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Identification of plant taxons by isoelectric focusing
Published May 24, 1999
65-67.

Differences were demonstrated in esterasei coenzyme pattern of some essential oil producing plants belonging to the Apiaceae family — fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), angelica (Angelica archangelica L.), lovage (Levisticum officinale Koch.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), caraw...ay (Carum carvi L.) — as well as differences between two varieties of fennel seed by using isoelectric focusing. That method provides quality control in essential oil plants and is suitable to describe isoenzyme pattern characteristic for taxons.

Based on our findings, isoelectric focusing seems to be suitable for identification and differentiation of different plant samples, providing an easy tool for further processing as well as for breeding.

Our further aim is to apply that method to differentiate among samples belonging to the same species according to their value of inner content.

 

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98
126
Scheduling of ornamental plant production
Published April 18, 2000
76-86.

The production of ornamental plants represents an important branch of our horticulture. The growing area is relatively small (round 2800 ha), the production value, however, a rather large. Notwithstanding, its financial balance is inactive because the demand surpasses the supply copiously.

The most popular plants are as follows: carnati...on, gerbera, rose, bulbous flowers, chrysanthemum, other cutflowers, cutgreens and Gypsophyla — their total production value makes up to Ft 8-9 billion. The area of ornamental nurseries — about 800-900 ha — is to be found mostly on the western part of our country.

Our accession to the EU will have undoubtedly an impact on our ornamental plant production. We must take into account, that in greenhouse production the specialization extends all over the world, field production over a limited region. Our chances will not deteriorate by joining the EU. The buyer — chiefly because of ecological purposes — will prefer the domestic product to the foreign one. By the way, our products will be competitive, as far as quality or price is concerned, with those of western Europe. Last but not least, we may hope a greater saleability of home-bred, special varieties and cultivars, the so-called "hungaricums", both in the domestic as well as export markets. It is anticipated that we will have a good turnover with potted ornamental plants and flower seedlings. Our nursery products will become marketable too.

To exploit the opportunity, of course, the necessary conditions are to be created. First of all, we need development in research, with special regard to breeding, at the same time in education, in extension service, in the training of experts, on a high level. Some tasks can be solved, no doubt by improvement of the organisation within the branch. At the same time the state subsidy is indispensable in order to promote both the technical and the research activities. State subsidy is also necessary to build up more advantageous conditions of sales like in some foreign countries (e.g. the Netherlands).

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79
120
Historical apple cultivars that display high level of resistance to fire blight
Published August 13, 2004
19-23

Following the first outbreak of fire blight caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al. in Hungary, we have started research with the aim to screen domestic gene sources, mostly historical Hungarian apple cultivars, for disease resistance as part of an apple breeding program for multiple resistance. The present s...tudy was conducted with the aim to choose the most tolerant historical apple cultivars among 25 selected cultivars by screening their behavior towards fire blight under controlled conditions. Six cultivars were shown to be the most disease tolerant: `Batul', 'London pepin', Nemes Sóvári Alma', `Sikulai', `Szemes alma', Wilmos renet'. We evaluated these cultivars by investigating both morphological- characteristics under original environmental circumstances and fruit quality. The cultivars had a remarkable degree of fire blight resistance compared to the control cultivars. These were not competitive with the commercially grown 'Jonathan M40' during cultivar tests but on the basis of certain characteristics they could serve as genetic sources for breeding new varieties.

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83
130
Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) resistance in apple varieties associated with molecular markers
Published March 25, 2009
53-57.

