Self-fertility and fertility at conditions of open pollination in plum varieties is strictly determined by genetic factors. However, rates of fruit set are highly variable according to growing sites as well as to seasons, which may result from a couple of inner and outer conditions, but mainly from the method applied in seizing the facts of fer...tility in the experiments planned including the number of replications of treatments. During three successive years, 4-16 trees of each of the four plum varieties have been selected and 16-64 branches were tagged either for checking their fertility as pollinated freely or isolated excluding the access of foreign pollen. The data of fruit set have been processed in order to determine the variability of the data, subsequently, the number of replications necessary to make reliable decisions. Both autogamy and open pollination displayed multiple differences between branches and trees studied.
A number of 20 branches are needed yearly for each variety, the branches should be distributed on 5 trees at least for checking the autogamy, whereas on 10 trees for the results of open pollination. Each variety and treatment should be represented in three seasons, at least because of the different weather conditions.
Sour cherries developed in the northern hemisphere, an alloploid hybrid of dwarf sour cherries (Prunus fruticosa) and bird cherries (P. avium), born in the confluence of the two species. However, the ecological and, above all, cold tolerance of the ancestor of cultivated sour cherries is higher than that of wild cherries (De C...andolle, 1894; Rehder, 1954; Terpó, 1974; Iezzoni et al., 1991; Faust & Surányi, 1997). The cultivation limits are in the northern hemisphere 38-44. degree. The Carpathian Basin, the Balkans and Asia Minor are considered to be the main birthplaces for sour cherries. The genetic and morphological diversity of sour cherries is greater than that of the basic species (Iezzoni et al. 1991; Faust & Surányi, 1997). In the study, 472 sour cherry cultivars were compared based on 7 relative ecological indicators and 3 biological values. Compared to other Prunus species, we mostly found less variability in sour cherries - not counting their salt tolerance (SB). The partial similarity between open pollination (OP), frost tolerance (FR) and disease resistance (DR) - partly true in terms of varieties, but also reflected the effects of purposeful breeding and selection. The cultivars together - in comparison, showed balance, but in the highlighting, the differences of the 3 cultivar groups became significant. Indeed, the differences between the species of the former Hungarian cultural flora are clearly different (Surányi, 2004), which is also the case when comparing a large number of apricot (Surányi, 2014), plum (Surányi, 2015) and peach (Surányi, 2020) varieties.
The low productivity in the Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl) is related with self-incompatibility characteristics, so other species or varieties that act as pollinators need to be present to improve fruit production. The objective of this work was to study the efficiency of pollination in different genotypes of P. salicina ...m>using treatments of natural self-pollination, cross-pollination with P. armeniaca cv. Giada and open pollination. These treatments were evaluated through viability techniques and in vitro and in vivo germination of pollen grains; the growth of pollen tubes along the pistil was also observed. Genotypes used in this study showed differences for each one of the pollination treatments. Some genotypes showed signs of self-sterility and interincompatibility with P. armeniaca cv. Giada, while others showed partial self-fertility characteristics or pseudocompatibility. Moreover, some genotypes showed a higher affinity coefficient with cv. Giada and these will be indicating a possible intercompatibility. These studies will be an important contribution breeding and selection of intra and intercompatible genotypes to be used in commercial orchards.
The flowering phenology, blooming time and inter-fertility relations of 63 European plum varieties has been studied at growing sites with different ecological conditions during a 10 year long period. The purpose was to develop a system of variety combinations which approaches an optimum in fertility as long as inter-fertility relations will cea...se to be a limiting factor of yield. According to their blooming time, varieties are assigned to 5 groups: very early, early, medium, late and very late. As for their fertility relations, four groups are formed: self-sterile (0%), partially self-fertile (0.1 to 10 %), self-fertile (10.1 to 20 %) and highly self-fertile (more than 20 % fruit set with self pollination). The four categories of fruit set at free pollination are also relevant to the grower: low (less than 10 %), medium (10 to 20 %), high (20 to 40 %) and very high (more than 40 % fruit set).
By artificial cross pollination, one combination Cacanska najbolja x Stanley proved to be mutually inter-incompatible. Blocks planted to a single self-sterile variety flanking a pollinizer variety proved the spacial distribution of the pollen. The reduction in fruit set was already apparent in the second row away from the pollinizer trees. In a large plantation, without bee hives, relatively low yield was stated on self-sterile trees even close to the pollinizer.
In the case of self-sterile and partially self-fertile varieties, a combination of three varieties is recommended. The blooming period of the pollinizer variety should overlap the period of the self-sterile variety at least by 70 %, and the distance should not exceed 15 to 20 meters. Association of self-fertile varieties may also enhance the productivity of the trees. In that case an overlap of 50 % in blooming time and a maximum distance between the varieties of 30 to 40 meters will be sufficient.
The author post few years organizes the plum breeding program. He uses up earlier elaborated morphogenetic and productive characteristics and traits, already on such basis their selected 21 cultivars in the pomological garden at Cegléd. The Hungarian plum assortment and offer very specific and tight, thus that they endeavor, that the selection... before then flare. There are indicating already only the perspective cultivars in present paper on basis of gathered data one decade underneath. Paralleling control was three type of used (Besztercei szilva Bt. 2, Green gage and Stanley). 12-sort trait according to were compared the cultivars. The productivity-biological standpoints without, the open pollination and pollen germination, over and above that the ripening on date big differences appear. The near future the 'C. 1501' (Yellow Besztercei), 'Ontario' and `Mirabelle de Nancy' (yellow plums), the yes untimely `Precoce di Guigno' (red plum), the very well abundant 'C. 940' and Victoria (lilac plums), over and above that 'Beregi datolya', ‘Révfülöpi’ and `Szarvasi' (blue plums) cultivars setup suggest. The demonstrated cultivars out of further give for deputize value the Precoce di Giugno, as earliest ripening and the 'Beregi datolya' but the at the latest ripening.
The herbaceous plants organic characterize Ellenberg et al. worked out (1991), well-use system, which is updated with herbaceous and woody plant in the Hungarian flora species, so Soó (1964-1985), Zólyomi et al. (1967), Précsényi (1986) and Simon (1988) also addressed by different aspects of this problem circuits. The author is the first ex...tended-Borhidi –Ellenberg’s system of wild fruit species (Surányi 2000, 2006) and cultivated of fruit (Surányi 2014) as well. Additional considerations there were aspects of the study of fruit varieties, these biological indicators following open pollination, frost tolerance, resistance of Sharka virus and disease susceptibility for. Firstly, we introduced a system for improving it a plum species and cultivars (Surányi 2015). In this case we used the new system among species and varieties of apricots, because diversity was able to express significantly. Especially the SB, WB, NB, and the relative biological value figures showed the variety. RB (reaction figures) fluctuated only slightly among the 463 varieties, but the dynamic difference between the 11’s was an indicator for the characterization of apricots. If the comparison performed plum and apricot variety’s level anyway justified the use of 11 kinds of organic and biological indicators.