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Effect of intensity of bee visitation and the foraging behaviour of honeybees on the fruit set and yield of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
Published March 14, 2005
31-39.

Based on the results of our experiments, both the relative and the effective intensity of bee visitation were rather different depending on the cultivars as well as the time of the day. While it varied between relatively extreme values (40-80%) in the morning for the varieties examined, there were much smaller differences between the intensity ...of bee visitation at the afternoon, because the relative bee visitation attained 70-90% at each cultivar. These results showed that the differences arising from intensity of bee visitation of different cultivars should be taken into consideration more carefully in the morning in orchard planning and in estimating the number of honeybee colonies required.

The results showed that the greatest percentage of fruit set and the highest number of viable seeds per fruit were measured on branches of those cultivars that were most frequently visited by pure pollen gatherer bees as well as by bees collecting both nectar and pollen (mixed behaviour). The effect of pure pollen gatherers and of bees with mixed behaviour was highly significant from the statistical point of view on the fruit set and the number of viable seeds per fruit.

Those bees that were sucking nectar only from apple flowers did not proved to be effective pollinators at all. Relationship between their number and the fruit set as well as the number of viable seed per fruit were not significant because the coefficient of correlation was close to nil.

The ratio of side worker nectar gatherers was negatively correlated with the fruit set and the seed content of fruits of apple cultivars examined at both of our experimental sites, at Mosonmagyaróvár and Feketeerdő as well. The presence of side worker nectar gatherers resulted in higher decrease of fruit set and seed content of fruits at Feketeerd6 than at Mosonmagyaróvár, especially in the morning.

The effect of flower visiting intensity by other pollinating insects was found to be fairly variable according to the time of the day. In the morning they had no effect on the fruit set as well as on the seed content of fruits either at Mosonmagyaróvár or at Feketeerdo. However, at the afternoon, when their intensity was greater, the correlation was a bit stronger.

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Salt tolerance of sweet pepper seedlings
Published August 14, 2002
62-66.

Laboratory germination tests have been made with three white fruit pepper varieties and with one spice pepper in filter paper rolls wetted with KCl solutions of different concentration. Parallel tests have been conducted with the other species (lettuce, tomato, kohlrabi) to compare the salt tolerance of paprika with that of other vegetable crop...s.

In greenhouse, the action of KCl has been investigated with transplants raised in soil mixture, in rockwool and with seedlings transplanted from rockwool into soil mixture. Like the trials in the laboratory, the experiments in soil mixture have been made with other plant species, too.

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Grape variety comparison of different stress tolerance based on the quantitative measurement of carbohydrates
Published December 8, 2008
37-40.

The analyses of various host-pathogen relationships have established the response reaction roles of carbohydrates — especially monosaccharides — measurable in the vegetal parts of the host. Published results also provide information concerning the way various pathogens utilize carbohydrates and concerning the carbohydrates pathogens prefer ...out of the "selection" provided by the host plant. The role of carbohydrates in the response reactions to abiotic stress has been studied on several plant species as well — currently, too, it is an often discussed area of research. The above-mentioned results form the basis of our intention to study the connection between susceptibility to grey mould and the quantity of measurable carbohydrates in the leaves of grape varieties of various stress tolerance levels.

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The importance of clonal selection of grapevine and the role of selected clones in production of healthy propagating stocks
Published June 25, 2011
15-24.

Genetical alterations and phytosanitary status promote the variability and modify the appearance of vine. Old vine varieties in old vineyards are highly variable and well adapted to selection. Clonal selektion is based on a visual performance: valuable individuals (clones) are picked out according to visible symptoms or characters. The genetica...l stability of clones is proved by testing the vegetatively propagated progenies on the basis of morphological and molekular (SSR, AFLP, SMPL, RAPD) markes. Authors take great care of the visual phytosanitary selection as part of the clonal selection being the oreliminary step to develop pathogen-free propagation stocks. In Serbia (Vojvodina) the selection breeding has been carried on for several decades resulted in comparative clone trials with home and imported clones of Welsch Riesling, Chardonnay, Pinot gris, White Riesling. Among the clones of home selection SK.54 Welsch Riesling clone is the most valuable. Its clearing from pathogene is being carried on in an interregional IPA programme (HUSRB/0901/214/123) in Kecskemét. In Kecskemét, the centre of the Hungarian Danube vine region 5 vine clones have been registered (Cegléd szépe K.73, Irsai Olivér K.11, Kövidinka K.8, Hárslevelû K.9, Pannónia kincse K.56). Besides them 18 virus-tested clones have also been qualified.Works aiming at their complete exemption are going on in order to obtain clones free of propagation wood-borne diseases.

