In a two-year Hungarian study, the temporal progress of brown rot incidence and various injury types were studied in organic fruit orchards and the relationship between brown rot and injury types was determined. Results showed that brown rot reached an almost 20% incidence level in both years. Total injury incidence reached up to 5.3 and 19.8% ...in the two years. In all cases, insect injury incidence was the highest among injury types in most assessment dates. Incidence levels of other injury types (bird injury, mechanical injury and other injury) began to increase, but none of those reached levels >4%. Pearson’s correlation coefficients showed that brown rot incidence correlated significantly with the incidence of insect injury. In addition, brown rot incidence and the incidence levels of bird injuries was also significantly correlated. High injury and brown rot incidence levels suggest further improvements on organic fruit protection.
In a two-year Hungarian study, spore dispersal diurnal periodicity and viability of Monilinia spp. and their relation to weather components were determined in an organic apple orchard. Conidia of Monilinia spp. were first trapped in late May in both years. Low number of conidia were trapped until end-June. Thereafter, number of conidia continuo...usly increased until harvest. Conidia in a 24-h period showed diurnal periodicity pattern, with th highest concentration in the afternoon hours. Spore viability with FDA staining showed that viability of conidia ranged from 45 to 70% with showing lower viability in the dry than in the wet days in both years. Temperature and relative humidity correlated positively with mean hourly conidia numbers in both years. Mean hourly rainfall was negatively but poorly correlated with conidiacatches in both years. Results were compared and discussed with previous observations.
In this study, we aimed to report a preliminary study on micro area based spatial distribution of Monilinia fructigena in an organic apple orchard. Results showed that number of symptomatic fruit ranged between 22 and 42 in 2013 and between 25 and 35 in 2014. Number of asymptomatic fruit ranged between 111 and 187 in 2013 and between 119 and 16...7 in 2014. Disease incidence of fruit ranged between 19.7 and 23.2% in 2013 and between 19.1 and 26.5% in 2014. Disease aggregation index ranged between 0.111 and 0.335 in 2013 and between 123 and 401 in 2014. Three of the four trees showed significant within canopy aggregation of disease for fruit brown rot symptoms in both years. However, the remaining one tree exhibited random patterns during both years. Disease aggregation indicated a disease spread by fruit-to-fruit contact and/or an aggregated pattern of insect damage.
In this study, we aimed to study ascospore dispersal of Venturia inaequalis and subsequent disease development in an organic apple orchard (Eperjeske) in 2012 and 2013 on apple cultiva ’Mutsu). Burkard spore trap in March and April were used to monitior ascospore concentration and number of scab symptoms were assesed 20 May in both years. Thr...ee peaks were detected in ascospore dispersal in the period of examination which was clearly related to the Mills infection periods. On the basis of the incubation period’s length in April (15–18 days), the appearance of first symptoms had direct connection with the peak of the ascospore discharge. The largest number of symptoms were observed on those parts of the orchards where where the inoculum sources were accumulated.
Effects of two widely used sanitation practices were evaluated at farm-scale level on leaf degradation and primary infection by Venturia inaequalis in an organic apple orchard (Eperjeske) on two apple cultivars (Jonathan and Prima) from 2011 to 2013. The tested sanitation practices were eradication of fallen leaves by collection and disc cultiv...ation. Treatments of eradication of fallen leaves by collection and disc cultivation reduced signifi cantly (P< 0.001) leaf litter density with 70–85 and 40–55%, respectively, compared to untreated plots in both years. Above treatments in the same order reduced spring scab incidence with 40–50, and 10–20%, respectively, compared to untreated plots. Incidence of leaf scab in autumn was not signifi cantly lower (P< 0.05) in the treatments in the years.
In this study, the susceptibility of 7 commercially important sour cherry cultivars to Monilinia laxa was studied. Artificial inoculation was made with M. laxa isolates, which were isolated from different woody plants. Artificial inoculation was prepared in the laboratory and in the field. In laboratory, flowers of sour cherries while in the fi...eld, the two-year old twigs were inoculated in 2006 and 2007. According to results of stigmata inoculation, there were infection ability differences among the isolates originated from five different stone fruit host. Cultivars could be sorted into two susceptibility groups. In the field, twig inoculation in 2007 was made at blossom period and in 2007 at harvest. Seven sour cherry cultivars were inoculated with 8-day-old mycelial culture of M. laxa originated from sour cherry and almond. The agressivity and pathogenicity of the two isolates were measured by the degree of floem death: Results showed that year and phenological stage considerably influenced the degree of symptoms caused by the fungus. After artificial inoculation, tissue death progression was studied by fluorescent microscope. According to results, sour cherry cultivars were sorted into disease susceptibility groups. Susceptibility orders were identical to results on stigmata inoculation.