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Cracking susceptibility evaluation of some stone fruit species (Sour cherries – Prunus cerasus L.; Sweet cherries – Prunus avium and European plums – Prunus domestica L.) grown in Hungary
Published April 22, 2014

The rain induced fruit cracking is a big, serious problem especially for sweet cherry growers but in some year growers of other stone fruit species had also problem with fruit cracking caused by too much and heavy rainfalls in the ripening and harvesting season. Cracked stone fruits can be easily infected by different diseases like Monillinia s...p. Cracked and infected fruits can not be transported for long distance and using for preservation, they lost their market value by the destroyed fruit quality. It was decided to make a research work to determine the rain fruit cracking susceptibility of few stone fruit species (sour cherries, sweet cherries and European plums). Fruit cracking tests were occurred under laboratory conditions on the most common cultivars grown in Hungary. Furthermore we tried to find correlation between the fruit cracking and some fruit quality parameters (fruit size; total sugar content, fruit flesh firmness).

Our conclusions are the followings:
Sour cherries: There were found differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested sour cherry varieties when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. Based on cracking test results under laboratory condition (immersing in distillated water) we made the grouping by cracking susceptibility of sour cherry varieties. Tested cultivars were divided three groups: very susceptible; susceptible; moderately susceptible (tolerant). Groups with varieties are: Very susceptible - ’Maliga emléke’, ’Piramis’, ’Érdi jubileum’,’Érdi nagygyümölcsû’ and ’Meteor korai; Susceptible (Sensitive) – ’Érdi bôtermô’, ’Pándy’ and Cigány 59. Moderately susceptible (tolerant) – ‘Éva’ and ‘Petri’as new rereleases. The most of tested sour cherry varieties are in agreement with the literature (Apostol, 2003) and four of them (’Maliga emléke’, ’Pándy 279’, ‘Éva’ and ‘Petri’) had higher average fruit weight than was mentioned in the literature (Apostol, 2003). Our fruit cracking results are in agreement with Zelinski’s (1964) and Christensen’s (1975) conclusions that there is no close relationship between fruit size and rain induced fruit cracking tendency. We found significant differences between the sugar content of tested cultivars. In contrast of Verner & Blodget (1931) our results confirm Tucker’s opinion that the sugar content is not correlation with the cracking tendency of cherry fruits (Tucker, 1934). Fruits firmness (elasticity) was measured by destructive method when juice was coming out from fruits. There were found big differences of fruit firmness and skin strength of observed cultivars. Our results are only partly agreement with Christensen’s (1996) opinion that cherry cultivars with firmer fruits are more prone to fruit cracking than softer ones. By this was seemingly we did not found close relationship between the fruit firmness and the cracking tendency of sour cherry fruits. We found that during fruits immersing in distillated water the fruit weight was increasing due to the absorbed water. Our opinion is that there is no close relationship between the scale of fruit cracking and the quantity of absorbed water. By results presented above we our opinion is that no very close relationship between the fruit cracking of sour cherries and the observed parameters (fruit size, fruit firmness, sugar content, amount of absorbed water) maybe other varietal effects and physiological characters (fruit skin structural parameters) play more important role in the fruit cracking mechanism of cherries.

Sweet cherries: Similarly to sour cherries in the case of sweet cherries we also did not find close relationship between observed fruit parameters and cracking index. It was differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested sweet cherry cultivars when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. It was found that the cracking ratio of very cracking susceptible sour cherry varieties had the same or higher cracking index than observed sweet cherries. It is in contrast with the general opinion (Chistensen, 1996) that sour cherries are less prone to rain induced fruit cracking than sweet cherries. We found differences between the cracking ration and cracking dynamic of the same cultivar in different years (2006 and 2013). It is in agreement Christensen’s (1996) opinion that the year effect cause big differences in the fruit cracking of cherries.
European plums: We found differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested plum varieties when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. A shorter term (6 hours) immersing in water caused three groups by their cracking susceptibility: „Very susceptible”: ’Révfülöpi’ and ’Szarvasi’; „Susceptible”: ’Besztercei’; „Less sensitive”: ’Bluefre’ and ’Cacanska rodna’. A longer term (24 hours) immersing in water resulted only two groups with significant differences: „Susceptible group”: ’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’; „Less sensitive”: ’Bluefre’ and ’Cacanska rodna’ Similarly the cherries we did not find correlation between the fruit size and cracking susceptibility of European plum cultivars. It was based on: the big fruit sized ‘Bluefre’ and middle sized ‘Cacanska rodna’ cracked in the lowest scale, during the small sized ’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’ cultivars cracked in higher scale We found positive correlations between the cracking susceptibility and total sugar content of tested plum cultivars. Cultivars with significantly lower sugar content (‘Bluefre’ and ‘C. rodna’) showed lower fruit cracking susceptibility than cultivars (’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’) with higher sugar content). We found close relationship between the relative (%) absorbed water amount and the fruit cracking susceptibility. Cultivars with higher absorbed water amount (’Szarvasi’-’Révfülöpi’-’Besztercei’) had higher cracking susceptibility.

