Effect of hail protecting nets on the quality of apples

Today, successful fruit growing depends largely on the security of production. Among the technological elements of a secure growing system, the use of hail protection nets serves special attention. Components of security are the regularity, conspicuous large yields with excellent quality, which determine the prices and profitability as well (Szabó et al., 2010). In the European Union, most of the apple growing countries produce higher yields by 10-20% than Hungary. The conditions of better yields are partly due to a more favourable ecological milieu, partly to more developed technologies and serious discipline of the operations. Our own competitiveness could be developed first of all in those moments. As a consequence of global climatic changes, excesses of weather, i.e. hail-storms became more frequent. Different methods of protection against hail are developed abroad but also in Hungary. The examination of effects of the hail protection nets compared with the check without nets has been the purpose of our experiments. The growing system was the intensive one with high planting densities. Fruits of the two subsequent years have been compared as grown with and without hail protective nets. It turned out that in one season when shoot growth was stimulated, the shadowing effect of the net increased in addition the growth and at the same time braked the differentiation of flower buds, which exerted negative effects on yield of the next year. Let alone this phenomenon, the quality of fruits was not influenced by the hail protection net.

Effects of a band application of polyolefin-coated diammonium phosphate on the nutritional quality of rhubarb and Swiss chard

Dietary intake of large amounts of nitrates and oxalates presents a health hazard. In this study experiments were conducted with two oxalate accumulating vegetables rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum L.) and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla L.)) using POC-DAP in order to improve their nutritional quality. In the rhubarb experiment oxalate content was significantly reduced by band application of POC-DAP, while effects on ascorbate and nitrate contents were ambiguous. The improved nutritional quality in the POC-DAP treatment was rather a cause of ammonium nutrition than a cause of less amount of released fertilizer nitrogen. In the Swiss chard experiment oxalate and nitrate contents were reduced, while ascorbate content was increased by a band application of POC-DAP. The improved nutritional quality in the POC-DAP treatment was the cause of both the less amount of released nitrogen and the realised ammonium nutrition. It was also found that by using POC-DAP for Swiss chard cultivation, labour and energy costs of top-dressings could be eliminated without yield decrease. It was concluded that the nutritional quality of rhubarb and Swiss chard could be improved by using a band application of POC­DAP.


Susceptibility of European pear cultivars to Venturia pirina Aderh. infection at a variety collection in Hungary

Field sensitivity of 271 European pear genotypes were evaluated in a large variety collection of pear in Hungary during a nine years survey. Substantial differences were detected in the rate of pear scab infection of leaves and fruits. Some 18 per cent of the inspected genotypes remained completely free of infection even in the years with weather favouring to the disease. On the other hand, 78 % of the inspected genotypes were infected in some or more extent. The rate of infection was generally higher on leaves than on fruits. 18.6 % of the genotypes inspected were tolerant to leaf infection and their majority (81.1 %) were tolerant to fruit infection. Some one fi fth of the genotypes (19.7 %) were highly susceptible to leaf infection but only minor rate of them (2.2 %) were highly susceptible to fruit infection. There were 44 genotypes that could be regarded as tolerant to pear scab leaf and fruit infection under fi eld conditions. Some of these genotypes may be suitable to commercial pear growing with highly reduced chemical control against pear but their yield capacity and fruit quality should be evaluated.

Specialities of the vegetation start and level of primary fruit set affect fruit quality