The invasive bacterial disease fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora has the potential to destroy fruit tree orchards all over Europe. Effective plant protection methods are lacking in many countries, highlighting the increasing importance placed on identification of germplasm with heritable disease resistance. Recent l y. a promisi...ng QTL (quantitative trait locus) was identified on linkage group 7 in the apple cultivar 'Fiesta· which is derived from ·cox's Orange Pippin' . I n the present study, 144 Swedish and foreign apple cultivars were analysed with the SCAR markers AE I 0-375 and GE-8019. which flank-. this QTL. Twenty-nine of the analysed cultivars had both markers. 78 had either AE I 0-375 or GE-8019, and 37 cultivars did not carry an) of the two markers. Seventeen cultivars. 7 with both markers and I 0 not having either of the two markers, were then inocoluted with the bacterium in a 4uaran1i ne greenhouse test. Cultivars carrying both DNA markers were significantly less susceptible than cultivars lacking the markers, P<0.001. Cultivars that were most resistant had both markers and had 'Cox· in their pedigree. Unrelated cultivars with the markers may still lack the QTL.

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116
155
Application of pollen mixing device in front of the hive entrance
Published June 6, 2000
151-152.

The model of a pollen mixing device was tested in sunflower culture in order to detect the effectiveness in helping the out-going honey bees to carry more and different varieties of pollen grains on the body and body hairs. This model is build from line hairs of brushes facing each other that can keep and release pollen grains. The brushes are ...functioning as pollen receiver-transmitter units. The effectiveness was tested by examining the number and the species of the pollen grains adhered to the bees passing through the entrance. The amount of pollen and the number of pollen species on the hive with the device was significantly higher than on the control hive.

The data were analysed by variance analysis and significant differences were found according to the number and species of pollen grains between the incoming and outgoing bees.

 

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91
136
Studies on the effects of growing substrates and physical factors in sweet pepper forcing in context with the generation of calcium deficiency symptoms
Published March 2, 2010
61-65.

In the publications available for us, exact levels of physical factors and those of the growing technology determining Ca2+ deficiency are rarely detailed. Although the influencing role of the various environmental factors (humidity, light, temperature) is known, we had only little information about their exact values which could be presented f...or the growing practice. Sweet pepper varieties of the same type grown in various substrates responded to the environmental factors in different ways. Our results revealed that increasing temperature of the root zone had the most significant effect on the incidence of Ca2+ -deficient fruits. Their amount, however, gave different results depending on the growing substrate. In forced sweet pepper grown in soil the proportion of Ca2+ - deficient fruits were significantly lower compared to the plants grown on rockwool. Fruits derived from forcing on perlite, in container were damaged the least by the blossom end rot deficiency symptoms. Our experimental results and technological suggestions are based on measurement results of three years.

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109
145
Chemical characteristics of nectarine genitors used for breeding program in Romania
Published August 14, 2002
41-43.

The geographic location of Bucharest area, the nature of its soil and its climate offer remarkably favourable conditions for nectarine growing, with juicy and well flavoured fruit, good for fresh consumption and processing.

The five years' investigation (1996-2000) has helped to identify some nectarine cultivars and hybrids (NJN 58, ARK... 165, ARK 139, Morton, ARK 107, Romamer I, ARK 125, Firebrite) with exceptional fruit quality (dry matter content, titratable acidity, vitamin C content, overall sugar, and amount of pectic substances).

Dry matter content varied over the three years from 8.3 to 18.5% (NJN 68), meanwhile titratable acidity varied between 0.26 and 1.08% (Romamer I). Sugar / acidity ratio was within the limits of 8.6 and 36.5 (Nectared 7). Nectarines have high vitamin C content, over 10 mg/100g (Fairlane, NJN 67, Regina, Harko), glucides were found in Firebrite, Romamer I varieties and NJN 21, CIR1T127, HFSR3P4, HNA hybrids.

Some cultivars have been recommended for planting in this southern area of Romania (Crimsongold, ARK 125, Harko, Hardyred, ARK 134), others used as quality genitors (ARK 85, Nectared 7, NJN 21, ARK 21, ARK 134, Fantasia) in breeding projects.

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81
135
The effect of modified bacterial virulence to host-pathogen relationship (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola)
Published May 24, 1999
53-56.

The Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola is one of the most expressive biogen stressors of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Hungary. The chemical and agrotechnological defence is inefficient, so breeding is the only workable way. The conventional cultivars are susceptible to PS while most of the new industrial varieties ...have genetic resistance to the pathogen. The genetic background of resistance is, however, a complex system in the bean. Leaf resistance is a monogenic system, but this gene is not expressed in juvenile stage of the host. The pathogen species can be divided into different races. After inoculation with virulent strains, typical symptoms appeared on the leaves. To understand the details of host-pathogen relationships, there were carried out experiments using bacterial strains with altered virulence. Six transposon mutants of the PS were tested. Our main objective was to test these modified bacterial strains on bean cultivars of known genetic background. First we analysed the symptoms, and then the correlation between the symptoms and the multiplication of mutant bacteria. Three cultivars (Cherokee, Inka and Főnix) were tested.

The infection by the virulent PS isolate produced typical symptoms on the three cultivars tested. Mutant bacteria (except strain 756) did not cause any significant symptoms on the hosts. The mutant 756 induced visible symptoms on the cultivars Cherokee and Inka. On Cherokee there were small watersoaked lesions, and HR (hypersensitivity reaction) was detected on Inka, but this was restricted to some cells only (mikro HR). The rate of multiplication of the wild type strain was much higher than the multiplication of the mutants. Bacteria were detected in the cotyledons and primordial leaf, but there is not any substantial number of bacteria in leaves, except for strains 757, 1212 and 1213. The rate of multiplication of strain 756 was intermediate. These, and other experiments can help to understand the genetic background of resistance and the host-pathogen relationship in the Pseudomonas-bean pathosystem.

 

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103
133
The effect of the method and the timing of the propagation on the growth, earliness and productivity of sweet corn
Published February 23, 2000
134-139.

Direct sowing in 16 cm deep trench covered with perforated plastic sheet (for 3 weeks), transplant using, and uncovered direct sowing (control) was tried on 2 locations, with 2 varieties (very early Kecskeméti korai extra, and middle early Kecskeméti SC-370) in Szarvas on loamy soil, and in Kecskemét on sa...ndy soil in 1996 — after a preliminary trial concerning perforated plastic covered trench sowing in Szarvas, in 1995.

The plant height (weekly), the average leaf number/plant, the total leaf area (once), the total yield, the quality of cobs, and the earliness was measured. The results are:

  1. Kecskeméti korai extra during the first 6 week period the transplanted plants were the highest, but from the 7th week the plants which were sown in trench and than were covered with perforated plastic sheet (for 3 weeks) were the highest.
  2. SC-370: The transplanted plants were the highest-until the end of plant height development.

The plant height development stopped at the 9th week of the measurement by early, - and stopped at the 10th week by middle early variety. The average leaf number/plant varied between 9,25-10,50 and was not influenced either by variety or by the treatment. The total leaf area was (on 5th of June) the largest by transplanted plants, which was followed by plants that were sown in trench and then were covered with perforated plastic film (for 3 weeks).

  1. The highest yield was observed by plants, which Were sown in trench, and then were covered with perforated plastic film (for 3 weeks). Transplanted plants followed it.
  2. Quite the total yield (98,3%) of transplanted Kecskeméti korai extra variety plants were harvested on 4th July. 89% of the total yield was picked up of trench sown and then with perforated plastic covered plants. The harvest of uncovered control started on 15th July. The harvest of transplanted SC-370 plants started 19th July, when more than half of the total yield (57%) was picked. The uncovered control was harvested 29th July.
  3. The weight and the measure of cobs generally were not influenced by the treatments, but the average weight of the cobs of the transplanted Kecskeméti korai extra plants (0,21-0,18 kg) are less than the, requirement.

 

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91
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Relations of phenometrical indices of apple fruits with weather variation in the assortment of varieties of an apple gene bank
Published July 26, 2012
115-120.