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Certification programme for production of virus-free propagating material of grapevine and its results in Hungary
Published October 16, 2002

In Hungary, detection of virus and virus-like diseases of grapevine began in 1960's at the Research Institute for Viticulture and Enology by János Lehoczky and his colleagues. At present, sixteen virus and virus-like diseases of Vitis vinifera are known to occur in Hungary.

Regular virological screening of grapevine varieties ...started in 1972. The present system of screening (visual selection, indexing, ELISA) has been established using methods with continuous improvement according to recommendations of international organizations.

In the first year symptomless grapevine plants are selected and marked during surveys carried out twice in the vegetation period: at about flowering and in the second half of September. At the first selection time plants are sampled for ELISA.

In the spring of the second year, overwintered canes are checked by woody indexing on 8 indicator species in the field.

In the third and fourth years the nursery is evaluated twice again. At the end, the marked grapevine plants, giving negative results on all indicators in every case, are considered virus-free.

In autumn of the fourth year, the virus-free material is planted out under screenhouse and also in a special mother block (nuclear stock) for maintenance and propagation.

Mother blocks of virus-free scion varieties have been established on 2 ha and those of rootstock varieties on 0.5 ha planted with the following number of varieties included in the national list: 71 European scion — and 12 rootstock varieties or variety candidates/clones. It is necessary to increase the area of Pre-base, Base and Certified stocks exclusively with tested virus-free (clean) material.

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Comparison of the growing habit of peach varieties trained to caldron and slender spindle crowns
Published May 10, 2010

Six peach varieties (’RedMoon’, ’Early Redhaven’, ’Rich Lady’, ’Suncrest’, ’Silver King’, ’Royal Glory’) grafted on seedling stock have been trained alternatively, to caldron (kettle) and to slender spindle, are compared in dormant stage regarding their variety-specific growing habits. According to our results, marked di...fferences have been stated in vegetative vigour of varieties measured as the length, thickness and number of shoots. The caldron crowns displayed more vigour whereas the spindle trees produced more balanced and moderately growing shoots. The differences due to varieties were more conspicuous that due to the training. An intrinsic knowledge of growing habits of varieties may facilitate the development of variety-specific pruning technologies beginning with the training for crown forms.

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Comparative analysis of peach and nectarine cultivars based on their ecological and biological indicators
Published July 29, 2020

Natural conditions other than the ecological conditions of the Chinese gene center (as 34-38° latitude and 600 to 2400 m above sea level), mainly dry subtropical, i.e. Mediterranean effects, facilitated the development of new forms and varieties (Scorza & Okie, 1991; Faust & Timon, 1995). Probably the primary cause of nectar...ines, this could also be the primary cause of mutations (probably about 2000 years ago) (Roach, 1985; Surányi, 1985). During the long domestication of peaches, its natural occurrence increased, which was greatly enhanced by its ecological and mutational ability and the organoleptical values of its fruit (Hedrick, 1917; Roach, 1985; Scorza & Okie, 1991; Faust et al., 2011). Through the Ellenberg-Borhidi model and its refinement, the author has demonstrated the suitability of peaches in a broad climate zone based on the relative ecological and biological values of 700 varieties. Among the varieties, clone cultivars and hybrids were Hungarian selected and crossed form, because the diverse environmental conditions of the Carpathian Basin and the past and present size of cultivation were representative (Faust & Timon, 1995; Timon, 2000). It can be concluded from the present relative ecological data that the average standard deviation is below 12% for both peach and nectarine varieties, but the relative biological values were very different. Comparison of cultivars or classical (downy) peaches (n = 562) and nectarines (n = 138) in terms of environmental values confirmed the difference in heat demand and salt tolerance of the two groups of varieties. The pictures of the paper also demonstrated the rich diversity of this fruit species, and after analyzing the apricot and plum varieties (Surányi 2014, 2018), the peculiarities of the relative ecological and biological values of peaches were confirmed.

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The main colouring substance and essential oil components of different carrot varieties
Published May 24, 1999

Investigating colouring components it was found that the p carotene being the most important from the point of view of nutrition constitutes about 60-70% of the total colouring material, whereas the ratio of a carotene is 18-34%.