Thinning is a h ighly crucial point of the apple production technology. According to results of numerous studies the earliest thinning is deemed to have the best amending effects. There can be considerable difference between trees of the same cul tivar and age in a plantation in respect to their flowering, in the numbers of fruits set and also in their canopy volume. Thus it can be crucial -just l ike in the case of pruning- to establish a fruit thinni ng su i ted for specif ic characteristics of actual trees. This experiment was established to examine how does primary fruit set (fruit load before thinning) and further on specific (fruit/TCS cm2) and absolute (fruit/tree) fruit-load of the trees affect quality attri butes at harvest. Our experiment was establ ished in a plantation on medium-tight loamy soil in north-east of Hungary. Harvest date was determined w ith the joint observation of the calendar date, starch-index, flesh firmness, background colour and fruit weight. Three fruit-load levels were established based on local experience and on data of several years, I Ot/ha lower and higher besides the advised optimum yield in the same orchard with slender-spindle shaped 'Gala must' cultivar standing on M9 rootstock in 1m x 3,8 m spacing. In the establishment of the 15, 25 and 35t/ha fruit-load levels on 20-20 apple trees total number of fruits set was counted at each tree. After this number of apples due to be removed was defined using an objective index on the basis of trunk cross sections (fruit/TCScm2) (Lafer, 1999). The following attributes were measured: weight (g), flesh firmness (lb/cm2) total soluble solid content (Brix %) and total titrate-able acid content (g/J).From the data on sugar and acid content quality index (Pomona value) was determined (Thialult, 1970). We could ascertain, that in an orchard, of the same aged but in concern to trunk cross sections somewhat different trees besides the specific index (apple/TCS cm2 the absolute fruit load (fruit/tree) can also be an important data, that has considerable effect on the internal quality. Secondly we could observe, that higher level of fruit load before thinning (primary fruit set) negatively affects quality index of the apples irrespective of the specific fruit load level (fruit/cm2 TCS) set later. Results underlines necessity of the earliest chemical thinn ing.

Microsporogenesis of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) varieties

Bud dormancy during winter is a critical factor in peach production in Hungary. The yield is determined basically by the survival rate of flower buds during winter frosts and by their ability to develop normal floral organs. It is important to investigate the genetic basis of slow floral development during dormancy for the purpose of breeding peach varieties with better winter hardiness. The aim of the present research was to examine microsporogenesis in 14 peach varieties during three successive winters in a Hungarian germplasm collection and to study the effectiveness of this method in variety evaluation. There were significant differences in the dynamics of microsporogenesis both between the varieties and between the years. Of the varieties, ‘Mayfire', bred in California, possessed the quickest pollen development rate. The microsporogenesis of `Piroska', a Hungarian local variety, was the slowest. Rapid floral bud development was observed in `Aranycsillag', `Springcrest' and 'Venus'. A medium developmental rate was characteristic of `Babygold 6', Fairlane', `Michelini' and `Red June', while development was slow in 'Champion', 'Early Redhaven', `Redhaven', `Harko' and `Mariska'. Based on these results, the study of microsporogenesis represents a reliable method for the phenological description of peach varieties during dormancy. The application of this method makes it possible to identify varieties and landraces with slow flower bud development, suggesting better winter hardiness.

The importance of pathogen-free grapevine propagation material in regards to clonal selection and rootstock breeding in Germany

High performing propagation material is essential for a reliable and economical production of quality grapes. Apart from genetic aspects pathogen-freedom is of prime importance in propagation material. In particular virus diseases cause major yield and quality losses and reduced longevity. This is also reflected in the current EU legislation, which focuses on the most common and dangerous viruses: GFLV, ArMV, GLRaV-I and GLRaV-III.Apart from these, locally occurring pathogens, e.g. phytoplasms or agrobacterium, are important as well and should not be present in propagation material. There are several ways to develop pathogen-free clones. Starting with already pathogen-free material is certainly the easiest case, but might not be feasible in local varieties with small acreages and limited vine numbers. In these cases the elimination of pathogens is required, either by heat therapy, tissue culture or somatic embryo genesis.

Training systems of fruit trees in Hungary

Growing sites and soil conditions of Hungary warrant profitable production of several temperate fruits at elevated levels of quality. The climate of the Carpathian basin is a mixtures of three main climatic zones the prevalence of which may change seasonally: Atlantic, continental and Mediterranean, therefore, growing sites are rather various. Temperature minima of the winter and late spring frosts are the main elements of risk. In choice of the system of cultivation, regularity of yields and intensity are to be observed equally. Regular yields are particularly aimed in stone fruit cultures.

