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The effect of cluster thinning, cluster tipping, cluster shredding and defoliation at the flowering on the vegetative and generative vine performance from Kékfrankos Cv.
Published April 25, 2012
63-68.

The cluster thinning is a method of the yield regulation.With the removal one part of the clusters, the yield pro leaf area will be lower, hereby the grape and wine quality will be improved. The regulation of the yield can lead to further advantages: the ratio of the vegetative and generative performance of the vines will improve, the condition... of the plants will better, the number of the physiological diseases can be reduced and the growth of the shoots and roots can be promoted. The grape growers make the cluster thinning almost exclusive by creating one cluster shoots. Usually the upper clusters are removed, because the sugar content of these second or third clusters will be lower. The cluster thinning is an easy task, can be done without special skills. It is an effective method improving wine quality, but its use can lead to other problems. The grapes try to compensate the removed clusters. Therefore the clusters will be bigger and thicker, but more sensitive to bunch rot. Moreover the treatment is expensive, because it needs manual work. It is worth to get acquainted and try the new yield regulation methods, which can help to avoid the occurring problems. Our aim is to show the results of our experiment, which was carried out in Eger, examining the red grape cultivar Kékfrankos. During our 4 years long experiment we compared the effects of cluster thinning, cluster shredding, cluster tipping and defoliation at the flowering, on the vegetative and generative vine performance.

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108
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General defense system in the plant kingdom III.
Published October 16, 2002
45-54.

Our observations regarding the symptoms not fitting into, significantly differing from the hypersensitive defense system, which we noticed during the judgment of several plant species, symptoms provoked on several million plants have constituted a unified entity. They have provided evidence for the existence of a different plant defense system.... We called this so far unknown basic response of plants to biotic effects as general defense system. This system defends them from the attack of numerous microbe species in the environment.

The evolutionary intermediate phase between the general and the specific, the two defense systems is the susceptible host—pathogen relation. The vertical resistance system of plants escaping from the susceptible host—pathogen relation, based on specific hypersensitive reaction also suggested the existence of a more original, general defense system and the susceptible host—pathogen relation developed as a result of the collapse of that system.

The evolutionary relation of the two defense systems is proved by the only recessive inheritance of the older general defense system and in the majority of cases dominant hereditary course of the specific defense system. In our experiences, the modifying genes of the recessive general defense system, in most cases, are behind the specific defense systems, which are known to have monogenic dominant hereditary course and react with hypersensitive tissue destruction. This seemingly striking genetic fact is explained by the following: the general defense system less dependent on environmental effects regulates much faster pathophysiological reaction than the specific resistance genes strongly dependant on environmental effects coding dominant hypersensitive reaction.

The general and specific defense reactions, the processes excluding the microbes attacking plants with compacting of cell growth and tissue destruction, which mean two opposite strategies, building on and regulating each other constitute the entity of resistance to plant disease.

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104
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Investigation of the cultivation value of old grapevine cultivars in Tokaj in 2004-2006
Published May 15, 2007
23-27.

Most of the cultivars grown before the disaster of phylloxera in Tokaj can be found only in grapevine collections. The aim of our study was to determinate the cultivation values of six old grapevine cultivars of the wine-region, namely 'Balafánt', 'Budai gohér', 'Purcsin', 'Török gohér, 'Piros (red) furmint' and 'Változó (altering) furmi...nt'. Based on the results of the investigations from 2004 to 2006 it can be concluded that among from the examined cultivars of Tokaj `Budai gohér', Turcsin' and 'Változó furmint' match the best with the technological and consumer requirements of recent days. However the yield of 'Budai gohér' in certain vintages is not acceptable and red wine cultivars are not permitted at this time in the wine-region, but in qualitative responses these presented steadily good data. On the other hand the lowest sugar content was measured and development of noble rot was not registered at all in case of Piros furmint' and `Balafánt'. Their spread in Tokaj is not probable.

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