Among the varieties having a short growing season the common incidence rate of the a and 13 carotene is very... high (92.49 %), even a lower total colouring material content (178.02 ppm) results in bright orange red carrot roots.

The incidence of a and carotene represents, however, only 84.24% of the similar total colouring material value (171.74 ppm) measured in Nantais.

Among the storage varieties Fertődi vörös has the highest value of total colouring substance (213.04 ppm) from which the common proportion of the two carotene (a and (3) compounds amounts to 93.77%.

When testing the essential oil components the cariophyllen shows the highest incidence rate, which has a negative influence on the flavour materials of the carrot. Among the early varieties in Nantais Forto this quantity amounts to 24.08 ppm which is almost twice as much as the amount measured in Nantais. We found a similarly unfavourable quantity in %lords &ids (25.47 ppm).

Looking at the beta-pinen and 1-limonen of a bactericidal effect the quantity of l-limonen is higher (1.36 ppm on the average of the varieties). Among the varieties that have a longer growing season and which are suitable for processing Fertődi vörös is the best in terms of essential oil and colour content. Its beta-pinen content was above the average of this variety (1.12 ppm) while its 1-limonen content was considerably high (1.26 ppm).


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Comparative study of the vegetative and generative organs in pear varieties
Published June 20, 2006

An assortment of 17 pear varieties was examined in 2006 at Keszthely, Department of Horticulture, Georgicon Faculty of Agriculture, Veszprem University. The selected varieties were planted in 1980, grafted on seedling rootstock and represented the majority of existing pear plantations in Hungary. The main objective was the determination of suit...ability of the most important varieties for the purpose of intensive growing technologies even when grafted on vigorous seedling rootstock. The most important growing and fruiting characteristics of the varieties have been assessed and evaluated from the point of view of productivity. We stated that the relations of the trunk or the main axis to the lateral branches and fruiting structures are all subject to varietal effects and are valuable indices of the growing character. The quotient of the diameters of trunk and branch should be around 0.3-0.4, and the relative frequency of fruiting structures (Dárda, nyárs, vessző) meaning the ability of branching and regeneration associated with accurate pruning policies are decisive from the point of view of promising success.

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Pollen morphology of fruit species
Published June 6, 2000

Size and surface morphology of pollen has been studied in 87 twit varieties of 10 fruit species during the period of 1990-1995. No preceding work of that type came to our knowledge, yet.

The samples comprised a wide variety of cultivars included male sterile, self-incompatible, partially self-fertile stone fruits, diploid and hexaploid ...plums, diploid and triploid apples.

The large number of species and varieties facilitated the comparison of items within and between the respective species.

It was stated that the size, shape and surface morphology of pollen is genetically determined and those data, combined with other variety characters, are suitable for the classification and distinction of varieties.

In assessment of pollen size and shape, their moisture content is crucial. The major diameter of the swollen pollen as well as the length and width of the dry grains are characteristic to species and/or to variety.

The width and shape changes largely with moisture content. Large grains are proper to quince, apricot, peach and almond, medium sizes are found in apple, sweet cherry, sour cherry, European plum, whereas small size is typical to Japanese plums.

The low number of varieties studied does not allow conclusions concerning differences within pears, quinces and almonds as species. In the rest of species, valid differences have been registered as between varieties.

Within species, as apple and plum, the effect of ploidy (i.e. number of chromosomes) was expressed in the size of their pollen. In stone fruit species, the correlation between size. of anthers and size of pollen grains was positive.

Genetic relations between the self-fertile sour cherry varieties of the Pándy type (Debreceni bőtermő, Kántorjánosi, Újfehértói fürtös) as well as the self-incompatible apricots of "giant" fruit size are supposed to be analysed by pollen studies but there did not turn out any decisive conclusion, yet. Other characters also should be considered.

The assembly of pollen characters is decisive in the determination of the variety. The ratio of empty pollen grains, the grain size and the density as well as the size of the pits on the surface are best suited to distinguish pollen lots.


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Blooming phenology and fertility of sour cherry cultivars selected in Hungary
Published August 14, 2002

Experiments were conducted during the period between 1972 and 2002 at three sites in Hungary. At Érd 97, Helvetia 10, and Újfehértó, 3 cultivars were studied in variety collections. Observations were made on the blooming phenology (start, main time, end and length of the bloom period), on the blooming dynamics (the rate of the open flowers ...counted every day), on the receptivity of sexual organs, on the fruit set following self- and open-pollination and on the effect of association of varieties in the orchards (choice, rate and placement of pollinisers).

Based on the results the rate of the overlap of the blooming times were calculated and varieties were assigned into five bloom time groups according to their main bloom. Self-fertility conditioned by natural self pollination was studied and good pollinisers were chosen (sweet, sour and duke cherry varieties) for the self-sterile and partially self-fertile varieties.