For apple and pear plantations of high density required for intense production are promoted favourably. Accessories of intense orchards (irrigation, supporting system, rootstocks, phytotechniques, etc.) are important. In peach and plum trees are trained to funnel-shape crowns, in general, intense-types are possible in plum, only. In apricots, a Hungarian speciality, the "umbrella" type of crown is applied, almost exclusively, according to Papp. In sweet and sour cherry, the harvest technique, manual or mechanised, according to the intended utilisation, are determining the form of training.

Red and black currants as small fruits are grown mostly as bushes or hedgerows without any supporting system designed to facilitate mechanical harvest. Raspberries and blackberries are grown as hedges on trellis. Gooseberry is a special case, being a low, thorny bush difficult to be picked. Thus grafted small trees are attached to a wire-trellis which helps to solve problems of plant protection too.


Real-case application of mycorrhizal inoculums on Capsicum annuum L. var. longum cv. Szegedi and Kalocsai

The aim of this study was to test the use of commercially available arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) inoculant Symbivit, a mixture of six species of Glomus spp., in spice pepper field cultivation. The inoculants containing arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was able to establish a symbiosis in the rhizosphere of pepper plants and mycorrhizal inoculation increased fresh and dry weights of shoots of spice pepper cv. Szegedi and only fresh weight of Kalocsai type. There were no significant differences in the root weights due to treatment only in fresh weight of Kalocsai pepper type. Treated plants of both variants exhibited an increase in cumulative crop production compared with control non-treated plants and the growth response of pepper was higher for var. Szegedi than var. Kalocsai. Mycorrhizal inoculation had a great positive effect on external hyphal length of AMF also showing differences in that between Kalocsai and Szegedi variants. The root colonization showed seasonality by treated and non-treated plants. The lowest degree of colonization was observed in June in general and colonization percent increased during vegetative development and there was a slight decrease at harvesting. In conclusion, it can be stated that inoculation with Symbivit containing mycorrhizal fungi could be an integral part of spice pepper production.

Comparison of flower bud development in almond, apricot and peach genotypes

The phenological processes of flower bud development of stone fruits during dormancy are not thoroughly known. The yield of these species, especially of almond, apricot and peach is determined basically by dormancy of flower buds, the survival rate of buds during winter frosts and by their ability to develop normal floral organs in the next spring. After the initiation of floral primordia, flower bud development is taking place in continuous space until blooming, though at different speed characteristic to the species. To study flower bud development during dormancy we applied two alternative methods in different genotypes of almond, apricot and peach: (1) examination of pollen development (microsporogenesis), and (2) the measurement of pistil length. The samples were collected from the central part of Hungary during the dormancy period of 2004/2005. The three fruit species differed significantly in the speed of flower bud development, it was the quickest in almond, followed by apricot and peach. In addition to the species, there were significant differences in the process of microsporogenesis and pistil development between genotypes within species and also between the different types of shoots on which the buds were located. On short shoots buds developed at a higher speed, than on long shoots. Based on our observations, on the short shoots the period of endodormancy was shorter with 5-30 days, according to genotypes, compared to the long shoots. This difference, however, decreased to 2-3 days by the time of blooming.

Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) selection programmes in Hungary: a short review

Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) was the first forest tree species introduced from North America to Europe, at the beginning of the 17th century. Its unprecedented fast spread is due to its high-grade adaptability, drought-tolerance, abundant and frequent seed crop, excellent sprouting ability, fast growth and relatively high timber yield. Other advantages are, that it has scarcely any fungi or insect pests. This review is a short summary on black locust improvement in Hungary, giving guidance for specialists who are interested in black locust management.

