acids have also been briefly rewieved.
The percentage of dark staining pollen grains was higher in spring of 1996 than in the previous year. Data in 1998 resemble those of 1995, concerning the large amount of medium staining pollen grains in the majority of clones. Some clones produced excellent quality pollen also in the third year. whereas there were significant differences in other clones in various years.
The warmer February-March period in 1995 induced an early blooming, and frost affected the orchard not only in winter months, but also immediately before and during blooming. Thus, frost was the possible cause of weaker quality pollen this year. In 1996 warming began a bit late, but it was not broken by drastic falls in temperature, except for the middle of April, when a smaller frost affected the orchard. It is likely that this frost did not influence pollen quality of `Besztercei' and 'Early Besztercei' plum clones significantly. In 1998 warming was continuous and steady, the orchard was not affected by frost immediately before blooming. In March, however, there was frost almost every day, according to daily minimum temperatures.
The presence of phloretin-glycosides in the hypanthium and pistil of apple and pear flowers can be verified. Thin layer chromatography is a reliable method for detecting phloretin, gained by acidic hydrolysis. The dominance of phloretin was equally characteristic for flowers in apple (`Sampion', 'Freedom') and pear (Tem-re Bosc', 'Conference') cultivars treated with various bioregulators (Biomit, Bion 50WG, Regalis), no significant difference could be found visually as compared to control samples. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid was detected in all apple and pear samples, rutin was present only in pear, and hyperoside was found only in a few apple samples.
The minirhizotron system gives opportunity to study the root development without disturbing the soil and root. We have found certified differences in root development during the year 2013 among the rootstocks grafted on ‘Cabernet sauvignon’. The number of roots varied according to the rootstocks in different depth of soil layers and also varied the development of ripeness of the root system. We conclude that root system development is affected by soil physical and chemical properties, but differences according to the rootstock genotype on the similar type of soil exist.
The composition of floral nectar in sour cherry cultivars studied in 1997 at Újfehértó was in agreement with our previous data, the three most frequent sugar components being glucose, fructose and sucrose. Nectar secreted at night is generally more diluted than nectar produced during the day. None of the nectar samples produced at night reached the threshold value (100 mg/ml) of bee visitation. In the majority of cultivars the difference in concentration between night and day nectar is not too high, but in two cultivars, 'Korai pipacs' and ‘Újfehértói fürtös’ the difference is quite significant. Most sucrose was found in the nectar of cvs. 'Érdi jubileum' and ‘Újfehértói fürtös’, but a high amount of sucrose was measured also in the flowers of 'Korai pipacs' and 'Meteor USA'. Nectar concentration varies from opening of the flower to petal fall to a smaller or greater degree, depending on the given cultivar. From the 9 sour cherry cultivars studied ‘Újfehértói fürtös’ and Tandy 48' had the most attractive nectar for bees. There was no correlation between nectar composition and free fertilisation. On the basis of nectar composition the majority of the sour cherry cultivars studied can be classified into the sucrose-rich category; only one cultivar, 'Érdi jubileum' had a sucrose-dominant secretory product. The composition of nectar in the studied sour cherry cultivars is preferred by bees.
Nectar is a multi-component aqueous solution that promotes bacterial multiplication. The concentration of nectar in plant flowers is not stable since it is under the influence of environmental conditions, especially free moisture and relative humidity. Experiments were conducted with "artificial nectar" and directed along two lines: (1) determination of the optimal concentrations of carbohydrates for the growth of E. amylovora development (2) consumption of different carbohydrates besides basic sugars.
Solutions of "artificial nectar" were prepared in different compositions by changing the dominance of basic sugars (fructose — glucose —sucrose) in proportions of 2:1:1, 1:2:1, 1:1:2 and between concentrations of 10-0.6% (diluted with Basal minimum broth) in order to determine optimal conditions for the development of E. amylovora.