The purpose of phenometry is to examine the measurable parameters of the plants in order to follow up the consequences of weather processes. We should fi nd the reasons, why the diameter of fruits grows larger in one season and smaller in the next. Variation may occur as a response to insuffi cient provision of water or nutrients, but also beca...use of pathological effects and of extremely high or low temperatures, moreover, of extraordinary heavy fruit load. There are phenometrical characteristics, which consider the fi nal consequences (density of fl owers, fruits set, drop of fruits), whereas other parameters could be followed up (size, length and width of fruits) as the dynamic components of growth. The quantitative parameters of growth are functionally related to each other, where the weather conditions, soil humidity and nutrients are on the input side, thus it is possible to model the growth of fruits as a function of the environment. Initially, the relations between the main weather variables and the phenometrical data have to be cleared. In the present study, the interactions between the mentioned phenomena are presented and numerically defi ned.

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108
141
Spring frost effects on 30 sweet cherries varieties grown in North Italy
Published August 16, 2010
33-37.

After a spring frost occurred in second half of March 2008, with temperatures below 0°C for 8 days consecutively and an absolute minimum of -5.5°C, a lot of observations have been made on the sweet cherry flowers damages. In three different orchards “Italian palmetta” trained on grassing ground soil, the percentage of the flowers killed b...y frost, was detected and recorded considering the different genotypes and flowers height from the ground. Furthermore, in one orchard only it was possible to find relationship between flowering stage and frost damage. The results clearly confirm our previous works about the highest mortality of the flower in the upper part ( > 1.50 m) of the canopy and in the full bloom open flowers. So, in this area, the easiness of agronomic operations, like pruning and, especially, fruit harvest, due to the crown proximity to the ground, is cancelled by the frequency of spring frost.

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101
138
Consumer preference for apples: the role of attributes influencing the choice and consumption
Published March 25, 2009
37-43.

Consumers consider good quality fruits to be those that look good, are firm and offer good flavour and nutritive value. Nowadays, consumers are, however, increasingly  interested  in food qualities which  cannot  be discovered  by  looking, tasting or smelling  the products but their roles are not yet really c...leared up. Therefore the objective of this study was to explore the importance of selected kinds of attributes (taste, size, colour, cultivar, origin and price) in fluencing the choice of apples of customers. In accordance with several authors, fruit qualities (taste, size and colour) seemed to be the major attributics influencing the choice of apple independently of people's age and gender. However, the size of fruit had lower importance with increased age. Generally, females gave higher importance rating for most attributes than did male. The price was getting more important for consumer's choice with age which can be connected with their socioeconomic situation. The origin of fruit and the cultivar did not have important influence on consumer's choice. Authors also investigated the preference of consumers for six selected apple varieties ('Jonagold', 'ldared', 'Royal Gala', 'Golden Reinders', 'Braeburn' and 'Granny Smith'). and pointed out the role of the origin in fruit quality and in choice of apple in the case of 'Granny Smith' cultivar. Apple fruit samples from Austria, Argentina, Chile, Hungary and South Africa were involved in this study. Authors evaluated fruit quality parameters of above cultivars and compared them to consumer preference. Consumer preference usually represented the quality attributes of the fruit well. It is also concluded that degree of liking of apple cultivars varies through gender and age. Children and young consumers preferred 'Royal Gala', 'Granny Smith  and 'Braeburn' mostly. In spite of 'Idared' is one of the cultivars grown on the largest area in Hungary, the lowest preference ratings were given for it in both gender categories. Middle-aged consumers (between 25 and 50 years or age) preferred crispy apples with red or blemished skin color ('Royal Gala' and 'Jonagold'). 'Jonagold' and 'Idared' were the most preferred cultivars for the consumers above the age of 50 likely because of their relatively low price, as price plays a significant influencing role in the purchase of these consumers. The relatively expensive and soury 'Granny Smith' appeared not really preferred by this age group. In spite of the significant differences in instrumentally measured fruit quality parameters among 'Granny Smith' fruit samples from different countries, consumers did not give significantly different preference rating scores for those.