Possibilities and limits of use plastic constructions in fruit growing technologies

On the Experimental Station Pallag of Debrecen University different combinations of fruit species and rootstocks have been raised under and without plastic foil cover in 2002. The growth and productivity of the grafts was our objective of comparison. Results revealed substantial differences in fruit set and yield depending on species and varieties. Sweet and sour cherry varieties grew much shorter under the plastic cover, whereas apricots, peaches and plums set fruit much more eagerly compared with the trees outside the plastic cover. Outside the plastic cover, the trees were much more developed at the beginning of their fruiting period. In spite of that, the growing processes were more intense under the foil. The differences are allegedly due to the repeated summer pruning necessary under the restricted space of the foil, on the other hand, due to the root concurrence because of the dense planting. Regarding the inner properties of the fruits, soluble solids, sugar and acids were higher outside, whereas macro- and mezzo-elements (P, K, Ca, Mg) were more abundant in fruits grown under the foil cover. Further efforts to explore those relations with other varieties and rootstocks are justified.

Increment analysis in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stand – a case study

The study on the diameter and volume increment of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stand (age 10-27 years, yield class II) have shown that in comparison to the periodic annual increment of the breast height diameter of tree in height class I, trees in height class II have reached 83.3%, while in class III only 43.9. The same relations for volume were found 59.0% and 24.5%, respectively. The mean values of the whole stand were close to those of height class II. According to the distribution of the periodic annual increment of volume between 10 and 27 years of age, 50% of the values were between 2.00 and13.88 dm3, 73% were between 2.00 and19.82 dm3, and 96% were between 2.00 and 37.64 dm3. The range of 13.88–19.82 dm3 had the highest occurrence (24.5%).

Erratic fruit set in almond under warm climates

The cause for the erratic yields of the two main almond cultivars grown in Morocco has been searched in order to recommend possible solutions for a high and stable production. The lack of sufficient bloom overlap between ‘Marcona’ and ‘Fournat de Brézenaud’ in many years may be one of the reasons of this erratic behavior, but not the only one, as the same behaviour may be observed in two simultaneously blooming cultivars, ‘Ferragnès’ and ‘Ferraduel’. The relatively high temperatures observed during the blooming period
significantly reduced the stigma receptivity of these cultivars and, as a consequence, their effective pollination period, showing that stigmatic receptivity is a limiting factor for fruit set in ‘Marcona’ and ‘Ferragnès’ and their subsequent yield reduction under warm conditions. Thus, in the present context of global warming, the search for cultivars tolerant to heat stress during flowering will acquire a special interest, as well as the combination of cultivars with the same chilling and heat requirements to ensure a simultaneous bloom.

Climatic indicators regarding the rest period of sour cherry

Sour cherry production in the world is increasing gradually. Profitable production, i.e. yield, depends largely on weather conditions. If Hungary wishes to keep up with the most successful countries, attention should be paid to the weather during the dormancy period, being definitely decisive from the points of view of quality as well as quantity. In order to predict the expected risk factors, characterisation of the most important weather parameters is necessary. For that purpose, the database of the Institute of Research and Extension Service for Fruit Growing at Újfehértó Ltd. has been utilised. Records of weather conditions were collected throughout the period 1984-2005, i.e. daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures (°C), and phenological diary of sour cherry varieties ’Újfehértói fürtös’, ’Kántorjánosi’ and ’Debreceni bôtermô’. For the future expectations study we have used the RegCM3.1 regional climate model with 10 km resolution. Data of 4 indicators have been traced: Average temperatures, Number of days without frost, Maximum length of periods without frost, Maximum length of frosty period. On the one hand, we surveyed the changes; on the other hand, estimates have been attempted for the future changes expected during the following decades.

Utilisation of data raised in blooming phenology of fruit trees for the choice of pollinisers of plum and apricot varieties