The necessity of bee pollination was proved by different pollination methods: natural self-pollination, artificial self-pollination, open pollination. Summary: Experiments were conducted during the period between 1972 and 2002 at three sites in Hungary. At Érd 97, Helvetia 10, and Újfehértó, 3 cultivars were studied in variety collections. Observations were made on the flowering phenology (start, main time, end and length of the bloom period), on the flowering dynamics (the rate of the open flowers counted every day), on the receptivity of sexual organs, on the fruit set following self- and open-pollination and on the effect of association of varieties in the orchards (choice, rate and placement of pollinisers).

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Morphological and phenological properties of sour cherry varieties grown in Hungary and their inter-incompatibility relations
Published February 23, 2000

Regular observations and experiments were performed during a 14 year period on 6 sour cherry varieties. The morphological traits of leaves and fruits were compared, and the phenology of blooming as well as of ripening dates served to start an estimation of the possibilities of mutual pollination and the planning of harvest operations. Experimen...ts involved obligate autogamy, artificially controlled allogamy and open pollination in order to reveal self-fertility, self-sterility or inter-incompatibility relations.

The varietal characters represent, each, different values in the distinction of the items, because of their intra-varietal variability. From that point of view, the most reliable are the data of blooming and ripening time, fruit size and the fertility relations.

Inter-incompatibility was observed between the group of self-fertile, "Pándy type" varieties (`Újfehértói fürtös’, ‘Debreceni bőtermő’, ‘Kántorjánosi’) on one side and the selection of Pándy 7', a self-sterile variety on the other side. Unilateral incompatibility has been detected within the former group of new, self-fertile varieties, the combinations: (`Újfehértói fürtös’ x ‘Debreceni bőtermő’ as well as `Újfehértói fürtös’ x Kántorjánosi’.

Our results prove the close kinship between those three new varieties and the original Pándy variety on the base of being highly similar in their morphology and also of the fact of their inter-incompatibility, though unilateral.


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A complex system for the production of pathogen-free grapevine propagating material
Published June 25, 2011

The use of pathogen-free planting stock for new vineyard establishment is a key component in the maintenance and expansion of vine and quality table grape production. The success of the necessary changes in the structure of the grape industry is forced by the globalization process, the climate change, the rediscovery of autochton varieties as w...ell as breeding of new tolerant and resistant varieties. The renewal of vineyards largely depend on the availability of planting stocks. Serbia and Hungary found a common interest in establishing pathogen-free stock materials from newly breed resistant varieties and clonal selections of varieties which are traditional in the Serbian-Hungarian border area. During a cross-border cooperation program a complex system for the production of pathogen-free grapevine propagating material was established. Using heat therapy, in vitro shoot tip culture and traditional and molecular diagnostic techniques new pathogen-free stock materials were established from 26 varieties. They have been or will be tested for the presence of most important grapevine viruses, phytoplasmas, as well as bacterial and fungal pathogens. The complex system applying green grafting for indexing on grapevine indicators can shorten the duration of the procedure from 4 years to two-three years.

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The morphology of stigmata in stone fruit species
Published June 6, 2000

The morphology of the stigma has been studied in 50 varieties belonging to 6 stone fruit species. The majority of samples had elliptical stigmata with some exceptions with circular form (Duane, Tuleu gras). The surface of the stigma is papillary, flattened in side view (sweet cherry) or bulging (apricot, peach). The suture of the stigm...a is clearly visible as a depression and the varieties may differ in this respect.

The size of the stigma depends highly from the season, although the varietal differences are maintained. The dimension of stigmatic surface is characteristic for the species expressed in square millimetres: sweet cherry 0.92 to 2.91; sour cherry 1.64 to 2.48; plum 0.83 to 1.80; oriental plum 0.53 to 1.15; apricot 0.57 to 1.69 mm2.

The size and morphology of the stigma changes according to varieties too, and it may used in description and identification of varieties. No correlation has been found between the size of stigma and the fertility relations (self-fertility or self-incompatibility) of the respective varieties.


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Calculation of climatic probability of winter and spring frost damages in the main peach and apricot growing districts of Hungary
Published April 19, 2006

The probability of winter and spring frost damages experienced in peach and apricot plantations has been assessed in 5 growing regions of Hungary (Szeged-Szatymaz, around the lake Balaton, Mecsekalja, hills of Buda, Mátraalja) and (Mecsekalja, hills of Buda, Pest­Godo116, Duna-Tisza Mize, Matra-Bükkalja) during the period between 1951 and 20...00.