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Nectar production and pollination in peach
Published June 6, 2000
123-126.

Observations were made at two growing sites, Siófok and Szatymaz, in the years 1998 and 1999, on 16 peach varieties. The production of nectar was measured, the foraging behaviour of bees, fruit set and the effect of exclusion of bee visits for different periods were observed systematically.

Production of nectar confirmed earlier data, ...9.09 mg per flower in average. There was large variation due to variety and date of observation. Bee visits were relatively abundant. At favourable weather, 1 to 30 visits/flower/day occurred in the average. Artificial hand pollination increased fruit set, substantially. Open pollination yielded superior fruit set than self pollination, without bees. Supplementary bee pollination can be regarded to be beneficial to peach production as well.

 

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118
142
Valuable offsprings of Seyve-Villard 12375
Published November 15, 2004
75-77.

Powdery mildew, Phylloxera and downy mildew epidemics devastated large areas of vineyards in Hungary in the 1800s. To establish new plantages resistant so called "direct producers" were imported from America (direct means "without grafting"). Direct producers have secure yield but their quality is inferior. After World War II, an organized bree...ding programme was started to replace them and parallel to this the law prohibited their production. As a resistance gene source, the E.2 clone (S. V. 12375 E.2) of Seyve-Villard 12375, Franco-American hybrid selected in Eger was used by Hungarian breeders. Several valuable hybrid families have originated from crosses of this variety hybrid.

In the Research Institute for Viticulture and Enology at Kecskemét, two valuable table grape hybrids were registered under the names of R.65=Esther and R.78=Fanny coming from 2 hybrid families of the parent S. V. 12375 E.2. Both varieties may be cultivated "environmentally".

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85
142
The fertilization problems of cultivated red- and black currant varieties in Hungary
Published August 14, 2002
38-40.

Small fruits have a modest share in the fruit production of Hungarys. Red currant was grown traditionally in home gardens 60-70 years ago. Commercial production was established only in the surroundings of some town. The black currant was unknown until after Wold War II. An important change occured in small fruit production in the 1950s. Sociali...st countries, which had cheaper labour power, made efforts to meet these demands. In this time we produced 25.000 t.

Presently the country produces 13-15.000 tons currant fruit yearly 60% from this is black currant, which has a better market. It is our own interest to make our currant production more profitable. The currant is the second most widely cultivated soft fruit. Our product is disposed mostly on EU markets.

There was no breeding activity in this field in Hungary earlier. Cultivars used were mostly of foreign origin (W. European; Boskoop Giant, Silvergieter, Wellington XXX, Russian; Altaiskaya Desertnaya, Neosupaiuschaiasya, N. European; Brikltorp, Ojebyn). Besides well-known advantageous this cultivars have also some defects mainly unfavourable—adaptation to climatic conditions, which caused fertilisation problems, reduced the fruit set and uneven growth with decreased yields (Dénes & Porpáczy, 1999). About 140 black currant cultivars were investigated during the last four decades in our variety trials and only four of them were introduced with satisfying yielding capacity (3.5-5.5 t/ha).

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85
137
Sampling experience in a cherry plantation
Published March 15, 2011
21-28.

Experiments in a cherry plantation were performed to find out that samples taken from various parts of the foliage of the tree what extent represent the whole tree. One tree from three different cherry varieties was selected. In the selection, we tried to form a good representation of the foliage of the orchard. 8 sampling locations were design...ated on each tree, in two different heights and four different directions according to the points of the compass.We measured the main sizes of the fruits in three orthogonal dimensions with a digital slide gauge with an accuracy of 0.01 mm; the mass of each cherry by an analytical balance, with an accuracy of 0.001 g; the mass of the stones with the same analytical balance, and then calculated the stone-pulp ratio. The measured and calculated data are used to characterize the sample in question.

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106
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Nutritional and seasonal requirements for callus growth in Taxus baccata
Published August 23, 2000
111-114.