Information concerning the blooming time of stone fruit varieties is, first of all, an important condition of finding suitable pollinisers securing adequate fruit set. For that purpose, varieties are assigned to blooming-time-groups. Depending on the number (3 or 5) of the groups, i.e. the length of intervals separating the groups established, pollenisers are to be chosen for self-incompatible and partially self-fertile varieties belonging to the same blooming-time-group. The mutually most overlapping blooming periods of the respective varieties should be found by raising data of their blooming phenology, i.e. dynamics, which is compared by drawing their phenograms and calculating blooming (V) indices. Variety combinations have to be checked, however, concerning mutual fertility relations of the respective pairs of varieties. That is most important in the case of Japanese plums because of the abundant incompatible combinations. Synchronous blooming has been determined by assigning the varieties to blooming-time-groups, or comparing overlaps of blooming phenograms, or by blooming (V) indices. Synchronous blooming phenology has been studied in European plum varieties (111 varietiy combinations) Japanese plums (156 variety combinations) and apricots (153 variety combinations) under Hungarian conditions, over several seasons. In determining overlaps, the less favourable season has been considered as decisive. Polliniser combinations have been chosen with at least 70% synchronous blooming. Blooming time of varieties is an important part of the variety descriptions. Blooming dates may serve also for the estimations of frost risk or security of yield.

Antioxidant, polyphenol and sensory analysis of cherry tomato varieties and landraces

Among vegetables produced both for raw consumption and processing, tomato is one of the most important one in Europe, by production area and by yield as well. In the past years several study dealt with the investigation of the inner content of tomato, with special regards to antioxidant content. In this paper cherry tomato varieties and landraces from conventional and organic production were compared. Besides basic investigations sensory analysis were designed and Antioxidant Capacity (AOC) and Total Phenol Content (TPC) were measured. The aim of the research was to compare varieties and to study the effect of variety and production methods on antioxidant capacity and sensory profiles.

Growth and productivity of a young apple orchard at different spacing

Planting of new high density apple orchards showed an increasing tendency over the last ten years. Growers use in those orchards mainly dwarfing or semi dwarfing rootstocks. The spacing for those orchards is recommended based on Dutch and German experiences; however, the optimization of orchard planting density as a key factor for successful orchard management should consider the local climate conditions. An experimental orchard was planted in 2000 to investigate the effect of spacing on three dwarfing rootstocks with two apple cultivars `Jonica' and 'Gala Must'. We compared 8 planting densities (1270-3704 tree/ha) and two tree shapes (slender spindle and vertical axis). In this paper the data of the first five years' growth and bearing are presented. After 4 years, the decreasing tree densities caused reduced trunk cross sectional area. Tree density had a significant positive effect on cumulative yield per hectare. From the examined rootstocks, M.9 Burgmer 984 gave the smallest canopy for both cultivars. The trees on M.9 T.337 and on Jork 9 rootstocks have stronger growth. The light interception was measured under the canopy by AccuPAR (Decagon Devices Inc.'s).

Evaluation of precision farming with regard to horticulture

The global positioning system was made available for public use, which made it possible' to apply a new management tool in agriculture. Precision farming gives much more information on plant-growing than former methods, which makes it possible to use technologies more suitable for micro-sites. It is supposed that more profitable production can be realised with its aid and the strain on the environment can be reduced, not to mention other economic advantages.

The study makes economic conclusions about the method more and more widely used in plant production taking the yield mapping of Józsefmajor Experimental Farm as a basis and starts ideas about its possible application in arable land olericulture, viticulture and fruit production.

These issues are important because precision farming has existed in glass-culture for a long time from another perspective, which should be spread to open ground horticultural enterprises that are labour and asset intensive, qualitative farming forms with great plantation value.

Prospects of mango fruit powder production at farm level and its utilisation during mango off-season in Ghana