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Growth and productivity of plum cultivars on various rootstocks in intensive orchard
Published June 20, 2006
77-81.

Trees of three plum cultivars (Stanley, Cacanska Lepotica and Althann's Gage) were planted at Szigetcsép experimental station in Spring 1994 and trained to slender spindle with the aim to test their growth, effect of productivity under not irrigated conditions and to evaluate the adaptability of rootstock/scion combinations to intensive orchar...ds. As control, trees on Myrobalan C 162/A (P. cerasifera) seedling are planted. In the trial two rootstocks are from Slovakia: Myrobalan MY-KL-A (red leaf) and Myrobalan MY-BO-1, vegetatively propageted. Further on two French rootstocks, the Marianna GF 8-1: Marianna plum (P. cerasifera x P munsoniana) and the Sainte Julien GF 655/2 (P. insititia) were involved. The Hungarian bred plum Fehér besztercei (P. domestica), which is recommended as apricot rootstock is also tested. Rootstocks MY-BO-1 and Fehér besztercei were planted with cultivar Stanley only. Trees were planted to a spacing of 5x3 m trained to slender spindle with 3-4 permanent basal branches. After yield start (1997) trees have been pruned only in summer, after harvest. In the alleyway the natural plant vegetation is mown, the orchard is not irrigated.

Based on tree size, vigorous rootstocks are Marianna GF 8-1 and Myrobalan C 162/A seedling, medium vigorous are MY-BO-I and MY­KL-A; vegetative propageted myrobalan plums from Slovakia, while St. Julien GF 655/2 and Feller Besztercei proved to be growth reducing rootstocks. No significant difference between the rootstocks was found in turning to bearing. Under non-irrigated condition at Szigetcsép, cultivar Stanley produced the highest yield per area unit on vigorous rootstock (GF 8-1). The cultivar Althann's Gage produced the highest yield efficiency on Marianna GF 8-1 and they were healthy in the last 10 years. The symptoms of Althann's Gage trees on MY-KL-A rootstock indicate a possible incompatibility. The average fruit weight was significantly influenced by crop load on cultivar Cacanska lepotica, while no statistically proved differences were found on Stanley and Althann's Gage. The Cacanska lepotica trees produced significantly lower yield and larger fruit weight on St. Julien GF 655/2 rootstock. Adaptability to spindle training system depends on vigour of scion/rootstock combination: low or medium vigour cultivars (C. lepotica, Stanley) are good choice for spindle training systems even on vigorous rootstock; while the St. Julien GF 655/2 can be recommended only for vigorous Althann's Gage under our soil and climate conditions.

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Book review
Published December 19, 2019
37-39.

Plum is a significant temperate fruit and a very important fruit species in Hungary as well. Cultivation has moved beyond the area boundaries of the Northern Hemisphere many centuries ago. Domestic (European) plum production has been particularly affected by the pandemic-scale destruction of the Sharka virus and worldwide breed changes. Accordi...ng to FAOSTAT (2016) data, world plum production is 12 million tones, with 36% from Eurasian, 63% from Japan and other Asian varieties. The share of American plums is only 1%. Domestication and dissemination of plums is „multi-stepped” because homemade (taste) plums are hybrids of two nature species in the first place, but Japanese plums (hybrids with Chinese plums or Prunus cerasifera) are not uniform; the role of the American plum species is much smaller, though their prospects cannot to predict with certainly. The book consists of 19 chapters, finding a complex way of summing up linguistic, historical, floristic, historical-botanical, cultivation, and morphological and anatomical knowledge.

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Susceptibility of some traditional pear cultivars of Hungarian and foreign origin to the pathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora
Published August 13, 2004
41-45.

