The small fruit and strawberry production is economically important in Serbian agriculture. The fresh fruit is sold in domestic markets, but the frozen and processed is mainly sold in foreign markets. The growers find themselves in an ever-expanding selection of the varieties, but besides the nursery and breeder’s descriptions of new cultivar...s, there are only few exact results for the biological and economical ability of the varieties, which makes easier to choose the proper cultivar. The performance of the varieties in modern strawberry production is worth to investigate by adaptive cultivation methods and production technique. In the case of new strawberry varieties we know neither their needs in production nor their real capability, so they have to be compared with an older, standard control variety (‘Clery’). The breeder’s manuals give only references for the needs of the production technique, of the variety, so it is necessary to have facts, which are based on objective testing results. In this work, a new variety (‘Joly’) is being compared with the control variety. Comparative study of individual varieties are required covering the antioxidant content of the fruits (FRAP) and variability of these amounts in different years of breeding as well as the production techniques under similar circumstances.
The extraordinary abundance of precipitation in 2010 (somewhere around 1000 mm) influenced highly the development of taste and flavour in cherry fruits. As stated, only a few varieties out of 27 were acceptable as for commercial quality. Under the given climatic conditions, actually ‘Bigarreau Burlat’ earned 965.11 points and proved to be t...he best in the early ripening group. In the mid season group, three varieties earned more than 1000 points (‘Giant Red’, ‘Carmen’ and ‘Vera’ grown at Nagykutas and Pallag), whereas in the late ripening group ‘Germesdorfi’ sent from Csenger (1084), ‘Linda’ (1070.07) and ‘Lapins’ (1052) received recognition. Correlation has been tested on the basis of 27 varieties between the individual properties. We sated that the most important attributes, which influenced the general impression of decision makers are the following: form and size of the fruit (r=0.835 and 0.797), furthermore juiciness (r=0.776), taste (r=0.876) and sweetness (0.875). Crispness was considered to be typical to cherry (r=0.743). Relation between acidity and sweetness was also essential to determine the acceptance of the cherry character.
Ecological or biological growing techniques are generally recognised as actual trends in agricultural production. The objective of our experiments is a comparison of apple fruits grown alternatively by integrated versus ecological technology. In a collection of varieties, the possibility of the experiment was feasible. At the same time, a compa...rison of the popularity of existing varieties was also actual. The organoleptic consumer’s tests rated the varieties, and the comparison with instrumentally raised “objective” data could be compared with the subjective ratings, which did not coincide with each other. This phenomenon was revealed in the rating of acid-sugar harmony, where the internationally used quality index of Thiault produced a different range of the samples then the consumer’s test. The same contradiction was observed between ratings of firmness and the data raised by penetrometer.
Red wine culture in Hungary was developed due to the grapevine variety ‘Kadarka’, originated from the Balkans, from the 16th and 17th centuries. ‘Kadarka’ was the first grapevine variety cultivated on the largest area in Hungary until the 1950’s, but its production area has been reduced significantly in the past decades. In the period... of Hungarian grapevine reconstruction (from the 1960’s), the selection of the grapevine varieties and clones was determined by the system of cultivation (large growing space, large load and mechanized technology) that was based on the aspects of quantity. It did not promote the majority of the autochton and regional grapevine varieties to remain competitive. ‘Kadarka’ is a grapevine variety having an extraordinary variability in forms; however, a considerable part of its old stocks has disappeared. Nowadays, only two of its high yield clones are cultivated. ‘Kadarka’ becomes more differentiated from other, red wine producing, grapevine varieties, more preferred and newly requested by the fine aroma, spice, unique harmony of its wine less rich in tannin. The new market and environmental challenges in the field of wine production necessitate the preservation and improvement of the biological basis. In 2001 the Institute of Viticulture and Enology Pécs analyzed an old stock having a variability in forms in order to preserve the development and variability of the biological basis of ‘Kadarka’. Clones of great biological value were selected from it, with which the quality and yield security of ‘Kadarka’ can be increased. In 2010 and in 2012, six clones were submitted for state approval.