Frost tolerance of flower buds on a given shoot sample is expressed by the mean value assessed after frost damage (LT50), and the meteorological records of the growing sites raised between 1951 and 2000 are used to calculate the probability of frost damage. In peach, the difference between growing sites and between varieties may become two fold as for the chance of repeated frost damage at a probability of 50 %. In apricot, the probability of frost damage may exhibit differences between growing sites up to 20 % as for susceptible varieties, and 16 % for frost tolerant varieties. Frost damage may vary between 4 and 18 % depending on the genuine frost tolerance of the varieties. Peach is afflicted by low temperature causing substantial losses of yield at the highest probability in the region Szeged-Szatymaz and at the lowest in Mátraalja. Apricot is, on the other hand, most endangered in the Duna-Tisza Mize region, while the lowest probability of frost damage is expected around Mecsek and Buda.

The critical period of frost damage in the mid of January in Szeged-Szatymaz region, in Mecsekalja the mid of February showed the highest probability of frost damage. All growing sites are frequented at high chances by frost damages occurring during and closely after the blooming period. Duna-Tisza köze is mainly afflicted in early March, whereas Mátra-Bükkalja in mid of January and each March.

The probability of temperatures below zero degree has been assessed in all the 5 regions observed. Around April 5-8 the probability of freezing temperatures diminishes steeply at all sites, whereas the risk of frost increases again around April 9— 11. That climatic peculiarity of should be taken into consideration in choosing growing sites or varieties.

Postulating the effects of a global warming up of the climate, the chances of avoiding frost damages at different growing sites by delaying the blooming dates are considered. According to our calculations, the delay of blooming by 5 days may diminish the risk of frost damage by 4-20 % at the growing sites examined, whereas a delay of 10 days reduces the risk by 37-85 % in both fruit species.

Calculations offered an answer on the question of climatic changes, whether the probability of winter and spring frosts damage changed during the 50 years. The long list of data shows the diminishing chances of winter frosts, while the probability of temperatures risking spring frost damages increased after the early 1970-es up to now.

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Temporal changes of the frequency of spring frost damages in the main fruit growing regions in Western Hungary and in East Hungary
Published July 2, 2016

Most of the risk in Hungarian fruit growing is the damage caused by late spring frosts. The frequency of late frosts seems to increase nowadays. The aim of the study was to check this contention: what is the real probability of the damages. Based on earlier experiences, the physiological LT50 function has been elaborated for new fruit varieties..., which are eligible to moderate the danger when being threatened by frost. By means of this technique, the probability of freezing is distinguished between frost susceptible, frost resistant and medium frost resistant fruit species and varieties around their blooming time. The degree of frost damage depends on the duration and severity of the low temperature and not at least on the frost tolerance of the plant. For that purpose, the frequencies of frost damages were studied at two Transdanubian and two Trans-Tisza fruit growing sites by means of a meteorological database for the 60-year-long period 1951–2010. Being aware of the LT50 values changing during the phonological phases of the fruit trees from budding, bloom, fruit set and fruit growth, the number and date of critical (frosty) days could be settled. An important role is attributed to the orographic relief and the height above the sea level of the site, as 20–30 m differences and expositions may become decisive within the same plantation. The spatial distribution of damages is also dependent on the air circulations within the Carpathian basin. At the southern and northern borders of the country, especially valley bottoms represent additional risks of frost. Most spring frost damages are experienced in April 20–22, and cause heavy damages by temperature minima between – 3°C and – 6°C. The severity of damage depends largely on the temperature of the preceding few days. The earlier bloom the heavier damage is expected. The study is emphasising the importance of the varieties. Frost tolerance of some varieties may lower the risk of spring frosts by 40–50%, as experienced on the plantations. The quantifi cation of the risks based on data raised during the last years will be suitable to defi ne the security of yields of each growing site successfully.

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Comparative study of heirloom tomato varieties
Published October 16, 2007

The study examined the health status, growth type, berry morphology, berry quality, and gastronomical value of 60 heirloom tomato lines. In the middle of June, the level of virus infection was medium in the plant stock according to the assessments. 21% of the lines did not show symptoms of virus infection. During the vegetation period, the majo...r fungal diseases were Alternaria by the middle of August and Phytophthora from the beginning of September. In spite of the fact that no fungicides were applied, 13% of the lines were healthy and 36% showed medium infection at the end of August. Half of the lines had a strong, 23% of the lines had a medium growth vigour. The majority (74%) of the lines showed strong or medium lateral shoot growth and only 7% of them proved to be less prone to branching. In spite of the rapid growth, 20% of the lines had a weak main stem, the majority of the lines had a main stem medium strength. The different shapes occurred in different colours, in addition to the traditional red colour (53%), there were orange, yellow, wine-red (blackish), lilac, green, almost white or multicoloured varieties. Unfortunately, most of the lines were prone to longitudinal or circular cracking of the berries. Based on the first experiences, all tested variety types had more favourable utilization characteristics then the traditional tomatoes. Varieties with a thick flesh and harmonic acid/sugar ratio such as some of the ox-heart varieties are especially valuable. For drying, the elongated types proved to be the best. The hollow tomato is the most special type which can be utilized most diversely. It is especially suitable for making white tomato soup and, “Concasse" due to its easily removable placenta rich in jelly materials and its thick flesh. In addition, it can be used for preparing stuffed tomato.

