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Results of experimental storage of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit
Published February 19, 2008
65-78.

In utilisation of sour cherry cultivars, the paradigm has gradually changed in the sense that fresh consumption gained much more attention than before on a worldwide scale. Consequently, much more attention is paid to the problems connected with the storage, i.e. preservation of fresh fruit for direct consumption. It is a genuine interest of gr...owers, traders as well as of consumers to be informed about the possibilities of preserving economically the fresh status for a longer period after harvest during the warm summer weather in addition to the lengthening of the harvest season by choosing cultivars of different dates of ripening. Recent results of purposeful experiments indicate that the storability of the fruit of 6 main Hungarian sour cherry cultivars is on the same level ('Érdi bőtermő, 'Debreceni bőtermő’, 'Újfehértói fürtos', 'Kántorjánosi', 'Éva', 'Petri'). The traditional conditions facilitated the maintenance of freshness over a 5-week-long period, and the loss of volume was less than 7%. During the first 2 weeks, there was no difference between the cultivars regarding loss of volume and decay, moreover, the effect of time elapsed after harvest and of adversities of transport was not significant. It could be stated that 2 week of storing is safely feasible. We need only 2 °C temperature and 90% of relative humidity. The relations of oxygen and CO2 of the atmosphere is less decisive than temperature alone. No essential difference has been registered between the storing in plastic trays versus plastic boxes either. A study was performed to assess the modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) effect on Hungarian sour cherries growing in Iran (`Érdi bőtermő and ‘Érdi jubileum') shelf life. The harvested fruits stored at 0 °C under modified atmospheres (15% 0, and 10% CO2 and 75% nitrogen) for 6 weeks. Descriptive analysis showed that sour cherry stored in control condition had a higher deterioration rate than those stored in under modified atmosphere, which showed a lower rejection rate and a longer shelf life than those stored in modified atmosphere.

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Abnormalities of the stigma of sour cherry cultivar
Published May 19, 2008
31-33.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ratio of blackness of the surface of stigma of sour cherry cultivars. At the full bloom time of sour cherry 100 new opened flowers were marked in the internal (Inside), external (outside), bottom and upper parts of the crown of each cultivars including sour cherry cultivars ‘Érdi bőtermő', `D...ebreceni bőtermő', `Kántorjánosi', 'R. clone', 'Petri', Pándy', and 'D. clone'. The trees were replicated four times. The numbers of flowers with black stigma were counted and the percentage of dead stigma was calculated. In addition, tissues of black stigmata were investigated for blossom pathogens by microscopy. After flowering time the fruit set of the marked flowers counted and then percentage fruit set was calculated. Numbers of counted flowers were between 300 and 980 depending on the four position of the tree. Black color of stigma could be seen only on three cultivars (`Debreceni bőtermő', Érdi bőtermő' and 'Petri') out of seven assessed cultivars. The highest numbers of black colored stigma were found on cultivar ‘Érdi bőtermő' which ranged between incidences of 12 and 21%. Black stigma was never able to produce a fruit set. Microscopic examination revealed no pathogens associated with black stigma. Different part of the tree resulted different amount of black stigma. Black stigma was the largest on the outer part of the tree on cv. 'Érdi bőtermő' but also bottom part of the tree also produced larger number of black stigma on cvs. `Debreceni bőtermő' and ‘Érdi bőtermő'. Though symptoms were not typical to frost damage, we believe that black stigma is probably due to environmental factors during flowering. This might be associated with late spring cold coming from the soil surface as the bottom and outer part of the tree was more suffered from the disease.

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Yielding capacity and regeneration of different ages fruit-bearing shoots in sour cherry
Published February 19, 2008
55-57.

The yielding potential and regeneration (i.e. germination of hidden buds) after pruning of the fruit-bearing shoots of different ages were compared in sour cherry cultivars pruned to spindle shape. The examinations were carried out in order to determine the optimal pruning strategy resulting in the highest long-term yielding of sour cherry cult...ivars with intensive crown shape (free and thin spindle shape). According to our results, there are great differences among the studied self-fertile sour cherry cultivars in yielding and regeneration, which are worthwhile to be considered in determining the method and degree of pruning.