Fire blight, a disease caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al., has been causing serious damage in Hungarian pear plantations since 1996. A prospective control measure could be the use of resistant cultivars. For that purpose ten pear cultivars have been tested under laboratory and greenhouse conditions for r...esistance to Erwinia amylovora strains collected in Hungary. Six of these cultivars are Hungarian ones of unknown origin, while four are traditional old varieties. Resistant cultivars should serve as germplasm for future breeding. Inoculations were made with a mixture of different pear isolates of the bacteria collected from various growing regions of Hungary (Ea 21, 23), at a density of 5x108 cells/ml. Susceptibility/resistance has been assessed on the basis of intensity of blight symptoms observed on shoots, flower parts and fruits. Cultivars were assigned to three susceptibility groups (low, moderate and high). Complete resistance was not found among the cultivars tested. The highest level of resistance was found in cultivar 'Kieffer', while the other cultivars displayed either moderate or high susceptibility to infection.

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Anatomical study of the bud union in „Chip" and „T" budded 'Jonagold' apple trees on MM 106 rootstock
Published May 24, 1999
27-29.

The traditional methods for vegetative propagation of apple and its varieties are the T-budding, and the winter grafting, but this latter way is a difficult and expensive procedure.

In our experiment carried out in the Fruit Tree Nursery Soroksár, the healing process of chip- and T-budded apple trees 'Jonagold' on MM 106 rootstock was ...studied.

The budding (T- and Chip-) was made in the first week of August, samples for microscope examination were taken monthly after this time until leaf fall.

The investigated part of plants was made soft with 48 % HF (hydrogenfluoride), then cross and longitudinal section were made and examined by microscope.

Based on analysis of microscope pictures in case of Chip-budding, it was established, that development had started quickly after budding on the rootstock and scion too. But the callus originated almost entirely from the rootstock tissue as new parenchyma cells fills the gap between the two components of graft (scion and stock), becoming interlocked and allowing for some passage of water and nutrients between the stock and the scion. This quantity of callus in case of T budding was under the scion buds larger, than the Chip-budded unions, where the thickness of callus mass is uniformly thick round the chip. The large mass of callus pushes the scion bud outwards from the shoot axis, which later results in a larger shoot-curvature above the bud union.

Following this process on the Chip-budding it can be observed also, that a continuity of the cambium is established between bud and rootstock. Then the newly formed cambium started typical cambial activity, forming new xylem and phloem.

Later the callus begins to lignify, and it is completed within about 3 months after budding.

 

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Relation of sour cherry blooming dynamics and meteorological variables
Published September 2, 2009
17-23.

The aim of our research was to identify the role of weather parameters in the development of the start date and length of blooming. In order to achieve this, we examined how meteorological conditions of a particular year influence the start date and length of blooming in different years (dry, wet, cool, hot, sunny, cloudy). The meteorological p...arameters were the following: maximum temperature, minimum temperature, average temperature, precipitation, length of sunlight, difference of daytime and nightime temperatures, potential evaporation-PET, Huglin-index,Winkler-index, climatic water balance which can be calculated as a difference of precipitation and potential evaporation. In this study we wanted to find out whether early start of blooming results in a longer blooming period or if there is a generally faster blooming period when blooming starts later. Based on the results we can say that early start of blooming resulted in extended blooming period for three sour cherry varieties at the examined production sites. The start of blooming showed the closest relation with the difference of average daytime and nightime temperatures of the 30-day period prior to blooming. Significant relation was also detected with the thermic indexes as well as with maximum temperatures, climatic water balance and the degree of potential evaporation.We examined how weather 30 days prior and during blooming influenced the length of phases. Results showed that precipitation prior and during blooming is in significant relation with the length of blooming. We detected significant relation between daytime and nightime temperature differences and the length of blooming. The nature of the relation indicates that blooming periods were shorter in case of increasing temperature differences.We found that shorter blooming lengths occurred when maximum temperatures averaged between 13.5–14.5 ºC 30 days prior to blooming when examining the relation between blooming length and maximum temperature. If the average of maximum temperatures was below 13 ºC or exceeded 15 ºC during this period, then we could calculate with a blooming period longer than ten days. We proved that little precipitation and high temperature accelerates physiological processes, therefore we could calculate with an accelerated blooming and shorter blooming period.

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Effects of tuberization conditions on the microtuber yield and on the proportion of microtuber tissues
Published November 15, 2004
91-96.