At a basic sugar concentration of 10% bacterial multiplication started and continued until I log degree (from 106 to 107 cfu/ml). At concentrations of 5% and 2,5 % cells developed with nearly the same kinetics (from 106 to 8x107 cfu/ml and from 106 to 9x107 cfu/ml, respectively). Multiplication was more pronounced and nearly the same at concentrations of 1.2 % and 0.6 % (from106 to 2x108 cfu/ml). At a basic sugar concentration 30% total sugars bacterial multiplication did not occur, while at 20 % it was negligible, not measurable photometrically.
At minimal concentrations of F, G, S (between 1-0.1 %) bacterial cells were still able to multiply, producing organic acids from sugars.
Our study showed that E. amylovora requires only a small amount of sugars (0.1%) for multiplication (acid production) while high concentrations inhibit multiplication. There was a negative correlation between sugar content and cell density. The optimal range of sugar concentration was at about 1%.
Effect of "less frequent carbohydrates" to E. amylovora multiplication was also determined using the API 50 CH strip. We could provide information on utilization of 39 carbohydrates by the bacterium at different categories as follows: Not utilized-, Slowly and weakly utilized-, Slowly and completely utilized-, Quickly and completely utilized carbohydrates. We suppose that carbohydrates that belong to the latter two groups could play an important role as nectar components in promoting E. amylovora multiplication in the blossoms of pome fruit trees.
Grey mould (Botrytis cinerea Pers.) is a pathogenic fungus which causes damage to the production of grapevine nursery plant materials especially on the stored canes or on graftings during the callusing period. The conditions, increased temperature and humidity, are ideal for the pathogen during the pre-forcing stage and in the storage Botrytis cinerea can easily infect the outbursting buds as large amounts of grapevine canes are stored in a relatively small place. The fungicide-based management is general in the prevention of gray rot infection but the palette of authorised chemical compounds is narrowed year by year due to the regulations of the European Union. Our aim is to develop an eco-friendly method which combines the use of natural materials with techniques used in organic farming. Effect of the ultraviolet-c light on the Botrytis cinerea was studied. The development characteristics of the pathogen were examined under daylight and dark conditions and experiments were set up with cow’s milk and acetic acid. UV-C light destroyed the developed conidia, however, the radiation stimulates the development of immature propagules. Larger quantities of conidiophores and conidia were formed in daylight compared to culture in the dark, while different conditions did not signifi cantly change the mycelial growth characteristics. The developed bacteria prevented the spread of pathogen mycelia during the test with cow’s milk in Petri dishes, although the smooth development of propagules that occurred did not change the vitality of the fungal colony. Furthermore the growth of Botrytis cinerea fungus mycelia was strongly inhibited by acetic acid.
Hourly nectar secretion was studied in five pear cultivars between 1997-1999. Some cultivars (e.g. ‘Csákvári téli') secreted nectar continuously during the whole day, offering both nectar and pollen for pollinating insects. Discontinuous secretion (e.g. cvs. ‘Viki', `Nyárig tartó 6/19') is less advantageous from the viewpoint of insect attraction. In some cases, however, discontinuity or continuity of nectar secretion varied even within a cultivar (e.g. 'Solymári cukor', ’Jó szürke’) in different years.
Floral biological characteristics that may influence cultivar susceptibility to fire blight were studied in 10 pear cultivars in two Hungarian orchards from 1999 to 2003. The receptaculo-ovarial, automorphic nectary is usually bigger in tolerant cultivars than in susceptible ones. Nectary stomata are meso- or xeromorphic. Susceptible cultivars tend to have more xeromorphic stomata, where guard cells are located 1-3 cell rows below the epidermis. The size of nectar chambers is usually smaller in susceptible cultivars. Floral nectar, consisting mainly of glucose and fructose, is more abundant and less concentrated if the cultivar is susceptible to fire blight. The amount of chlorogenic acid was higher in the flowers of tolerant cultivars than in susceptible ones.