Mango (Mangifera indica) is an important fruit served to customers as fresh-cut fruit, juice, ice cream and yogurts in many fruit juice joints, restaurants and hotels in Ghana. However, the crop’s highly seasonal and perishable nature is a challenge for food processors and farmers. Preservation of the fruit in dry particulate form can serve as a substitute in off-seasons. The study sought to determine mango fruit powder production prospects at the farm level and explore its potential use as a substitute during the off-season. Farmer groups and food enterprises were therefore interviewed. The study showed that Keitt and Kent varieties were the most cultivated varieties because of market demand and high yield. However, an average annual fruit loss of 29.8% at the farm level was observed. Postharvest extension delivery service to farmers is inadequate, and where available, frequency of contact is irregular. A limited number of farmers received training in fruit processing; and few were engaged in transformational value addition activities but were willing to add value through processing into powder. Probit regression analysis showed that a unit increase in training would increase transformational farm level value addition into mango fruit powder by 22.9%. The majority of the food enterprises source fruits within Ghana while 79% experienced mango fruit shortage in the off-seasons. Only a few of the enterprises used mango fruit-based substitutes to serve customers in off-seasons. Probit regression analysis showed that a marginal increase in processors’ use of substitute significantly (p≤0.05) increased willingness to use mango fruit powder as a substitute by 47%. The study has revealed that local production of mango fruit powder could serve as a substitute to fill the seasonal gap in mango supply and also reduce post-harvest losses.


Polyphenol- and anthocyanin content changes effected by different fermentation- pressing and aging technologies

Different grape processing, fermentation and aging technologies were compared in our study on the white wine-grape variety Grüner Veltliner between 2012 and 2014 in Hungary,Cserszegtomaj. The vines are grown on brown forest soil on dolomite bedrock, stocks were planted 3x1 m row and vine space, respectively in our experimental area. The soil has slightly alkaline pH, the orientation of the vine rows are East-West. The training system is modified Guyot cordon, with 1 m trunk height and cane pruning method. After the harvest half of the yield has been put into the de-stemmer crusher before pressing while the other half has been pressed immediately (whole bunches). From the filtered and bottled wine anthocyanin, and polyphenol content was measured in 2013 and 2014. Another enological technology testing experiment has been set on aging of Grüner Veltliner in 2013. The wine was fermented with addition of fine lees from juice sedimentation. Traditional (racking only), battonage and fast ready-made aging technologies have been set together, each treatment in three replicates were observed.

In vitro effect of different cytokinin types (BAP, TDZ) on two different Ocimum basilicum cultivars explants

Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is an economically and ethnobotanically important aromatic, medicinal, ornamental and culinary herb, with a very wide gene pool, that is sensitive to cold and prone to several plant pathogens that can demolish harvest and lessen yield. In this research, the effects of BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) and TDZ (Thidiazuron) on different genotypes for in vitro cloning were determined, in order to provide a detailed protocol guide concerning Ocimum basilicum L. propagation. The results from the O. basilicum seed propagations revealed that the best condition for the secondary shoot growth is with 5.0 mg/l TDZ or 1.5 mg/l BAP on all types of explants except the root, the secondary root growth can be obtained on all types explant with any BAP concentration and all cytokinins can induce callus on all types of explants. On the whole, it shows that multiple secondary shoot induction and regeneration in Ocimum basilicum L. is regulated by appropriate cytokinin concentration.

Effects of tuberization conditions on the microtuber yield and on the proportion of microtuber tissues

The production facilities of large-sized microtubers in three potato varieties (cv. Desiree, BorO, Gfilbaba) and the effects of the applied tuberization conditions on the proportion of microtuber tissues, especially on the perimedullary region were investigated in present work. In vitro tuberization was induced on explants with 2 or 5 nodes layered on MS medium supplemented with 8% sucrose. Induced cultures were exposed to short days (8 h) for 2 weeks, then to total darkness for further 11 weeks. For volume calculations of different tissue regions, the formula for ellipsoids (V=4/37c1/8/w2) was used. The number of large-size tubers (> 8 mm, up to 16 mm) reached 53%, 59% and 44% in cvs. Desiree, Giilbaba and Bore, respectively, which indicate that the size of microtubers could be increased by appropriate sucrose support and explant type. Microtubers produced on hormone-free medium have well-developed perimedullary region, and its volume rate seemed to be important in the final size of tubers. The increase in the rate of volume of the perimedulla was connected to the increase of tuber size until tubers reached 12 mm diameter. In microtubers larger than 12 mm in diameter, the volume rate of the pith was increased.