The production facilities of large-sized microtubers in three potato varieties (cv. Desiree, BorO, Gfilbaba) and the effects of the applied tuberization conditions on the proportion of microtuber tissues, especially on the perimedullary region were investigated in present work. In vitro tuberization was induced on explants wit...h 2 or 5 nodes layered on MS medium supplemented with 8% sucrose. Induced cultures were exposed to short days (8 h) for 2 weeks, then to total darkness for further 11 weeks. For volume calculations of different tissue regions, the formula for ellipsoids (V=4/37c1/8/w2) was used. The number of large-size tubers (> 8 mm, up to 16 mm) reached 53%, 59% and 44% in cvs. Desiree, Giilbaba and Bore, respectively, which indicate that the size of microtubers could be increased by appropriate sucrose support and explant type. Microtubers produced on hormone-free medium have well-developed perimedullary region, and its volume rate seemed to be important in the final size of tubers. The increase in the rate of volume of the perimedulla was connected to the increase of tuber size until tubers reached 12 mm diameter. In microtubers larger than 12 mm in diameter, the volume rate of the pith was increased.

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Comparative study of sour cherry samples for their anthocyanin content measured by tools of the laboratory and by portable equipments
Published May 10, 2010
29-31.

The inner quality of fruits depends on many components. The analysis of pharmacologically important fruit species as the sour cherry consumed as a common food is an expensive task, mostly requiring an equipped laboratory. In sour cherry, one of its valuable components, the anthocyanin content deserves special attention. A portable analytical im...plement, which has been developed by our team measures the anthocyanin content on a scale of 1024 PharMgrades. The system is a member of the UVEX family of implements working with a microprocessor and performs the measurement quickly. The portable variant (UVEX-ML-1) does not require much training, the laboratory variant (UVEX UL-1) performs a large quantity of tests under modest laboratory conditions. Preparation of the samples is easily done, the necessary elements are available in the trade. The reagent is easily stored and dosed. The system was tested and proved to be of sufficient precision and the result showed acceptable variance according to the checks performed by a spectrophotometer in the laboratory.

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The importance of pathogen-free grapevine propagation material in regards to clonal selection and rootstock breeding in Germany
Published June 25, 2011
11-13.

High performing propagation material is essential for a reliable and economical production of quality grapes. Apart from genetic aspects pathogen-freedom is of prime importance in propagation material. In particular virus diseases cause major yield and quality losses and reduced longevity. This is also reflected in the current EU legislation, w...hich focuses on the most common and dangerous viruses: GFLV, ArMV, GLRaV-I and GLRaV-III.Apart from these, locally occurring pathogens, e.g. phytoplasms or agrobacterium, are important as well and should not be present in propagation material. There are several ways to develop pathogen-free clones. Starting with already pathogen-free material is certainly the easiest case, but might not be feasible in local varieties with small acreages and limited vine numbers. In these cases the elimination of pathogens is required, either by heat therapy, tissue culture or somatic embryo genesis.

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Comparative analysis of the production risk of major fruit species
Published September 2, 2009
119-122.

Hungary possesses excellent agri-ecological potentials even in an international comparison. Despite their decreasing economic weight, agriculture and food production are of great significance, since the supply of the population with high quality and inexpensive food is a fundamental social demand and one of the essentials of the quality of life.... The development of vegetable and food production is of great importance both from the aspect of healthy nutrition and comparative advantages (cheap workforce, professional expertise, traditions of production, climate favourable for quality). Within the Hungarian fruit production apple and sour cherry are essential branches in virtue of their significance. It is widely known, that – though to a different extent in the case of certain fruit varieties – satisfaction of the need for appropriate habitat is one of the important conditions of a decent quality and secure production. In my research, I analyse the territorial distribution, production standard and production risk of the Hungarian apple and sour cherry branches. I did not have the opportunity – because of the imperfections of the database – to compare long time series, therefore I examine the random effects affecting production by using the data of 3 years (they have the same content). I ranked and assessed each habitat and the production risks of certain fruit species compared to each other on the basis of indexes of relative deviation.

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Results in the valuation of some balcony plants Hungary
Published May 18, 2005
73-77.

Three varieties of different species of annual bedding and balcony plants were examined in balcony boxes in three different places (Budapest, Solymár-Kerekhegy, Tázlár) in order to determine their tolerance to different climate conditions. The experiment proved that Celosia argentea L. var. plumosa 'Savaria' and Dichond...ra repens J. R. Forst. et G. Forst 'Silver Falls' tolerate well the Hungarian extremely dry, hot and changing climate. Nemesia Vent. 'Blue Bird' developed and flowered well only in cooler and protected conditions; therefore, this species can be offered to a more balanced climate as the western areas of Hungary and the mountains.