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Some aspects of reduced disease management against Monilinia spp. in sour cherry production
Published January 3, 2010
50-53.

The aim of this study was first to test the in vitro effeicacy of some fungicides against brown rot of sour cherry, and secondly to evaulate the effectiveness of reduced spray programmes against brown rot in integrated and organic sour cherry orchards. In vitro efficacy of 7 fungicides (Champion 50 WP, Kocide 2000, Nordox 75 WG, Olajos rézkén..., Kumulus S, Rézkén, Rézoxiklorid) and another 6 fungicides (Score 25 EC, Efuzin 500 SC, Systane, Folicur Solo, Zato Plusz, Rovral) approved in organic and integrated production systems, respectively, were tested against brown rot of sour cherry. Altogether four spray programmes were performed i) standard integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems during the season, ii) reduced integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems but only 75% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme, iii) standard oragnic: sprays applied every 7–14 days during the season and iv) reduced organic: 60% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme. In vitro results showed that fungicides (with active ingredients of copper and sulphur) applied in organic production showed relatively high percent growth capacity of Monilinia fungus. Rézkén showed the highest and Kumilus S the lowest efficacy against brown rot. Fungicides applied in integrated production showed relatively low percent growth capacity of Monilinia fungus. Score 25 EC showed the highest and Rovral the lowest efficacy against brown rot. Field study showed that reduced spray programmes did not increase significantly brown rot incidence in the integrated field. However, brown rot incidence increased significanly (above 30%) in the reduced spray programme for the organic orchard.

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Sour cherry for fresh consumption in the retail sector A consumer aspect
Published August 16, 2010
81-84.

The basic objective of our study is the promotion of fresh consumption of sour cherry and the enhancement of necessary knowledge. Primer collection of data was planned in three groups of retail shops, always sour cherry being the matter of study. The sampling dates were adapted to the sour cherry season weeks in Hungary. Three samples per week ...have been taken. Every time a short interview and purchase was planned. Every time, it was stated that the commodity was held for a longer period on the shelf, which trespasses the optimum of the fruit. At the same time there was no concordance between quality and price. From the point of view of the consumer this cannot be accepted.

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Total anthocyanine content and antioxidant density of some Hungarian sour cherry varieties
Published May 18, 2005
109-111.

Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Recent research has proven that sour cherry (Pru...nus cerasus L.) is a valuable natural source of some bioactive compounds important in human health preservation. In our work, we identified the total antioxidant activity, anthocyanine content and "antioxidant density" of sour cherry varieties named "Újfehértói fürtös", "Debreceni bőtermő", "Kántorjánosi" and "Érdi bőtermő" and those of the "Bosnyák" sour cherry clones. "Antioxidant density" is a biological value indicator obtained in a synthetic way, which indicates the antioxidant capacity of the particular food, e. g. fruit and vegetable, related to 1 Calorie.

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Variety specific integrated fruit production development in order to optimize inner content values
Published March 2, 2010
27-31.

In this paper we introduce our results of three years (2007-2009) investigatio ns carried out in the framework of "Research and development in foodstaff chain" - project of Regional University Knowledge Center by the members of Corvi nus U niversity of Budapest - Department of Pomology and. Research Institute for Fru it growing and Ornamentals....  Budapest-Erd. The main objectives of the project were the followings: submi ssion of sour cherry candidate suitable for industrial process for state approval; determination of physica l parameter and inner content value changes of sour cherry varieties duri ng ripening; evaluation of health care attributes of sour cherry fruit; ripen ing process description by the colour and the force required to pick fruits of sour cherry. We stated that the optimal begi nning and period of the harvest can be determined wi th the fruit removal force. In this period the fruit growth stops. ju iciness rat io does not change. refractions are approximately equal.acidic content turns to decreasing trend.However the proportion of anthocyan in and polypheno l can still increase. Fruits harvested in this period fulfil a wide range of industrial process opportunities. 'Erdi jubileum ·and candidate IV-3/48 according to their inner content values arc suitable for high quality products (containing real fruit material in high proportion).