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Recent developments in biochemical characterization of Vitis vinifera L. varieties in Hungary
Published August 14, 2002

Isoelectric focusing is an effective and well reproducible method to provide information for identification of various plant species and clones if breeding or other genetic modification(s) for a given species are reflected in changes of an isozyme pattern. The method has been used for characterization of plant proteins and enzymes and for ident...ification of various species and varieties. Our aim was to continue our several-year-work carried out on a wide variety of grapevine varieties and to reveal whether analyses of esterase and peroxidase isozyme patterns are suitable to distinguish various grapevine varieties. Therefore we compared esterase and peroxidase isozyme patterns of various species. Plant samples were obtained from Szigetcsep, Kecskemet, Tokaj and Eger. The following samples were analyzed: Pinot gris, noir, blanc, Chardonnay, Riesling Theses, Chasselas from Szigetcs6p, Bianca and his parents Eger2 and Bouvier from Kecskemet, Furmint and Hárslevelű from Tokaj, Kékfrankos and Zweigelt from Eger. To identify various species according to their esterase isozyme patterns the after blooming phenological phase while according to their peroxidase isozyme pattern the dormant phenological phase was found as optimal sampling time.

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Storability of some apricot varieties as affected by storage period
Published April 25, 2012

The aim of this study was the estimation of storability of 10 apricot varieties in regard to percentage fruit weight loss, firmness, acidity and T.S.S in fruit during storage periods from one week to 4 weeks. All the variety gave the same trend as all of them loss weight, firmness decreased, acidity and T.S.S decreased but the differences were ...not the same in all varieties. in case of some varieties the percentage of fruit weight loss reached to about 9 % after 28 days also the differences between varieties in two seasons refer that this character is determined by genetic factors beside effect of environmental and agriculture factors.

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The quality and storage efficiency of some apple varieties as a function of picking date, area of production and duration of storage
Published May 24, 1999

Numerous apple varieties have been tested parallel with traditional Jonathan varieties during four years, 1990-1994 on three different geographical areas of Hungary. The picking time took place at three different times in a year: ten days before the probably optimal picking time, at close-to-optimal picking time, and ten days after the optimal ...picking time. The effect of storage on quality of fruits have been tested in February, March, and April under circumstances of a semi-industrial storage experiment.

The results of experience can contribute to answer numerous current, from point of view of practice important topics:

  • The stochastic relations between various fruit quality parameters at different varieties
  • The change of fruit — quality during storage
  • The effect of different picking date on storage losses
  • The possibilities of storage — loss predicting by the utilization of multiple regression analysis.

The most important results of experiences are as follows :

  1. The starch — degradation test and Streiff — index are well applicable for practical purposes to determine the optimal harvest-date.
  2. On base of analysis of various losses and physiological diseases the high importance of mass loss is obvious. In the variety Jonnee the earlier picking date considerably increased the mass loss. The effect of variety on mass loss is rather limited. In the Jonathan varieties the Jonathan spot was a rather important physiological disease. The late picking time increased the frequency of Jonathan - spot. At optimal date of harvest at Jonnee the frequency of Jonathan -spot was lower, than at Jonathan M 41. In the Jonathan M41 and Jonnee the importance of scald was rather limited, but in the Wellspur Delicious and Smoothee this disease occurred relatively frequently. In the Smoothee the earlier picking time considerably increased the probability of scald.
  3. The multiple regression analysis yielded reliable results, fit for prediction of storage losses and diseases on the base of chemical and physical properties, determined at the time of picking.