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Spatial and temporal variation of extremely low minimum temperatures in Hungary during the period between 1951 and 2010
Published July 26, 2012
75-80.

For this study, data of 16 meteorological stations have been processed over a period of 60 years with the purpose to reveal the spatial and temporal structure of the frequencies of absolute extreme minima in Hungary with special reference to the surmised global rise of temperatures on a worldwide scale. In the main areas of fruit growing, the m...onthly or seasonal absolute temperature maxima and minima are presented during the 60 year-long period and projected on the geographical map. For the main fruit- and vegetable growing regions the probability of winter- and late frosts is of prime interest. The time series of extreme temperatures though did not prove signifi cant changes over the period observed, but the information upon changes and their tendencies is a precious tool being utilised in planning, choice of adequate varieties for a longer period of time in the future. The deleterious winter frosts experienced in fruit production is not a consequence of a sole drop to a minimum temperature, but of an earlier period of mild temperatures during the winter, which sensibilised the trees. Frequent and extreme variations of temperatures may cause troubles at any time during the year and reduce the yields conspicuously. We ought to get familiar with the hazards of our climate and fi nd optimal solutions to mitigate the damages expected. The seasonal and monthly distribution projected on the geographical map we can follow up also the spatial relations and the signifi cance of their occurrence. Coeffi cients of variation between meteorological happenings at different localities facilitate the calculation of the probability of risks on the surrounding areas.

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Epiphytic microbiota of apple in integrated and organic growing
Published May 10, 2010
85-89.

The surface microbial contamination is of great interest in case of fruits, since they are they potential sources of spoilage or foodborne diseases. The aim of this work was to compare the epiphytic microbiota of food safety concern of different apple cultivars as a function of cultivation methods (organic versus integrated), production year an...d place. Investigating 47 samples it was found that the average microbial contamination of the apple surfaces was within a certain range,, practically independent of cultivar, growing area and year. The frequency distribution of the surface bacterial, mould and yeast counts did not show significant differences between growing technologies or varieties. The principal component analysis the samples ranked the apple samples into seven groups on the basis of their microbial contamination level, and the discriminant analysis proved the goodness of grouping. The grouping was independent from cultivars and growing methods. No foodborne pathogen Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were found on the surfaces of apples.

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Malus taxa and the progenies of Malus floribunda selected in Hungary, as gene sources of resistance breeding
Published August 13, 2004
25-28.

One of our objectives in the apple breeding program of the Department of Fruit Science, beside creating new varieties, is to search for new gene sources. After evaluating the disease resistance of Malus taxa available in Hungary, we put the promising selected individuals through further examinations. Their habit and growth vigor was ob...served, as well as productivity and fruit characteristics were evaluated. Malus fusca seems to be a new, promising gene source in Hungary among the examined taxa. Beside its optimal canopy, growth vigor and fruit characteristics, it has the advantage to be in distant relationship to Malus x domestica, therefore its resistance is based on a different genetic basis. SBG 1 selection of Malus spectabilis can be recommended as a new gene source for resistance breeding. The range of gene sources can further be widened by selected clones of Malus floriblunda (BA I), Malus x zumi (BA) and Malus baccata (SBG 6). An additional value of Malus taxa chosen by us is that they show resistance not only to apple scab, but to powdery mildew as well, and according to our results, they have optimal habit, acceptable productivity and good fruit quality. Nine hybrids were selected from first Malus progenies which proved to be resistant to apple scab and powdery mildew. These are valuable not only as gene sources of breeding, but as pollenizers or ornamental trees, while their decorative fruits can be used in inside decorations and flower arrangements.

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Maceration affects mineral composition and pH of wines
Published September 20, 2015
25-29.