Bee pollination and association of apricot varieties

Apricot yields are highly variable according to the season. The variation is caused mainly by the adversities during the critical processes of floral biology, i.e. blooming and fertilisation. On the basis of information concerning blooming time and mutual compatibility relations of apricot varieties a system of securing regular and adequate yields has been developed.

Winter frosts of the continental type are well tolerated by most of the apricots, however, after the end of rest period, flower buds are loosing frost tolerance, 'rapidly.

Being one of the fruit species blooming earliest during the early spring, apricot start to bloom in Hungary around the end of March or early April as a mean of many years, but it also happened, exceptionally that apricot started to bloom at February 20 (at Letenye South Hungary). The early season, exposes the floral organs to frost injuries. As a consequence, apricot orchards on the Great Plain produce low yields in 3 years, intermediate yields in other 3 years out of a ten-year-period.

Moreover, weather conditions during the blooming period are often unfavourable for pollination. Cool, windy and rainy weather prevents the flight of insects and on the other hand, warm spells shorten the blooming process, nectarines and stigmata get dry and the female gametes loose viability before effective pollination occurres.

The fertility of individual cultivars are meeting different obstacles. Apricot cultivars differ greatly in the rate of flowers bearing underdeveloped pistils, which may attain even 60% (e.g. Orangered). New commercial cultivars are often self-incompatible. Local varieties of that type in Hungary are the „óriás" varieties (e.g. Ceglédi óriás, Szegedi mammut), and the new hybrid Ceglédi Piroska. Many of the cultivars are variable in their self-fertility (partially self-fertile): Budapest, Harmat, Korai piros, Mandulakajszi.

Inter-incompatibility is also known in apricots. The „óriás " varieties do not fertilise each other. During the growth of fruits, cool spells (2-4 °C) caused severe fruit shed in Ceglédi óriás.

Apricot flowers produce pollen and nectar at average rates related to other fruit species, thus bees are attracted sufficiently. Bee visits are very variable according to growing site and season. Most of the bees are pollen gatherers but sometimes nectar suckers are in majority. Bee pollination is necessary not only for the self-incompatible varieties but also to enhance the yield of self-fertile varieties.

Taking the blooming and fertility relations of the cultivars into account, plantations should not exceed two rows to a particular self-incompatible varieties, and possibly two different polliniser varieties are suggested to be planted as flanking the block in question.

In commercial plantations 2 to 4 bee colonies per hectare are proposed to move for the whole blooming period.


Industrial-scale plantlet production by seed priming and nursery tray seeding method in Sida hermaphrodita L. Rushby

Virginia mallow (Sida hermephrodita Rushby), Malvaceae family, is a perspective perennial herb able to yield a biomass crop through the last two decades. In our previous studies, we examined two factors relating to seed germination percent and seed germination power during our research: the influence of hot water treatment and the effect of exogenous or endogenous infection of seed. Following these recognition we modifi ed our technique, in such a way that we fractionated the seeds based on their fresh weight / or relative density before we carried out the treatment. When we fi ltered the fl oating seeds on the surface of water, the hot water treatment was performed considerably better on the sink seeds after separation. Therefore, by this special priming process we were able to reach 80% germination capacity of Virgina mallow seeds under laboratory conditions (26 oC without illumination). From all nurseries tray methods preliminary results, it is clear that, Sida seeds, which were treated with these methods, gave the best growing rate for industrial uses.

The size of the canopy of sour cherry trees depends on the time of pruning

The intensive culture of sour cherry is achieved by training of trees to form smaller canopies not by means of dwarfing rootstocks but by growth moderation techniques. The rootstocks traditionally used cause vigorous growth, and it is up to the technology to apply procedures less utilised earlier for that purpose. One of those techniques is the transfer of hibernal pruning to the estival period. The best term of the latter is the period of 1-3 weeks after fruit harvest.

The prolongation of the period of favourable illumination and the reduction of the canopy size facilitate higher densities of planting (number of trees per hectare) and a better exploitation of the crown (specific yield). The regular use of summer pruning resulted also in a better quality of fruit.

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