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Apricot fruit chilling injuries during the cold storage affected by harvest maturity
Published December 19, 2019

The study aimed to find the effect of different maturity classes (up to the days after full blossom) on the post-harvest life of 3 different apricot varieties Gold Cot, Bergarouge and Flavor Cot in Hungary. The fruit harvested in a particular time 65, 75 and 85 days after full blossom and divided to three maturity classes (Class 1, 2 and 3, res...pectively). Fruit stored in cold storage for 7 days at temperature 1 °C. Fruits were investigated in regard to physical parameters (weight loss, fruit firmness and soluble solid content SSC) and chilling injuries. The results showed that the varieties followed different ways in regard to response to different maturity classes. The maturity class I for all the tested varieties recorded the lowest weight loss, while with the increasing maturity stage the weight loss percentage for all the varieties recoded high values. The firmness decreased with delayed harvesting for all the varieties. Data of the chilling injuries showed that all the fruits which harvested at maturity I, recorded the highest percentage of fruit with CI (chilling injuries) at 0 (48.5, 37.25 and 38.75%) and CI class I (44.75, 35.75 and 39.75%) for Bergarouge, Gold Cot, and Flavor Cot.

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Effect of hydroponic and peat-free media in transplant production of Rudbeckia hirta varieties under different photoperiodic lighting and their photosynthetic parameters
Published August 10, 2021

The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of varieties, different light conditions (short day, long day, natural short day with light pollution), and different growing media (perlite, peat-free, peat-based, aeroponics system) on Rudbeckia hirta plant production under controlled conditions (greenhouse). The morphological effects ...of each treatment (photoperiodic lightings and media) on different Rudbeckia varieties determined at 11 weeks-old ’Napfény’, ’Toto Gold’, ’Autumn Colors’, ’Prairie Sun’ and 16 weeks-old ’Napfény’. Plantlets received 12 hours daylight did not initiate flowers, remained stage of the leaf rosette in case of all varieties. The 14 hours light treatment in the aeroponics system and the same treatment in perlite and control (natural short day with 14 hours light pollution) plantlets had developed inflorescences or flower buds. The inflorescence axis of ‘Napfény’ was appeared at 13 weeks under long-day conditions, with 1.7 (perlite) - 2.7 (aeroponics) flower buds in 16 weeks. ’Toto Gold’, ’Autumn Colors’, ’Prairie Sun’ varieties developed inflorescences at 8 weeks, 14 hours aeroponics system resulted in the most of flower buds (’Toto Gold’: 6.5, ’Autumn Colors’: 3.25,’Prairie Sun’: 4.8 flower buds) at 11 weeks. Long daylight manipulation could be minimized crop times and achieved flowering potted plants at 11 weeks. The peat-based and peat-free media effect was observed on ‘Autumn Colors’. The number of leaves of peat-free ‘Autumn Colors’ transplants (16.8-20.3) was significantly higher than peat-based media (13.5-15.5). Other morphological parameters were not affected by the media treatments.

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Floral phenology investigation of scab resistant apple varieties and multi-resistant candidates — bred in Hungary — in 2007-2008
Published December 8, 2008

Apple (Malus x domestica) is considered practically self-incompatible, polleniser is essential for its economical cultivation. When choosing a polleniser many biological and economical parameters should be taken into consideration. Scab resistant apple varieties and multi-resistant candidates — bred in Hungary — were investigated i...n our experiment in 2007-2008. Blooming time groups were created according to the overlap of the blooming of the varieties and candidates. Observations were set up in Szigetcsép — the Research Station of Faculty of Horticultural Science. The orchard was planted in 1997. Trees were trained to slender spindle on Rootstock M9. Varieties have been assigned four blooming time groups. 'Reglindis' started blooming in both years. Candidate MR-09 belonged to the early group in 2007 and to the mid-early group in 2008. Latest varieties are 'Freedom' and `Baujade'. Candidate MR-10 belonged to the mid-late group.

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Storability of paprika varieties measured by non-destructive acoustic method
Published May 18, 2005

During our experiments, the storability of paprika (Capsicum annuum) samples was measured by a non-destructive acoustic method. The aims of our work were the determination of the applicability and reproducibility of the acoustic stiffness method for paprika, the investigation of the optimum measuring conditions. In order to compare the main pap...rika varieties regarding shelf-life, our further aim was to follow the softening phenomenon or textural changes (i.e. changes in stiffness) of different paprika varieties measured by the non­destructive acoustic stiffness method. Five different varieties of paprika grown in hydroponics growing system were used for the measurements. All paprika varieties were stored at 20 °C for two weeks. Samples were tested on every 2nd or 3rd day. The acoustic method was found to be suitable to follow the softening of paprika samples. The characteristic frequency of the acoustic signal could be well detected and clearly separated from the other vibration peaks. Tapping the top of the paprika was observed to give a clearer and less noisy signal compared to the signal obtained by tapping the sample's shoulder. The acoustic results showed the same tendencies with regard to softening during storage as the impact method showed in our previous experiments.