Mineral composition of wines is affected by many ecological and technological factors. These variables are mostly discussed focusing on certification of origin and human health. This paper gives data on possible changes in mineral composition and pH of wines due to 4 hours skin maceration (1st trial) and fermentation sur marc (2nd trial). Exper...imental site is situated on acidic sandy soil in middle east Hungary. The variety collection was established in 2003 with own rooted planting material in 3x1 m spacing, trained for single curtain training
system. Mineral composition of wines was determined with ThermoFischer Scientific iCAP 6300 ICP-OES, pH was measured with pH10pen (VWR International) in field, and with SevenEasyTM pH meter (Mettler Toledo) in laboratory. 1st trial with 9 PIWI white wine grape varieties pointed to demonstrate effects of skin maceration, which is abundantly used to elevate aroma content. 2nd trial with the use of ‘Medina’ red PIWI grape variety aimed to demonstrate effects of double pasta skin maceration in rose and red wine technology. Data of 1st trial show, that K, Cu, Mn and P respective increase with skin maceration, despite Fe show considerable decrease. Data of 2nd trial show, that K, Mg, Mn, P, Sr and B increase with longer skin contact and higher fermentation temperature, despite Fe and Ba decrease with this technology. In regard to pH, data show, that skin maceration and fermentation sur marc increase K content with about 30-70% respectively, withstanding that pH also increase with a considerable 0,4-0,5 value. K content can be higher in the end product, despite to earlier higher level of tartrate formation. An attention should be driven to lower level of tartaric acid and consequently higher pH characteristic for wines produced with the application of skin maceration or fermentation sur marc.

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Climatic indicators regarding the rest period of sour cherry
Published August 16, 2010
49-52.

Sour cherry production in the world is increasing gradually. Profitable production, i.e. yield, depends largely on weather conditions. If Hungary wishes to keep up with the most successful countries, attention should be paid to the weather during the dormancy period, being definitely decisive from the points of view of quality as well as quanti...ty. In order to predict the expected risk factors, characterisation of the most important weather parameters is necessary. For that purpose, the database of the Institute of Research and Extension Service for Fruit Growing at Újfehértó Ltd. has been utilised. Records of weather conditions were collected throughout the period 1984-2005, i.e. daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures (°C), and phenological diary of sour cherry varieties ’Újfehértói fürtös’, ’Kántorjánosi’ and ’Debreceni bôtermô’. For the future expectations study we have used the RegCM3.1 regional climate model with 10 km resolution. Data of 4 indicators have been traced: Average temperatures, Number of days without frost, Maximum length of periods without frost, Maximum length of frosty period. On the one hand, we surveyed the changes; on the other hand, estimates have been attempted for the future changes expected during the following decades.

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Irrigation of pear (A review)
Published March 25, 2009
65-73.

The plantation of intensive growing orchards and steady increase in yield is essential to return the growing cost by sale. Seasonal crop fluctuation of pear is increased by the frequently occurrence of drought and climatic changes. This study reviews genetic and growing factors determined the alternancy of pear and present the new knowledge con...cerning on water saving irrigation techniques. Use of dwarfing rootstocks, root pruning, branches pruning and new water saving irrigation make the changes in vegetative and generative growth that successfully improve the alternancy of pear growing. According to publications BA 29 of clonal quince rootstocks exhibited the best protection mechanism against to drought. Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) applied during rapid shoot growth and slowly fruit growth result a decrease in shoot growth and 60% of water saving in pear orchard while there was no influence on harvested yield. Partial rootzone drying (PRD) microjet irrigation applied in pear orchard result 23-52% of decrease in water use, however concerning explorations are contradictory. Further investigations need to improve the efficiency of new irrigation technology adapted pear varieties based on monitoring of soil water status and measurement of stem water potential as stress indicators of plants.

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Changing of carbohydrates by inoculation of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola oil bean lines with different resistance
Published February 23, 2000
82-85.

The Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola (PS) is one of the most significant stressors of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Chemical and agrotechnical treatments have minor importance, so breeding has great part in the protection against this pathogen. Most of the cultivars are susceptible to PS. The genetic background... of resistance in the plant is a complex system. Leaf resistance is a monogenic system, but there are some modifier genes. The pathogen species can be divided into different races.

To understand the functioning of this resistance gene, experiments were carried out using bean varieties with different genotypes and near isogenic lines of bean. Eight lines were tested. Our main objective was to test bean lines with PS with high virulence.

The experiment was made in greenhouse and on field. The virulent bacterium strain has been isolated in Hungary.