Interaction between the rootstock and scion varieties (clones) was examined. Berlandieri x Riparia T. K. 5BB, Berlandieri x Riparia T.5C being the most widely used varieties in Hungary, Fercal, Ruggeri 140 being recently used on special soil conditions ; Georgikon 28 a new established variety and Berlandieri x Riparia T. 8B GK 10 clone were the... rootstocks used. The V. vinifera L. varieties were a clone of Italian Riesling and two new hybrids from the same cross population f ( Noble Italian Riesling X Ezerjó) X ( Noble Italian Riesling X Pinot Gris ) }. This study presents the results how the growth habit depends on different scion/stock combinations in the first three years.
Shoot growth characters were observed during the initial years after plantation in the vineyard until we got the first yields. Our results did not agree with those of Pospisilova (1977) that the anticipated vigour of shoot growth will appear later in the vineyard only. However we agree with Zimmerman (1970), who showed that the differences are caused by the rootstocks in the growth habit of vines during the first two years already. The differences in shoot elongation decreased similarly to the rootstocks in the first year of fruit production. It shows us that the intense root development caused vigorous shoot growth, which we think to be a rootstock effect. When the vegetative and generative development are balanced already, the effect of scions in shoot elongation became stronger than the effect of rootstock.
We also found great differences in the maturation of wood each year from planting of the vineyard to the year of fruit production.
During the first years the differences of cane maturation were greater according to the scion varieties, the means were significantly different. In the first ripening year the differences dwindled or increased due to the rootstocks. This means that the effect of the rootstock on cane maturation became stronger in the first year of fruit production.
It was stated as a summary that a system of testing pear varieties on scale of 100 degrees, weighing 11 properties, gives a comprehensive information on qualities of pear varieties. The points of the form to be filled out, distinguishes the appreciation of accessory flavours and tastes from the main properties. Under the title of taste, sweet a...nd acid taste are evaluated separately. The presently used system is a step forward as the composed characters do not influence the judgement of each other. In the representation of results, the 100 degree system was more efficacious than the usual 5-point system because there was no need of using fractions, and the graphic profile is more expressive, so the commodity is better visualised. The assembly of the jury was divided into two groups as below and above 35 year old persons. The two groups judged differently the acidity, sweetness and the thickness of the fruit peel. It was suggested that the choice of the produce should consider the differences in taste and give up the idea of being equally favourable for both groups. The samples of different growing sites revealed that the best quality is produced at Nagykanizsa, and this capacity would be able to supply the market also in the large super-markets and chain of department stores in Hungary.
Our objective was to study the effect of organic farming and area of cultivation on the allergen content of apple varieties by quantification of the major allergens (Mal d 1 and Mal d 2) using allergen-specific ELISA. The obtained results showed that except Idared IX. 29. most of examined varieties, when cultivated under organic farming conditi...ons, contained lower level of Mal d1 allergen than those produced with integrated farming. The different varieties were found to vary substantially in theirMal d 1 allergen content. Furthermore, with some varieties the area of cultivation affected to some extent the content of Mal d 1 allergen.
Virus susceptibility of 11 varieties of vegetatively propagated petunia against 2 virus strains (TMV-C/U1 and PVYNTN) were examined. Neither resistant nor tolerant varieties of petunia were found. The virus infection of the Petunia genus was examined in Hungary. The most common pathogens were the Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TM...V) and the Tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV), but the samples also contained Alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus (AMV), Cucumber mosaic ClIC11171014171S (CMV) and Potato Y potyvirus (PVY). Potato X potexvirus (PVX) was isolated in the varieties of trailing petunia for the first time.