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Seasonality of weather and phenology of reproductive organs of flower of sour cherry cultivars in Hungarian climatic conditions
Published March 25, 2009
75-80.

Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is one of the most important fruit crop grown in Hungary, The flowering phenology and pollen shedding/stigma viability ratio, in an effort to elucidate the reproductive phenology of nine economically important sour cherry cultivars (Érdi bőtermő, Debreceni bőtermő, Csengődi, Kántorjánosi 3. Pánd...y 279. Úfehértói fürtös, Petri, Éva, and Oblacsinszka) all widespread in the Hungary, was studied at Újfehertó climatic condition. The main aims were to investigate how possible environmental cues influence timing and development of phenophases and whether different cultivars have different seasonal responses to these cues. Likely effects of climatic changes on phenological development patterns were also considered. Our results revealed important aspects of the reproductive biology of sour cherry flowers. The amplitude of the phenophase "beginning of blossoming" between cultivars did not exceed 6 days. There is maximum 3 days difference in blooming length of different direction in each cultivar. Pándy 279 showed high variability when the position of flowers changed on the tree shoots. Újfehértói fürtös was stable in all four directions of tree. The pollen shedding period and stigma viability ratio was well synchronous. Pollen shedding phenomenon occurred in the range limitation of secretary activity of stigmas in all five cultivars. Distribution of pollen shedding over the secretary activity of stigmas is almost good. In all five cultivars maximum pollen shedding occurred about the high temperature part of the day.

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Response of sour cherry cultivar `Érdi jubileum' fruits to modified atmosphere packaging after ethephon spraying
Published March 25, 2009
81-85.

Sour cherries are not adapted to long storage. The largest percentage of sour cherries reaches the consumer either directly or indirectly through the tin can or the frozen pack. Different concentrations of ethephon usually are used commercially to facilitate harvesting sour cherry fruits that this hormone influences on fruit quality. The object...ive of this study was effect of ethephon preharvest application on sour cherry fruits quality during storage period at modified atmosphere packaging was investigated. Modified atmosphere packaging used with 10, 15 and 75 percent for 02, CO, and N2 respectively that those held at 0 °C. This gas compounds synchronous to 0 °C temperature caused to increase shelf life postharvest of fruits. Fruit samples were evaluated at harvest date and after 6 weeks in storage. Skin fruit colour, pH, total soluble solids, titrateable acidity, sugar/acid ratio, firmness were monitored. Ethephon concentration influenced on total soluble solid, titrateable acidity, sugar/acid ratio and L* value. In more case, 225 ppm ethephon's concentration has no observable different to control samples. Thus, the best ethephon's concentration was 225 ppm ethephon's concentration.

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Vegetative Indicators of sour cherry cultivars and resistant clons
Published April 22, 2014
55-58.

Sour cherry is a hungaricum. Hungary has several excellent and self fertile sour cherry cultivars. Hungarian sour cherries have a name for fruit quality and they are suitable for fresh consumption. Today breeding is focused not only on fruit quality, but also on disease resistance. The new, investigated cultivars have these characteristics too.... But growth characteristics are also very important because they contribute to successful production. The vegetative and generative properties of the cultivars are different. If a cultivar is very productive, the ignorance of cultivar-specific pruning may result in the decrease in tree condition and fruit quality. The properties of producing fruiting wood greatly determine the renewal capabilities of cultivars. Knowing these properties is essential in case of sour cherries, the fruit species that requires a lot of sunlight and tends to produce bare wood. The research of candidate cultivars until now focused on fruit quality. Our aim was to investigate the vegetative characteristics of the resistant ‘bosnyák’ cultivar group in detail, defining the growth characteristics of these cultivars.

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Flower visiting activity of honeybees on fruit species blooming subsequently
Published March 21, 2001
12-16.

In the small demonstration orchard of the College Faculty of Horticulture at Kecskemét the blooming time, the flower density and the honeybee activity was observed at a number of cultivars of 20 flower species during four consecutive years.