The changes of carbohydrates were tested after infection. In homeostasis the level of carbohydrates (especially glucose and fructose) were higher in susceptible lines. In case of artificial and natural infection the decrease of glucose were more significant in susceptible lines than in resistant lines. In the leaf samples from systemic chlorosis the level of this carbohydrate increased.

These changes are connected with the level of resistance, but more experiments are needed to verify this assumption.

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Effect of foliar spraying with algae suspension on leaf and fruit quality parameters of apple varieties
Published April 25, 2012
35-38.

Foliar nutrition experiment was made to investigate the effect of algae products on fruit quality of apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). The study was conducted in 2011 at Siófok inWest-Hungary on cv. ‘Jonagored’ and ‘Idared’grafted on M9 rootstock. In our trial leaf diagnostic and fruit quality measurements were made to study the effecti...veness of applied products. Relative leaf chlorophyll content was determined by a portable chlorophyll meter. Fruit weight and shape index were measured. Fruit inner qualifying parameters like titratable acid content and Brix value were also determined. It can be stated that the used products had traceable effect on investigated fruit parameters. Although, leaf N content was not effected by treatments significantly, relative leaf chlorophyll content significantly increased by both treatments. Used products significantly increased the fruit weight and shape index. Applied treatments significantly decreased the pH of pulp. Treatments increased the acid contents (fumaric, citric, malic) of apples and decreased the amount of monosaccharides. It means that the applied treatments pushed out the ratio of acid/sugar.

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Composition and sensory properties of sour cherry cultivars
Published May 10, 2010
19-23.

Fruits of different sour cherry varieties cultivated, in 2008 and 2009, under organic farming and integrated cultivation conditions were analysed for their quality attributes, antioxidant activity and subjected to sensory evaluation.. Average size, weight, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total polyphenols, free radical scavenging capacity e...xpressed as Trolox equivalent (TEAC), copper and zinc were determined in freshly harvested fruits. The obtained results indicated that, the principal component analysis can separate and distinguish the seasons of fruit production. The farming system seemed to have slight effect on quality the fruit as compared to varietal factors (genotypes). However, the total polyphenol content was uniformly less in 2009. Total polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity were significantly higher in Bosnian type sour cherries, and outstanding in Amarelle type cultivar ‘Pipacs’. There was no statistically significant difference between the sensory properties of cultivars tested by panels, except the case of ‘Pipacs’. The organolaptic investigation showed marked preference to the fruits of Eva and Petri cultivars.

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Preliminary biochemical studies on a model growing of different tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cultivars
Published May 15, 2007
83-87.

The aim of our preliminary studies was to characterize the change in the activity of enzymes PPO and PDX, the concentration of total soluble phenolic compounds and soluble protein content of different tobacco cultivars measured in tobacco plants during cultivation. The results suggest that a shorter cultivation period (13-14 weeks) is ...more favourable for tobacco plants as protein source than for tobacco industrial use (16-17 weeks). We found some correlation between the concentration of total soluble phenolic compounds and PPO activity data. In the increasing and maximum period of total phenol content the PPO activity was high. But later because of decrease of substrate phenol content the activity of PPO also decreased. We found higher soluble protein concentrations in Virginia than in Burley varieties.

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Agronomic and alimentary evaluation of elder (Sambucus nigra L.) genotypes selected from natural populations of Hungary
Published March 16, 2004
49-52.

The black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) is a native plant in Hungary represented by extended and very variable populations. Cultivation of elderberry started during the late 90-ies because of the growing interests of the processing industry. High anthocyanin content, nutritive value of the berries and aromatic compounds of the flowers have been the... esteemed constituents.

At the moment, there are about 3000 hectares elder plantations in Hungary, which is more than of any of the other European countries. Unfortunately, the cultures are planted to the Austrian selections of Haschberg, in spite of the fact that about 10-15 other selections of other foreign countries have been registered and planted elsewhere. In addition to that, the wild population of Hungary may offer a precious opportunity of further selection. Since 1970, Aladár Porpáczy at Fertőd and the Department of Fruit Growing of the former University of Horticulture in the 1980-ies started the selection in Hungary too.

The present study deals with 7 genotypes, their morphology of berries and inflorescences. Results are concentrated on four genotypes: Szcs­1, Szcs-2, Szcs-3 and Szcs-5, which are all earlier ripening than the Haschberg varieties, and are superior in characters of fruit and inflorescence.

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