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Inter-incompatibility of self- incompatible apricots and their varietal properties
Published September 13, 1999

There are four apricot varieties grown in Hungary derived from local selections known to bear fruits of giant (60 - 100 g) size: Ceglédi óriás, Nagykőrösi óriás, Szegedi mammut and Ligeti óriás. Being morphologically similar, they seem to be closely related to each other. The detailed study of the morphology (of leave...s and fruits) and phenology (of blooming and ripening dates) as well as the fertility relations was aimed to find out the degree of kinship between the varieties in question.

It was stated that the value of morphological traits is variable from the taxonomic point of view. The most important signs of common origin were the time of blooming and the leaf size. Less valuable are the date of m:iurity and the size of fruit because of their variability. In the literature Satin') & Nyeki (1991) published the first proof of inter-incompatible relation between apricot varieties. This should be considered as an argument of close genetic relation between those "giant" varieties of apricots.

The first three varieties. Ceglédi óriás, Nagykőrösi óriás and Szegedi mammut are closer related in blooming and ripening date, as well as in size of fruit to each other than the variety Ligeti óriás.


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The importance of Hungarian melon (Cucumis melo L.) landraces, local types and old varieties (Review)
Published October 11, 2005

While supermarkets devote whole aisles to hybrids, traditional varieties are hard to find, and becoming scarcer day by day. Unfortunately, countless old melon varieties have already been lost. Luckily we succeded in collecting most of these varieties, and thus conserving them in Gene Banks. Landraces, local types, and old breed races show many ...characteristics that could be useful in organic farming. It is important to get acquainted with these varieties and cultivars, because they have greatly adapted to the climatic and pedological conditions of the Carpathian basin. Therefore their conservation is essential for the protection of Hungarian genetic variability. With the help of utilising our landraces in organic farming; careful selection; and the usage of marketing strategy in order to enhance quality features, such as unique flavour; we could reclaim the one-time excellent reputation of Hungarian melon.

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The salt tolerance of vegetable paprika varieties
Published April 14, 2003

In our experiments, we have chiefly tested the salt sensitivity of sweet pepper varieties. In cold forcing, 0.3 1/plant nutrient solutions of different NaCI content were given twice weekly. EC of the nutrient solutions containing 0.25% Volldünger Linz complex fertilizer was made up to 6, 10, 14 and 18 mS/cm, respectively, by 2.51/9.17/17.97/26....76 g/m2 doses of pharmacopeal NaCI every week. The solution used for the control treatment contained Volldünger only (EC 4.4 mS/cm). Irrigation was made with pure water (EC 0.6 mS/cm) when necessary.

The varieties chosen for the experiments were the following: Feherözön, HRF F1, Syn. Cecei (of white, conical fruit), Boni (of white, blunt, infolded fruit), Titan F1 (of pointed, hot fruit) and Pritavit F1 (of tomato shaped fruit).

In general, the symptoms caused by NaCI treatments (with doses higher than 10 g/m2 weekly) have been the following:

  • They have reduced the leaf area, the height of the plants, the total and the early yield, the number of fruit set per square meter, the average weight of the fruit (and, in some measure, fruit length, too) and the thousand seed weight.
  • They have increased the calcium and the chlorine content of the leaves and fruits and the dry matter content of the fruits.
  • They haven't affected the dry matter content of the leaves, the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of the leaves and fruits, and the germinating ability of the seed.
  • The effect on stem diameter and on seed production per fruit has been contradictory in some cases.

The effects of the intermediate treatments haven't been explicit in several cases.

The results of the examination of cuticular secretion have indicated the increase of the sodium and chlorine content of the leaves. This can be important in field growing where the rainwater may wash out a part of sodium and chlorine from paprika leaves.

The hot, pointed variety and the tomato shaped paprika haven't shown clearly higher salt tolerance than the varieties of white fruit colour.

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Healthcare values and potential uses of the new Hungarian apple varieties on the basis on fruit analysis
Published July 25, 2013

Biological active compounds and valuable characteristics of some apple varieties and candidates were measured in our trials. Fruits of ’Rosmerta’, ’Hesztia’, ’Cordelia’ and ’Artemisz’ are recommended to enrich the Hungarian assortments for fresh consumption and choice of new tastes. Based on examined parameters it can be assumed... that novel Hungarian resistant varieties are suitable for juice and fruit concentrate production, and due to high pectin content of their remaining pomace these varieties can be raw material of pectin production as well as they are also suitable for jam production mixed with other fruit species. Furthermore, functional food industrial product having high quality can be produced by using novel resistant varieties because of their high pectin and polyphenol content. Beside of their high market value their suitability for growing among orchard conditions is confi rmed by lower costs of production because of less plant protection treatments.

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