Grapevine bloom happens between end of May and the middle of June in Hungary. However, climate change in the past decades and the occurring weather anomalies can modi fy this date to a diverse degree. Among the weather factors, the bloom starting dates of grapevine depend mostly on temperature and relative humidity of air. There can be signific...ant differences between North American and East Asian grapevine varieties, and of course, the early and late ripening varieties. ln this approach we investigated the starting dates of bloom between 2000 and 2004 for grapevine varieties grown in Helvecia, as well as the effectiveness of a temperature sum model. The model is based on the widely accepted cumulated heat sum concept, and the optimization was made for the least standard deviation in days as well as on the least average absolute deviation in days and on the least maximum deviation in days. The model is connected directly to a similar model for the budburst date of the same plantings (Hlaszny & ladanyi, 2009). We set the optimum lower base temperature to I 0.45 °C and the upper base temperature to 26 °C. The absolute values of the differences between the observations and the model estimations move between one and six days with an average of 1.81 days
The aims of this paper was to investigate the flowering characteristic of apples and their relationship to meteorological parameters. The trees observed are grown at Ujfehert6, Eastern Hungary in the plantation of an assortment (gene bank) with 586 apple varieties. Each of the varieties were observed as for their dates of subsequent phenophases..., the beginning of bloom, main bloom and the end of bloom over a period between 1984 and 2001. During this period the meteorological data-base keeps the following variables: daily means of temperature (°C), daily maximum temperature (°C), daily minimum temperature (°C), daily precipitation sums (mm), daily sums of sunny hours, daily means of the differences between the day-time and night-time temperatures (°C), average differences between temperatures of successive daily means (°C). Between the 90th and 147th day of the year over the 18 years of observation. The early blooming varieties start blooming at 10-21 April. The varieties of intermediate bloom start at the interval 20 April to 3 May, whereas the late blooming group start at 2-10 May. Among the meteorological variables of the former autumnal and hibernal periods, the hibernal maxima were the most active factor influencing the start of bloom in the subsequent spring.
Pál Maliga founded the Hungarian research in floral biology of fruit species during his more than forty-year-long carrier. Almost all pome and stone fruit species have been covered by his activities, but he also dealt with the fertility of walnut and chestnut. Regularities have been revealed and the methodical studies opened the way to approac...h and elaborate alternatives for the association of varieties in planning high yielding commercial plantations. In his breeding activity the choice of crossing parental varieties was based on the knowledge in fertility relations. The obtained sour cherry varieties represent the world-wide maximum quality, reliability and security of yields. Hungarian renewed sour cherry cultivation owes its fame and prosperity to those varieties, nevertheless also to the radical knowledge of the biological bases of fertility.
In the Carpathian Basin Kövidinka and White Riesling are promising wine grape varieties. As in the region continental climate dominates and dry years are not uncommon it was natural to study the water requirement and consumption of the two varieties. Morphological characters affecting transpiration were observed including lea...f area, hairiness, number and type of stomata. The amount of water transpired per unit leaf area and time and rate of water consumption were measured in a model trial in cuttings with known water supply.
The water consumption of vine cuttings depends on varieties and is determined by the genotype but it is also affected by environment. Kövidinka requires little water and uses it to its advantage White Riesling requires more water and uses it rather lavishly. The results of our model trial could be introduced directly into viticulture practice.
The flower bud development is an especially complex process from initiation to blooming. Our main objective was to analyze paradormancy; the first stage of this process in our collection of varieties in the vicinity of Budapest, in Hungary. We have analyzed three varieties with different winter hardiness. `Ceglédi bíborkajszi' is one of the m...ost frost susceptible in our collection of varieties, when the flower bud differentiation started in early August, and all flower organ initials evolved in beginning of September. The flower bud differentiation of the most winter hardy variety, `Rózsakajszi C.1406' started in the end of August, and all flower organs were noticed at middle of September. `Gönci magyar kajszi' is a medium frost hardiness apricot variety, its phenological process composes transition between two mentioned above varieties.