Fruit crop species were in flower during 3-4 months altogether. The blooming period of them was ...classified into five groups as early (almond, apricot, gooseberry), middle early (sweet cherry, red currant, currant-gooseberry, black currant, white currant, peach, plum, sour cherry), middle late (pear, strawberry, apple), late (black elder, quince, medlar, raspberry, blackberry-raspberry) and very late blooming period (blackberry). The blooming period of the members of the groups of early and medium early blooming often coincided partly and the same happened between the medium and the medium late as well as between fruits of late and very late flowering.

The flower density of some fruit species is extremely variable (currant-gooseberry, medlar), while at others it is fairly stable and evenly dense in consecutive years (sour cherry, sweet cherry, strawberry). At other fruit species it is moderately changeable. Some fruit species tended to attract more honeybees than others (plum, apple, quince, medlar) and some of them tended to attract much less (black elder, pear) but most species can be regarded as of medium attractivity.

On the flowers of some fruit species (pear, strawberry, quince) honeybees gathered pollen predominantly. At most fruit species however pollen and nectar gathering behaviour seemed to be gradually changing during the season. Namely most honeybees tended to gather pollen at the flowers of the early blooming fruit species, but on the other hand typical foraging behaviour gradually shifted to nectar gathering at the flowers of fruit species of moderate and late blooming periods.

 

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Comparative study of sour cherry samples for their anthocyanin content measured by tools of the laboratory and by portable equipments
Published May 10, 2010
29-31.

The inner quality of fruits depends on many components. The analysis of pharmacologically important fruit species as the sour cherry consumed as a common food is an expensive task, mostly requiring an equipped laboratory. In sour cherry, one of its valuable components, the anthocyanin content deserves special attention. A portable analytical im...plement, which has been developed by our team measures the anthocyanin content on a scale of 1024 PharMgrades. The system is a member of the UVEX family of implements working with a microprocessor and performs the measurement quickly. The portable variant (UVEX-ML-1) does not require much training, the laboratory variant (UVEX UL-1) performs a large quantity of tests under modest laboratory conditions. Preparation of the samples is easily done, the necessary elements are available in the trade. The reagent is easily stored and dosed. The system was tested and proved to be of sufficient precision and the result showed acceptable variance according to the checks performed by a spectrophotometer in the laboratory.

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Some aspects of reduced disease management against Blumeriella jaapii in sour cherry production
Published March 15, 2011
49-51.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reduced spray programmes against cherry leaf spot in integrated and organic sour cherry orchards. Altogether four spray programmes were performed i) standard integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems during the season, ii) reduced integrated: sprays followed by forecasting syst...ems but only 75% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme, iii) standard oragnic: sprays applied every 7–14 days during the season and iv) reduced organic: 60 % of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme. Our study showed that cherry leaf spot did not increase above 3.1, 7.4, and 8.9% in 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively, in the integrated orchards. However, leaf spot incidence was above 20% in all years in the organic field. Reduced spray programme did not increase significantly cherry leaf spot incidence in the integrated field in either years. However, leaf spot incidence increased significanly (above 20%) in the reduced spray programme for the organic orchard.

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Economic figures of sour cherry production at national level of Hungary
Published December 4, 2011
107-109.

After the political changes of 1989, economical processes impaired heavily the Hungarian fruit growing branch, more particularly production of sour cherry. Paralleling with the increasing mass of production, producer’s prices dwindled drastically. At present, Hungarian growers cannot cover the costs of production, nay, hardly raise income. My... purpose was to analyse the cost and income relations of the sour cherry branch during the period of 2002-2009 years in order to find out what are the decisive features, which reveal the trends to be considered. The data presented in the paper are means of a heterogeneous population of values, which cannot be utilised for immediate use in management, but they may reveal the challenges and tendencies of economics of the branch.

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Simultaneousness of reproductive organs of sour cherry cultivars adaptable to Iranian climatic condition
Published September 2, 2009
25-31.