Callus cultures derived from young stems of two varieties of Taxus baccata cv. aureovariegata (genotype I) and Taxus baccata L. (genotype II, III) were induced. Gamborg's B5 medium was supplemented with different concentrations of auxin (2,4-D) in combination with cytokinins (kinetin or topolin) and with a phenolic-binding compound (PV...P) to prevent callus darkening and growth inhibition. Stem explants displayed different responses to in vitro culture depending on plant genotype and on the season. Genetic variability was observed in the growth rate of calli initiated from all three genotypes of the same Taxus species. We found the best growth of callus cultures originated from the genotype ill in defined media. After the first subculture the majority of the cream-coloured primary callus turned brown and ceased its growth. However, the long-term culture was initiated.

 

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79
125
Genotyping Hungarian apricot cultivars for self-(in)compatibility by isoelectric focusing and PCR analysis
Published March 14, 2005
69-72.

Self-incompatibility (SI) in flowering plants is a widespread genetic system that promotes out-crossing. In Prunus species the SI is a gametophytic trait, which is controlled by a single multiallelic locus, termed S-locus. S-alleles codify stylar glycoproteins with ribonuclease activity (S-RNases). Our objective was to assess the S-genotype of ...some Hungarian apricot varieties by isoelectric focusing of stylar RNases as well as by PCR analysis using cherry consensus primers. Consensus primers amplified one or two bands of various sizes. Primers amplifying the 1st intron gained fragments the size of which ranged from 250 to 500 bp; while those amplifying the 2nd intron resulted in fragments of 800-2000 by length. Our data demonstrated that the first intron of the apricot S-RNase gene is shorter than the second one, which coincides with the structure of cherry S-RNase alleles. `Hargrand' (S1S2) and `Harcoe (S1S4) possessed one common S-RNase isoenzyme. Hungarian 'Orias' apricot cultivars showed different bands compared to the previous cultivars, but they shared completely identical patterns confirming that they possess the same S-genotype. 'Bergeron', `Harmat' and 'Korai zamatos' are characterised by an evidently distinct S-RNase pattern. The self-compatible cultivar (`Bergeron') had one allele, which suggests its correspondence to the Sc. Primers for the 2nd intron was unsuccessful in gaining fragments, which indicates that the 2nd intron in the Sc allele is too long to get any amplification. On the basis of our data, identities and differences were revealed in the S-allele constitution of some economically important Hungarian apricot cultivars at protein and DNA levels.

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96
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Investigation of some production factors on yield and quality of dry beans
Published August 14, 2002
83-88.

The correlation between plant density and yield average shows that the volume of yield increases in varieties of large and medium-size seeds up to a plant density of 285-400 thousand/ha, after which it declines.

On the basis of the results, yield averages at plant densities of 285-334 thousand plant/ha are 0.17 t/ha higher than those ac...hieved at low density (200 thousand plant/ha).

High levels of potassium fertilizer did not enhance the yield of dry beans. With adequate-water supply the high level of potassium decreased the number of pods and seeds per plant compared with a basic level of fertilizer, which could ensure 2.5 t/ha yield.

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Fruit drop: II. Biological background of flower and fruit drop
Published June 20, 2006
103-108.

The most important components of fruit drop are: the rootstock, the combination of polliniser varieties, the conditions depending of nutrition, the extent and timing of the administration of fertilisers, the moments of water stress and the timing of agrotechnical interventions. Further adversities may appear as flushes of heat and drought, the ...rainy spring weather during the blooming period as well as the excessive hot, cool or windy weather impairing pollination, moreover, the appearance of diseases and pests all influence the fate of flowers of growing and become ripe fruits. As generally maintained, dry springs are causing severe fruit drop.

In analysing the endogenous and environmental causes of drop of the generative organs (flowers and fruits), the model of leaf abscission has been used, as a study of the excised, well defined abscission zone (AZ) seemed to be an adequate approach to the question. Comparing the effects active in the abscission of fruit with those of the excised leaf stem differences are observed as well as analogies between the anatomy and the accumulation of ethylene in the respective abscission tissues.