Apricot seedlings are one of the most widely used rootstocks in apricot growing of Hungary. The National List of Hungary contains 7 apricot seedling rootstocks varieties. The production of apricot graft on seedling rootstock takes 3 years from the seed production to the complete graft and requires more space. It is important to provide the true...ness to variety name during this process. In the genus Prunoideae not only the plant but also the stone should have typical characteristics. It seems to be useful to examine the morphology of stone. The observed varieties were 'Tengeribarack C.1300', 'Tengeribarack C.1301', 'Tengeribarack C.1650', 'Tengeribarack' C.1652', 'Tengeribarack C.145', 'Tengeribarack C.1426' and 'Tengeribarack C.2546`.1t seems to be the most suitable characteristic to make a distinction between these varieties by stone, the ratio height of stone to lateral width of stone, the ratio of height of stone to ventral width of stone, the ratio of lateral width of stone to ventral width of stone and the ratio of ventral zone to ventral width. From not measured characteristic seems to be most utilizable to make distinction: the fusion of dorsal groove margins, the shape of apex, the presence of a mucro of the apex, the shape of stalk end in lateral view and the texture of lateral surfaces.
In the recent years, several disease-resistant apple varieties appeared through the modern breeding technologies. These varieties can be grown with low usage of pesticides, which mean not only environment friendly fruit growing, but the production costs are also lower. In Eastern-Hungary — it is one of the main apple growing regions — a new... apple growing structure started to form by the investment of the German Wink Ltd. — several resistant apple varieties were brought from Germany. 'Resistant' refers genetic resistance that usually transferred from the genome of wild apple species. But the fruit of these apple species is not only resistant to diseases, but its quality is poorer, too. In Germany the Re-apples are grown only for the processing industry. Due to climatic circumstances in Eastern Hungary, the first experiences showed better parameters during laboratory measurement, the fruits have more beautiful view, shape and inner characters than usual industrial apples.
In our paper we discuss the results of sensory (consumer) tests, carried out in Eastern Hungary and in the Budapest-region the data analysis of systematic storing experiments (refraction, flesh firmness, weight loss, etc.) and profile analysis of fresh and stored Re-apples. (In the profile analysis the ProfiSens software [4,5] has been used.)
A variety trial has been accomplished to study the flowering performance of some modern roses. Blooming time and blooming intensity were studied in Hungarian and Western European varieties. 120 Floribundas, polyanthas and climbings were observed. Our work shows that valuable Hungarian varieties can be found in all the three studied classes. The... best Hungarian climbing roses at blooming intensity were `Futótűz', `Rozalia', ‘Sarolt and 'Szent Erzsébet emléke'; best floribundas were ‘Báthory István emléke', 'Munkács', 'Szent Margit emléke; and the best Hungarian polyanthas were `Csinszka', `Domokos PáI Péter emléke'. Some really good flowering Western-European rose varieties have also been found, the best ones were 'Clg. Gertrude Westphal' climbing, 'La Sevillana' floribunda and 'Beauty of New South Wells', 'Happy' polyanthus. 'La Sevillana' and 'Picasso' were in strong bloom for the longest time.
In Hungary, the floribunda and polyantha classes had good flowering intensity to the almost the same extent, floribundas had stronger, and polyanthas had longer flowering waves, but the ever-blooming ability of the climbing roses was moderate in the dry midsummer.
It is well known that beetroot quality is determined mainly by the red pigment content (betacyanins) and its uniformity of the root. The effect of the most important red pigment components (betanin). the total polyphenol content and antioxidants were studied in 20 beet root varieties. Antioxidants were expressed in FRAP (ferric reducing ability... of plasma) values in pM/I.
Our results indicated a close correlation (r = 0.7799 and r = 0.7435. respectively) between betanin and total polyphenol contents of the root as well as between FRAP values.
Our measurements showed more than threefold differences in total antioxidant activity among varieties. the lowest value being 196.4 13M/1 and highest 702.57 pM/I. The corresponding betanin (16.3 and 57.8 mg/100 ml) and total polyphenol (37.5 and 85.5 mg/100 ml respectively) contents show similar differences. Based on our results it can be stated that varieties of higher betanin and poliphenol contents have higher antioxidant values as well.
Accordingly, the two compounds must have a role in the evolution of antioxidant effects.