Observations were made on simultaneousness of pollen shedding and stigma viability ratio, to clarify the phenology of reproductive organs of nine economically important sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars (‘Érdi bôtermô‘, ‘Debreceni bőtermő‘, ‘Csengődi‘, ‘Kántorjánosi 3‘, ‘Újfehértói fürtös‘, ‘Petri‘, ...‘Eva‘, ‘Oblascinszka‘, and ‘Pándy 279’). The main aim was investigation the possible influence of environmental cues in timing and development of phenophases and also responses of different cultivars to seasonal cues. Likely effects of climatic changes on phenological development patterns were also considered. Results showed important aspects of the reproductive biology of sour cherry flowers. The amplitude of the phenophase “beginning of blossoming” between cultivars did not exceed 6 days. There is a maximum 3 day difference in the blooming length of different directions in each cultivar. ‘Pándy 279‘ showed high variability when the position of flowers changed on the tree shoots. ‘Újfehértói fürtös‘ was stable in all four directions of the tree. The pollen shedding period and stigma viability ratio were synchronous. Pollen shedding phenomenon simultaneously occurred with the secretary activities of stigmas in all examined cultivars. Distribution of pollen shedding over the secretary activity of stigmas is almost good. In all five cultivars maximum pollen shedding occurred when the temperature was high during the day. In general the results of this experiment and our previous studies clearly demonstrate that the Pándy groups not recommended for plantation in new orchards of Iran.

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Antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and mineral element contents in fruits of Hungarian sour cherry cultivars
Published February 19, 2008
59-64.

Several epidemiological studies revealed that the consumption of antioxidant compounds and the risk of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure or cancer are inversely proportional. Fruits of sour cherry contain a wide range of antioxidant compounds including melatonin, perillyl alcohol, ellagic acid, several flavonoids, polyphenolics, and ant...hocyanins. This study was carried out to survey the antioxidant power and mineral element content of seven commercial sour cherry cultivars and three cultivar candidates and to assess the influence of some external conditions on fruits' functional properties. Our analysis revealed nearly 5- and 2-fold differences between the lowest and highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolics content, respectively. Some cultivars (`Kántorjánosi' and ‘Újfehértói fürtös') and cultivar candidates (D, 'Petri' and 'Éva') showed outstanding antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content; in addition, mineral element content in fruits of the ‘Újfehértói fürtös' cultivar was also favourable. Redox parameters of fruits were influenced by the cultivation plot or fruit positions within the canopy in about half of the cultivars tested. Genetic background of cultivars forms the decisive factor in determining fruits' antioxidant capacity, although external factors may have also sizeable modifying effects. Enhanced functional properties of the fruit may also be further increased through breeding programs since considerable variation exists within the tested germplasm.

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Preliminary results of renewal pruning an 18 years old sour cherry trees
Published July 25, 2013
41-42.

Sour cherry is a light demanding fruit species. As most of the crop is developing from buds on one year old shoots and 2-yearold wood, the formation of bare wood can be seen apparently in a badly maintained canopy. The formation of „whip shoots” indicates the degree of bare wood. Unfortunately in many gardens and commercial orchards sour ch...erry trees resemble willow trees. Owners often decide to grub old orchards, although the useful cropping lifespan of the trees planted in a correct spacing can be 20-30 years on a move vigorous rootstock. Therefore renewal pruning can contribute to the full renewal of the orchard, but the length of its effect is depending on the growth characteristics and renewal capabilities of the cultivar. The growth characteristics of the cultivars are different. The regeneration capabilities of different aged wood are also different. These differences emphasize the need for cultivar specifi c pruning. Knowing the reactions to renewal pruning, we can ensure regular high crops with excellent quality by applying cultivar specifi c rotation pruning.

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Partial and total rejuvenation pruning of sour cherry trees
Published September 20, 2015
11-15.

Sour cherry can be considered as a special fruit species regarding the growing characteristics, as most of the cultivars are characterized by strong balding. With the aging of the tree the inactive (passive) parts of the canopy are increasing steadily, so the productive cropping surface and the yielding capacity decrease  significantly. In... our experiments partial rejuvenation pruning was carried out in a 12 years old orchard, and total rejuvenation pruning was performed in a 21 years old plantation to regenerate the cropping surface of the trees. Thanks to the latter one the canopy of the sour cherry trees were regenerated during only two years. The yields of the rejuvenated trees in cv. ‘Debreceni bőtermő’ exceeded the yields of the control trees, as in the case of the cvs. ‘Érdi bőtermő’ and ‘Újfehértói fürtös’ approached it. At the same time the total rejuvenation pruning has a positive effect on the fruit size.