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Adaptation of temperate climate horticultural plants in tropical and subtropical developing countries II. General characteristics, Hungarian experiences and possibilities
Published September 11, 2001
5-11.

The cooperation of Hungarian professionals with Chinese, Thai, South-Korean, Taiwanese and Brazilian colleagues should deserve much more attention than actually done. We refer to the transfer and adaptation of production technologies as well as biotechnological developments in vegetables, fruits, ornamentals and medicinal plants from the Temper...ate Zone to the tropical and subtropical regions. According to our information Hungarian colleagues involved in extension work are highly esteemed on the same level as Japanese, Chilean, Italian and French colleagues. We could state that immigration of investors, local enterpreneurs as well as those coming from expansive regions of Europe, North America and oversses, representaives of supermakets keeps to be accelerated by the increasing confidence triggered also by the successful management of profitable plantations, vineyards and fruits initiated first about 15 years ago.

For Hungary, the presence and achievements of Hungarian horticultural expertise in tropical and subtropical zones yielded unequivocal advantages. Therefore, the next actual step of development would mean the organisation of a network of the "Units of Horticultural Mission" in the tropic and subtropic countries. We are convinced that those Units will stimulate the traffic of technologies as centers of transfer within and between the regions and contribute to the increasing influence of professionals on the production and trade of horticultural commodities. The introduction and testing of new varieties of vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants (as well as ornamentals), the development of the growing technologies, adaptation and acclimation of Temperate Zone germ plasm representing the general trends of advanced production will be the most important tasks of the Mission with a sufficient oversight upon the whole world. It is taken as a fact that Hungarian horticulture and breeding is competitive on the world market. We are ready to contribute to the development of horticulture on a worldwide scale. The Hungarian R & D will be attentive in the future to manage the accumulated capacities by information and mediating needs and offers to the volonteers of the profession. The reality of the above propositions are amply proved by successes of the Agroinvest Co and of other professionals registered in abroad.

To keep on the top of the world list of the profession we have to follow up the international trends by our permanent presence on the most important centers of administration and production of the world in order to hold on the hot line of the Hungarian administration competent in financing the R & D activities. We need specialists which are open minded, speak languages, familiar with the tricks of informatics, economics and politics, competent in deals, able to make decisions, etc. The education and training should be strenghtened to he conform with those trends. That proposal involves also the need to follow up the activities of the transnational companies, the regular, active participation on international conferences, the permanent attention paid to electronic informations available in the worldwide networks as well as the printed periodicals of horticulture. It is also related to the attraction of investors to the developments aimed within the country as well as abroad. At last but not at least we have to keep in mind that the work performed abroad by the Hungarian professional is a kind of "para-diplomatic mission" which cannot be substituted by any other, sometimes very expensive activity charged on the officia erliplomatic missions. The benefit of it is, however, valid to the whole country because false stereotypes developed during the last 50 years cannot be abolished otherwise.

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Spatial and temporal variation of extremely abundant maxima of precipitation in Hungary during the period between 1951 and 2010
Published July 26, 2012
107-114.

The study deals with the accumulated database of 16 meteorological stations in Hungary during a period of 60 years. The purpose was to reveal the spatial and temporal structure of the appearance of extreme values in the daily distribution of data concerning precipitation. We strived to answer the question whether the frequency of incidences of ...daily maxima did they change or not during the 60 year-long period in the main growing regions of the country. It is demonstrated on geographical maps how the size and frequency of precipitation episodes ensued, and what are the typical traits of changes in intensity as well as in frequency of happenings projected according to their spatial and temporal distribution. From the point of view of fruit and vegetable growing, it is of prime interest what kind of frequency and intensity of changes occurred in precipitation. The temporal distribution of extremities though did not seem to change signifi cantly in some areas, but the recognition of changes may help conspicuously the planning and the choice between alternatives of species and varieties as well as technologies of horticultural managements for the long run. Extremely intense rains during a short time may cause erosion and stagnant water, thus we have to know what are the odds of risk. The temporary distribution of changes helps us to judge upon the reality of anxieties, which are expected according to the existence of trends. Seasonal or monthly distribution is visualised by maps, what is expected and what is accidental as for a decision in planning. The spatial distribution of coeffi cients of variation help us to decide what is the local chance of extreme happenings at different parts of the country and what is its coeffi cient of uncertainty. The risk of any undertaking dependent on conditions of weather could be expressed numerically by a coeffi cient of risk.