The situation of the horticulture sectors have been in the limelight of the professional and economic decision makers all over Europe. This article analyses the situation of the sector from economic point of view and reveals the main reasons of its low income and high risk. It concludes that one of the biggest problems is the trading uncertainty in the vegetable and fruit sector that is caused by the asymmetric market structure of the post-regime era. Since sizes of vegetable and fruit plantations do not allow producers to supply individually the extremely concentrated food retail trade or the processing trade they must find alternative ways for trading their products. The study introduces two alternative solutions. One alternative is foundation of modern multi-level producer co-operatives with the help of EU subsidies. Secondary and tertiary co-operatives may achieve better market position and lower trading price risk with managing production, professional marketing, and improving the information flow. The other alternative is searching for new trading channels such as local provision, restructuring of local markets, and direct trade (home delivery and pick-it-yourself programmes). The shorter producer-consumer distance means better quality at lower price for customers and income in the case of smaller amount of products for producers. It is concluded that both solutions together or separately may help individual producers in their trading problems. However, whichever way they choose, producers must co-operate.
In the EU-horticulture is treated with special care. As far as its regulation is concerned, different orders are in force to single branches. The regulation of the branch of medicinal plants is related chiefly to the processing, because the overwhelming part of the basic material is to be imported. More preoccupation falls to the ornamental plant branch, although both the production and the turnover are controlled by the market. Irrespective of this fact, the quality standards are high. Also the production and the sale relations are carefully circumscribed, with special regard to the processing procedures. In the control of the quality an important role devolves on the producers' organizations, likely in our country on the so-called TESZ-es (Cooperatives for production and sale). In this regard the domestic prescriptions took much over of the EU practices.
The structure of sales in vegetable and fruit branches is continously changing, the demands of the consumers are more and more satisfied by the super- and hypermarkets. Their marketing organizations offer almost the half of the total of quantity commodities. In consent with the processing industry they raise quite severe requirements to producers. These requirements are to be taken into account also among our circumstances. There is a similar situation valid in the viticulture and winery. Within these branches we are able to compete on good chances of adapting our regulations to those of the EU. In this area there falls also responsibility to our vine-growing communities. Particulary a watch must be kept over the reputation of our renown quality wines and the results already achieved must be protected.
The competent ministries — at first the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development — has already shown great flexibility to the desires in regard to the expectable legal harmonization. The legislative, registrative and controlling activities are to be continued in this mentality.
Floral activity was studied in two apple cultivars: an Erwinia-tolerant (Treedorn') and a sensitive one (`Sampion'). Since more types of protogyny occur in apples, the period of stigma activity is different. Papillae of the exposed stigma in flowers of 'Freedom' function longer (usually more than a week) than in the delayed homogamous `Sampion'. Despite of this, cv. 'Freedom' is tolerant to Erwinia amylovora (Burr.) Winslow et al., suggesting no relationship between the floral biological type (including the exposure and longevity of stigma) and the infection by E. amylovora. According to SEM micrographs, nectary stomata in `Freedom' are already open in the flower bud, where nectar secretion starts and continues until the senescence of the stigma. However, the long period of nectar secretion does not create optimal conditions for bacterial growth, since nectar production is scant in the flowers of 'Freedom'. The surface of the nectary, its nectar-retaining capacity, and the amount and concentration of nectar may influence the susceptibility of apple cultivars. It is manifested well by the smooth nectary surface with nectary stomata rising slightly above the epidermis in flowers of cv. 'Freedom', contrasting the wrinkled, striate nectary surface with slightly sunken stomata in the flowers of 'Sampion'.
The conditions of the cultivation of marketable cherries are diverse. Choosing the production site on the basis of the climatic conditions, selecting the most appropriate variety taking into account the region and the purpose of the production, utilization of the optimal production method, to ensure the required water and nutrients supply, frost and hail protection techniques, modern technology in crop protection, and professional performance of harvesting and handling, to name just a few of the most important issues. The objective of present study is to determine the qualitative characteristics of the UNITEC cherry sorting machine.