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Flower microphenology of Hungarian sour cherry cultivars in Iran climatical conditions
Published September 19, 2007
99-101.

Determination of flower microphenology for selecting the suitable pollinizer for sour cherry cultivars is of significant importance. In order to study the flower microphenology of Hungarian sour cherry (Bőtermő, Érdi jubileum and Cigány) cultivars in Mashhad climatic conditions, an experiment was conducted in I998. 1999, 2...005 and 2006, using a completely randomized design with ten replications. The phenological stages were determined from before opening up to browning phase of stigma. Duration of pollen shedding, stigma receptivity and climatic factors were measured. The relative time of flowering between cultivars varied from year to year. The data indicate, the thermal variation strongly contributes to significant differences in duration of stigma viability, although there wasn't a significant difference between cultivars in anther dehiscence period. Phenological stages of flowers are highly affected by meteorological factors in various years.

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Comparison of honeybee behaviour in blooming fruit plantations
Published July 26, 2012
147-151.

Field observations were made on the fl ower visiting behaviour of honeybee foragers in commercial fruit plantations of apricot, Japanese plums, sour cherry, apple and pear. The number of inspected cultivars was 18. The intensity of fl ower visiting by honey bees was markedly different when data of different fruit species are compared. Most inte...nse bee activity was registered on the Japanese plums, somewhat less on apricots, the intensity diminished signifi cantly with apples and pears. Our data presented on the honeybee visitation of Japanese plums can be regarded as new fi nding because no information has been available so far on the relative attractiveness of this fruit species compared to European fruit tree species. Japanese plums were somewhat more attractive to honeybees than apricot and much more attractive than sour cherry, apple and pear. The behaviour of honeybees as visiting the blooming trees displayed specifi c differences according to the fruit species (apricot, sour cherry, pear), which coincide largely with earlier results. It is notable that the fl ower visiting behaviour of honeybees on Japanese plums has been found to be fairly similar to the same on European plums.

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Incidence of postharvest decays on cultivars of pear, apricot, sour cherry and peach under two storage conditions
Published December 4, 2011
63-65.

In this two-year study, postharvest decays of pear, apricot, sour cherry and peach cultivars under two storage methods (TC and CA) were determined after four monthes storage periods; and then causal agents of postharvest decays of two pear cultvars were idenfified under traditional cold storage conditions. Results showed that postharvest decay ...was lower under controlled atmosphere compared to traditional cold one. Decay was lower on pear and the largest deacy occured on peach and apricot cultivars. Cultivars of fruit species also showed differences in incidence of fruit decays. Incidence of decays was independent on year effect. Under controlled atmosphere, postharvest decay ranged between 0 an 8% for pear, and between 5 and 12% for apricot, and between 6 and 11% for sour cherry, and between 5 and 15% for peach. Under traditional cold storage, postharvest decay ranged between 16 an 21% for pear, and between 15 and 39% for apricot, and between 10 and 22% for sour cherry, and between 19 and 33% for peach. Incidence of pear fruit damage ranged between 7.5 and 12.3%. Most damage started from injured fruit or wounded fruit. Five types of damage occurred ont he pear fruits in both years: Penicillium spp., Monilinia spp., Chondrostereum spp., other pathogens and mechanical injury. The most common damage was caused by Penicillium spp., Monilina spp. and Chondrostereum spp. On both pear cultivars in both years.

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The atmospherical drought as a decisive factor of yield in the main sour cherry varieties of Hungary
Published July 26, 2012
121-125.