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103
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Microsatellite based identification of grapevine cultivars traditional in Hungary and in the Carpathian Basin
Published October 11, 2005
71-73.

Grapevine cultivars and clones traditional in Hungary and in the Carpathian Basin are maintained in the genetic collection of the Corvinus University of Budapest. Mostly ancient varieties and clones were genotyped using microsatellite loci. The investigated 6 loci were sufficient to distinguish all cultivars. Some clones could also be separated... based mostly on the variable VVS2 loci. For 17 out of the 31 investigated cultivars this is the first report on characterization of the polymorphism of the allele lengths by microsatellite markers on loci: VVS2, VVMD7, VVMD27, vrZAG62.

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Grapevine - and apple - replant disease in Hungary
Published April 14, 2003
29-33.

Field experiment was conducted to study the replant problems of grapevine and apple. Plantings were in three different fields: on virgin soil, on apple replant soil and on vine replant soil. Each field was planted with 60 pieces of grafted vine (variety Bianca on rootstock Berl. X Rip. T.K. 5BB) and 60 pieces of grafted apple (variety Gloster o...n rootstock MM. 106). Fungicide (BUVICID K with 50% captan agent, 0.5 g/1 1 soil) and nematocide (VYDATE 10 G with 10% oxamil agent, 0.03 g/1 1 soil) treatments were used in the soil in order to identify the causal factor of the problem.

Biological soil test was conducted to test 17 soil samples of 11 wine districts and vine growing fields in plastic pots, under shading net. No root pieces were left in the soil. Two bud-cuttings of the Berl. X Rip. T 5C rootstock varieties were used as test plants. In each case, samples were taken from the vineyard and from the virgin soil. One fourth of the soil from the vineyard was left untreated and the other three part was treated with nematocide, fungicide or heat.

The results of the field experiment suggest that there was no problem growing grapevine after apple and apple after grapevine, but both species had been inhibited growing after itself. The fungicide and nematocide treatments did not succeed in determining the casual factor of the problem. Heat treatment of replant soil (in pot test) was useful in AS and VNS soils.

Results of biological soil test suggest, that grapevine replant problem do not occur in every vineyard. In fifty percent of soils, no significant differences between the treatments for shoot length, weight of cane, length, diameter and wood:ratio of the fourth internode were observed. In one case, difference was not found in any of the measured characters. However, fruiting bodies of Roesleria pallida (Pers.) Sacc. and the mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix Prill. were observed in this sample. In other samples, there was no significant difference between the treatments, but nematode and fungus infection appeared to be involved in increased shoot growth in nematocide and fungicide treated plants (mycelium of Rosellinia necatrix was detected). In other samples, the fungus infection caused significant difference between the virgin, untreated and fungicide treated soils and infection of Rosellinia necatrix was observed.

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Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) selection programmes in Hungary: a short review
Published October 18, 2016
31-34.

Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) was the first forest tree species introduced from North America to Europe, at the beginning of the 17th century. Its unprecedented fast spread is due to its high-grade adaptability, drought-tolerance, abundant and frequent seed crop, excellent sprouting ability, fast growth and relatively high timber yield.... Other advantages are, that it has scarcely any fungi or insect pests. This review is a short summary on black locust improvement in Hungary, giving guidance for specialists who are interested in black locust management.

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