The aim of this paper was to investigate the fl owering characteristic of apples and their relationship to meteorological parameters. The trees observed are grown at Újfehértó, Eastern Hungary in the plantation of an assortment (gene bank) with 586 apple varieties. Each of the varieties were observed as for their dates of subsequent phenopha...ses, the beginning of bloom, main bloom and the end of bloom over a period between 1984 and 2001 during this period the meteorological data-base keeps the following variables: daily means of temperature (°C), daily maximum temperature (°C), daily minimum temperature (°C), daily precipitation sums (mm), daily sums of sunny hours, daily means of the differences between the day-time and night-time temperatures (°C), average differences between temperatures of successive daily means (°C). Between the 90th and 147th day of the year over the 18 years of observation. The early blooming varieties start blooming at 10–21April. The varieties of intermediate bloom start at the interval 20 April to 3 May, whereas the late blooming group start at 2–10 May. Among the meteorological variables of the former autumnal and hibernal periods, the hibernal maxima were the most active factor infl uencing the start of bloom in the subsequent spring.
RAPD markers were used to reveal genetic diversity between nine varieties of Cucumis melo L. and to identify the studied varieties. Of the 60 primers tested 12 primers produced polymorph patterns. A set of 4 primers was sufficient for distinction the nine investigated melon varieties.
Eurasian and interspecific grape varieties and candidates were inspected for biological productivity in the variety collection of the University of Debrecen at the Horticultural Experimental Station in Pallag. In this paper, data are reported on yields (kg/stock), cane production (kg/ stock) and use-up index of wood yield of each cultivar in th...e experimental years 2011-2012. From the range of Eurasian (Vitis vinifera L.) white wine-grape qualified cultivars and candidates ’Ezerfürtû’, ’Generosa’, ’Jubileum 75’, ’Müller Thurgau’, ’Zöld veltelíni’,’B-11’, ’CSFT-92’, ’Pintes’, from the range of Eurasian (Vitis vinifera L.) red wine-grape qualified cultivars and candidates ’Kármin’, ’Pinot noir’, ’Alicante Bouschet’ and ’Rubintos’ were highlighted. Promising data of interspecific ’Aletta’, ’Csillám’, ’Kunleány’, ’Orpheus’, ’Refrén’, ’Taurus’, ’Viktória gyöngye’, ’Alföld 100’, ’Reform’, ’RF38/32’, ’Toldi’ white, and ’Dunagyöngye’ ’Pannon frankos’ red wine-grape cultivars and candidates were emphasized. Published data refer only to the biological performance of the cultivars. The thorough evaluation of varieties needs respect to data on resistance to fungal disease and climatic extremities, and other characteristics concerning production technology and oenological parameters.
On the Horticultural Station of the Debrecen University, Pallag, two year old apple plantations of two varieties (‘Pinova’, ‘Golden Reinders’) have been studied, in autumn 2011. The growth of the cross section area of the trunk and the central axis were measured and compared to evaluate the effect of two alternative growing technologies...: integrated and/or ecological. ‘Pinova’ proved to grow more intensely than ‘Golden Reinders’ independently from the growing technology. The effect of the technology, however, was expressed in ‘Pinova’, where the integrated technology produced more vigorous growth than the ecological one. The effect of varieties on growing intensity was more distinct than the effect of growing technologies. Under the ecological growing system, the difference between the varieties studied is more accentuated regarding growing intensity. By that reason, in ecological growing plantations of varieties with moderate vigour ought to be stimulated by all possible techniques (as pruning, nutrition etc.).