Atmospheric drought causes heavy diffi culties of water supply in most fruit species grown in Hungary, although the modern, intensive plantations are already equipped with irrigation. The use a dripping systems are widely applied, therefore nothing was done to avert the risk of atmospheric drought. In excessively dry seasons the reduction of yi...elds is often due to atmospheric drought. Present study aims to utilise measured data of meteorological parameters (relative air humidity and temperature) to develop an index to characterise drought and measure its effect on fruit yield. Causes influencing yields are multiple. Phytosanitary problems are combined with defi cits of water supply. Water deficit of the soil is avoided by dripping irrigation, but the atmosphere is infl uenced by sprinklers only. Atmospherical drought increases the transpiration of the trees intensely and causes reduction of photosynthetic activity, consequently impairs the yield. Applying the index developed in a plantation of 6 sour cherry varieties grown in Hungary (Meteor, Nefris, Pándy, Újfehértói fürtös, Kántorjánosi, Debreceni bôtermô), we measured the specific yields (yield per volume of tree crown) during the period 1989–2011 using the meteorological database of the growing site. Additionally, other parameters characterising the drought are compared and searched for a method most reliable for judging the specific yielding capacity of sour cherry varieties. The results proved convincingly the utility of the index, especially for the varieties Pándy and Újfehértói fürtös. Comparison with other indices expressing the effects of drought revealed the superiority of our index, which will be applied in the future to express the risk of atmospheric drought.

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Climatic indicators regarding the rest period of sour cherry
Published August 16, 2010
49-52.

Sour cherry production in the world is increasing gradually. Profitable production, i.e. yield, depends largely on weather conditions. If Hungary wishes to keep up with the most successful countries, attention should be paid to the weather during the dormancy period, being definitely decisive from the points of view of quality as well as quanti...ty. In order to predict the expected risk factors, characterisation of the most important weather parameters is necessary. For that purpose, the database of the Institute of Research and Extension Service for Fruit Growing at Újfehértó Ltd. has been utilised. Records of weather conditions were collected throughout the period 1984-2005, i.e. daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures (°C), and phenological diary of sour cherry varieties ’Újfehértói fürtös’, ’Kántorjánosi’ and ’Debreceni bôtermô’. For the future expectations study we have used the RegCM3.1 regional climate model with 10 km resolution. Data of 4 indicators have been traced: Average temperatures, Number of days without frost, Maximum length of periods without frost, Maximum length of frosty period. On the one hand, we surveyed the changes; on the other hand, estimates have been attempted for the future changes expected during the following decades.

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Climate change effect on sour cherry production in Central Hungary
Published July 2, 2016
61-66.

Consideration of the soil and climatic conditions and their expected changes is very important in planning of new orchards. This research focuses on the expected climatic conditions and opportunities of sour cherry production in Central Hungary in the periods of 2021–2050 and 2071–2100, compared to the base period of 1961–1990. Results sh...ow that in the near future the expected changes are mostly favourable for sour cherry production, the utility values are increasing in most of the subregions. By the end of the century the utility values show further increase in the formerly colder subregions. However, in some subregions the utility values slightly decrease because of the appearance of the extreme dry and warm year types, though their values remain at the level of the base period or even higher.

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First evaluation of fruit quality of some new and old sour cherry cultivars in Hungarian climatic condition
Published September 2, 2009
37-43.

Indeed, in the last decade a large number of new sour cherry cultivars with new notable flavor characteristics have been released. There is no enough information related to qualitative characteristics which consistently segregated based on their predominant sensory characteristics. The present study carried out at tow consecutive years (2008 an...d 2009) and examined some qualitative characters which are the main importance in the specialty cherries trade, The main objective was to determine fruits quality of Érdi bőtermő, Oblacsinszka, Debreceni bőtermő, Csengődi, Pándy 279, Éva, Kántorjánosi, Újfehértói fürtös and Petri sour cherry cultivars. Changes observed in major characteristics such as fruit detachment force, width, length, weight, peduncle length, flesh firmness, brix, citric acid, Suger/acid ratio and pit weigh.While observed no change in flesh/pit ratio and Coordinate of colour (X*, y*, x*), hue angle and chroma value, in different years. In all measured factors, there was significant difference between selected cultivars of sour cherry fruit. Debreceni bőtermő showed higher values of fruit detachment force in 2008, while had the lover of fruit detachment force in 2009. Fruit firmness of “Érdi bőtermő” were monitored at lover value in both 2-year.

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