On the basis of a six-year experiment a method was elaborated for forcing and off-seasons growing of tulips, narcissus and gladioli under frameless plastic cover. The advantages of this cheap energy-saving method are manifested in an improved quality of flowers and essentially in the earlier flowering. With this method mostly first-class flowers can be obtained immediately after the season of forcing in heated constructions with plastic cover, and anticipated outdoor flowering.
The possibilities of applying the method are studied on further ornamental plant species (other bulbous plants, Paeonia lactiflora, annual ornamentals).
In Hungary, detection of virus and virus-like diseases of grapevine began in 1960's at the Research Institute for Viticulture and Enology by János Lehoczky and his colleagues. At present, sixteen virus and virus-like diseases of Vitis vinifera are known to occur in Hungary.
Regular virological screening of grapevine varieties started in 1972. The present system of screening (visual selection, indexing, ELISA) has been established using methods with continuous improvement according to recommendations of international organizations.
In the first year symptomless grapevine plants are selected and marked during surveys carried out twice in the vegetation period: at about flowering and in the second half of September. At the first selection time plants are sampled for ELISA.
In the spring of the second year, overwintered canes are checked by woody indexing on 8 indicator species in the field.
In the third and fourth years the nursery is evaluated twice again. At the end, the marked grapevine plants, giving negative results on all indicators in every case, are considered virus-free.
In autumn of the fourth year, the virus-free material is planted out under screenhouse and also in a special mother block (nuclear stock) for maintenance and propagation.
Mother blocks of virus-free scion varieties have been established on 2 ha and those of rootstock varieties on 0.5 ha planted with the following number of varieties included in the national list: 71 European scion — and 12 rootstock varieties or variety candidates/clones. It is necessary to increase the area of Pre-base, Base and Certified stocks exclusively with tested virus-free (clean) material.
The study took place in the largest sweet cherry plantation in West Hungary. The purpose has been the identification of those varieties, which will be suitable for intense cultivation, early fruiting and excellent fruit quality, moreover, the selection of the optimal phytotechnical procedures. At the same time, scion-rootstock combinations have been tested also from the point of view of growing intensity and fruiting in high-density plantation. The dense planting is induced to start fruiting early and yield regularly by special methods.Yielding was stimulated by maintaining the balance of vegetative-generative growth by binding the shoots, by summer pruning, by cuts on the trunk and root pruning. Best experiences have been found in yield and quality in the following varieties: Canada Giant, Carmen, Firm Red, Giant Red, Katalin, Kordia, Regina. Dense planting has been feasible also on vigorous rootstock, like P. mahaleb. Dwarfing rootstocks like P-HL-A, Gisela 6, accelerate the formation of flower buds and yielding earlier with fruits of adequate size. ‘Firm Red’ and ‘Giant Red’ excelled with their large fruit (>27 mm diameter) in all combinations, thus being promising under Hungarian conditions.
The regularities of primary attractivity have been studied at the pear cultivar `Cinderi' for two years. Nectar quickly evaporates from the totally open nectary surface of pear flowers exposed to environmental effects, and the rhythmicity of nectar secretion can be determined with difficulty. Flowers do not function according to a unified endogenous rhythm, the whole tree becomes continuously attractive for insects, since it attracts insects on more occasions during the day with some of its flowers. During the warm afternoon hours there is usually no measurable nectar production. Pollen shedding is most intensive in the afternoon hours. Pear flowers produce little and diluted nectar, which often does not come up to apicultural expectations. The age of the flower does not significantly affect the quantity and refraction of nectar. The flowers of pear cv. ‘Cinderi' are delayed homogamous.
Several grapevine pathogens are disseminated by propagating material as systemic, but latent infections. Their detection and identification have a basic importance in the production and handling of propagating stocks. Thus several sensitive and reliable diagnostic protocols mostly based on molecular techniques have been developed. Of these methods quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR) has recently got an emerging importance. Here we collected primer data for the detection and identification of grapevine pathogens which are important in the production of propagating stocks by q-PCR. Additional novel techniques that use DNA amplification, hybridization and sequencing are also briefly reviewed.