Atmospheric drought causes heavy diffi culties of water supply in most fruit species grown in Hungary, although the modern, intensive plantations are already equipped with irrigation. The use a dripping systems are widely applied, therefore nothing was done to avert the risk of atmospheric drought. In excessively dry seasons the reduction of yi...elds is often due to atmospheric drought. Present study aims to utilise measured data of meteorological parameters (relative air humidity and temperature) to develop an index to characterise drought and measure its effect on fruit yield. Causes influencing yields are multiple. Phytosanitary problems are combined with defi cits of water supply. Water deficit of the soil is avoided by dripping irrigation, but the atmosphere is infl uenced by sprinklers only. Atmospherical drought increases the transpiration of the trees intensely and causes reduction of photosynthetic activity, consequently impairs the yield. Applying the index developed in a plantation of 6 sour cherry varieties grown in Hungary (Meteor, Nefris, Pándy, Újfehértói fürtös, Kántorjánosi, Debreceni bôtermô), we measured the specific yields (yield per volume of tree crown) during the period 1989–2011 using the meteorological database of the growing site. Additionally, other parameters characterising the drought are compared and searched for a method most reliable for judging the specific yielding capacity of sour cherry varieties. The results proved convincingly the utility of the index, especially for the varieties Pándy and Újfehértói fürtös. Comparison with other indices expressing the effects of drought revealed the superiority of our index, which will be applied in the future to express the risk of atmospheric drought.
In sweet cherry growing, intense technology is introduced as the up to date development. Among the elements of the technology are the choice of variety, planting design and pruning are the main elements. The methods, intensity and the timing of pruning are largely dependent from the growing habits of the varieties, the light demand of the parts... of different age and their tendency of getting bald on the aging zones. One of the main limiting factors of production, the frost damages are outstanding. In choosing the site of plantation, we must avoid the places, where spring frosts used to occur, the next moment is the role of the variety and the technology applied. In Hungary, the late or spring frosts are considered, however, the winter frosts may also cause heavy losses, which depend also on the health and nutritional condition of the trees when being exposed to temperature minima. Our present study is based on a 9-year-old plantation trained to slender spindle as well as to free spindle crown. We observed the development of fruiting structures and their frost damage also in relation with the timing of the pruning operations during the winter or summer, and compared also the varieties with each other.
Comprehensive system of sensory evaluation was developed to obtain information on the different varieties by determining asparagus quality parameters. 9 sensory characteristics were estimated to describe flavour differences. The tests were carried out in 4 varieties of white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) grown on brown humus sand soil by... etiolate method in ridge cultivation. The experiment was performed at the University of Debrecen in Debrecen-Pallag. To increase the Hungarian asparagus consumption, a classification of varieties
regarding to asparagus flavour is necessary. In our experiment it could be stated that there are strict correlations (0.892) between the sweetness – total impression and between lacks of unpleasant aftertaste – total impression (0.870). The result of surveys can lead to higher popularity of the asparagus. These results are presented in order to recommend the varieties to producers for a successful marketing. The taste of asparagus is mostly influenced by variety, soil type and growing conditions. In our experiment, ‘Vitalim’ hybrid exceeded by several sensory parameters. This hybrid scored 788.38 over 900. The elder population showed more interest in asparagus consumption than younger ones. 50% of the participants are able to pay only 500-600 HUF/kg. It could be realized to ensure the proper growing place, hybrid and direct trade. Marketing and more information is necessary to increase the popularity of this vegetable among the younger generation.
A variety trial has been carried out to study the colour changing — colour stability of the flowers of some modern roses, especially of Hungarian varieties. 100 floribundas and polyanthas were observed. Colours of the petal surface were examined at three fenological stages of the flowers: at the bud, at the young open flowers and at the aged...open flower stages. The colour difference was described in HLS standard. Our work shows that valuable Hungarian varieties can be found in both studied classes, but more floribundas bred in Hungary had good colour stability than polyanthas. The best Hungarian floribundas were 'Pest' and 'Remenyik Sándor emléke', although 'Regen', `Szent Lász1ó emléke' and 'Szabó Dezső emléke' were quite good. The best Western-European floribunda rose was 'Perneille Poulsen'. Their colour stability was reliable in different situations. Colour changing of the two best varieties was almost unperceivable from the bud to the young petals and from the young to the aged petals. In the polyantha class there was only one perfect variety: the Czech `Cs1 Cerveny Kriz'. The 'Fairy Damsel' was almost excellent as well. The best Hungarian polyanthas were `Domokos Pál Péter emléke' and 'Savaria'.