The goal of the study was to examine response of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) to boron (B) fertilization. The experiment was conducted during 2005-2007 in West Hungary on mature cv. `Germersdorfi 3' grafted on Prunus mahaleb rootstock.
Sweet cherry trees planted on a calcareous chernozem soil. Tree...s were foliar-fertilized with B. Foliar B sprays were performed: (1) in the spring, at the stage of white bud, beginning of flowering (B1), and (2) repeated 5 weeks after full bloom (B2). In each of spring spray treatments, B was applied at a rate of 0.15 kg ha-I. Trees untreated with B served as a control.
The results showed that B fertilization had effect on B concentration in leaf tissues, mostly after ripening. B was present significantly higher amount in leaf in treated samples after ripening.
Mean fruit weight was slightly increased by B fertilization. Fruit sensitivity to cracking was not influenced by B fertilization. Nevertheless, from our data it can be conclude that the sensitivity of fruit to cracking is improved when the fruit is riper, the fruit density and fruit weight are higher. The soluble solids varied between 15.0 and 15.9% according to the treatments. Our results for the monosaccharides investigated varied between 5.1 and 7.2 as glucose and fructose as well. Galactose and sucrose was detected very small amount in the unprocessed cherries. Applied B treatments increased sugar contents but decreased organic acid contents in sweet cherry fruits.
It is concluded that under conditions of this experiment, B fertilization can be recommended in sweet cherry culture to improve fruit quality and their appearance.
The seasonal dynamic of macro- and micronutrients uptake of a sweet cherry cultivar cv. 'Katalin' (Prunus avium L.) was studied according to apply different flower thinning techniques. Beside control treatment, three thinning treatments were performed: (I) thinning for I flower/inflorescence, (2) thinning for 2 flower/inflorescence, (3...) thinning for 3 flower/inflorescence. Soil examination was carried out to establish the growing conditions of orchard site. Moreover, for studying the temporal dynamic of nutrient uptake plant analytical examination was performed four times per year based on leaf collecting according to the phenological phases. It was found that the macro- and micronutrients contents of leaves were showed significant differences between treatments before ripening, at ripening and after ripening stage. It was found that thinning has influence on mineral composition of leaf. Flower removal unbalanced the equilibrium of generative and vegetative processes. The applied manual flower thinning treatment resulted improving vegetative processes like nutrient uptake and storage.
Similarly to 2007, 2011 was also critical year for fruit growers in Eastern-Hungary. Serious frost damage was observed at late blooming period (6 May (T=-1.6°C)) in this region, which caused approximately 60-65% of fruit loss. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a spring frost event on nutrient uptake and status of the...trees of a sour cherry plantation at Újfehértó. The symptoms of frost were observed visually. This visual observation was confirmed by SPAD readings. The frost affected the macroand micronutrient contents of leaves. It was found that the frost affected the nutrient uptake negatively, but the effect of it was not significantly sometimes. It can be stated that the nutrient demand of trees can be supplied only under even worse conditions.
The geographic location of Bucharest area, the nature of its soil and its climate offer remarkably favourable conditions for nectarine growing, with juicy and well flavoured fruit, good for fresh consumption and processing.
The five years' investigation (1996-2000) has helped to identify some nectarine cultivars and hybrids (NJN 58, ARK... 165, ARK 139, Morton, ARK 107, Romamer I, ARK 125, Firebrite) with exceptional fruit quality (dry matter content, titratable acidity, vitamin C content, overall sugar, and amount of pectic substances).
Dry matter content varied over the three years from 8.3 to 18.5% (NJN 68), meanwhile titratable acidity varied between 0.26 and 1.08% (Romamer I). Sugar / acidity ratio was within the limits of 8.6 and 36.5 (Nectared 7). Nectarines have high vitamin C content, over 10 mg/100g (Fairlane, NJN 67, Regina, Harko), glucides were found in Firebrite, Romamer I varieties and NJN 21, CIR1T127, HFSR3P4, HNA hybrids.
Some cultivars have been recommended for planting in this southern area of Romania (Crimsongold, ARK 125, Harko, Hardyred, ARK 134), others used as quality genitors (ARK 85, Nectared 7, NJN 21, ARK 21, ARK 134, Fantasia) in breeding projects.
The purpose of phenometry is to examine the measurable parameters of the plants in order to follow up the consequences of weather processes. We should fi nd the reasons, why the diameter of fruits grows larger in one season and smaller in the next. Variation may occur as a response to insuffi cient provision of water or nutrients, but also beca...use of pathological effects and of extremely high or low temperatures, moreover, of extraordinary heavy fruit load. There are phenometrical characteristics, which consider the fi nal consequences (density of fl owers, fruits set, drop of fruits), whereas other parameters could be followed up (size, length and width of fruits) as the dynamic components of growth. The quantitative parameters of growth are functionally related to each other, where the weather conditions, soil humidity and nutrients are on the input side, thus it is possible to model the growth of fruits as a function of the environment. Initially, the relations between the main weather variables and the phenometrical data have to be cleared. In the present study, the interactions between the mentioned phenomena are presented and numerically defi ned.
In an attempt to find more effective methods and safety to control the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta, this research was conducted to study the efficacy of the four bio-treatments ; two bacterial isolates (Bacillus subtilis. and Pseudomonas Fluorescence), one fungal isolate Trichoderma viride) and Spinosad as a microbial insecticide compared...with the most common insecticides used against the dipterous and lepidopterous leaf miners in Egypt; Profenofos and Aphox. In the two successive seasons; 2011 and 2012, the fungal isolate Trichoderma viride achieved the lowest infestation(numbers of infested leaflets, mines, infestation percentages) which were 167, 195, and 21.9% resp.in season 2011 and 198, 222 and 26.2% resp. in season 2012. While the highest infestation was occurred in case of using the insecticides, Aphox (423, 559 and 55.9% resp.& 384, 839 and 72.2%. and Prohpenofos (436, 562 and 57.7% &391, 534 and 51.7% resp.).during 2011 and 2012 respectively. The other treatments occupied the intermediate levels. On the other hand, the yield of tomato fruits was increased by 75% over the check in case of plants treated with Trichoderma viride isolate, but the pesticide treatment given weak or no impact in increasing tomato crop. In season 2012, the infested tomato fruits percentages with T. absoluta larvae and Rhizoctonia soil rot disease(that Frequently observed incidentally) were recorded the minimum levels obtained by spraying Trichoderma viride isolate(21.38 and 10.32% resp.). In contrast, the maximum levels were recorded in Prophenofos (44.87 and22.78% resp.) and Aphox treatments(47.22 and 27.78% resp.).
Based on the most recent data, the average amount of sweet cherry produced in Hungary is around 10-12 thousand tons. Therefore fast and effective method is important for sweet cherry fruit quality analyses. The aim of the study was to examine the applicability of reflectance measurements for sweet cherry fruit quality analyses. In our experimen...t five cherry species (Vera, Cristalina, Germersdorfi, Noir de Mechet, Canada Giant) were examined in order to measure the spectral differences between species. Further more, spectral alteration was examined between different health and maturity status of the fruits in the case of a specified, the Germesdorfi species. The four new indices are appropriate tools for cherry quality analysis. Thus reflectance measurements can also support more precise and automated fruit selections. The methods for the differentiation of species could also be viable at a concerned habitat; however, the climate, habitat and soil conditions strongly affect the yield quality. Concerning the fast determination of water content, WBI could be a reliable method for the assessment
Virginia mallow (Sida hermephrodita Rushby), Malvaceae family, is a perspective perennial herb able to yield a biomass crop through the last two decades. In our previous studies, we examined two factors relating to seed germination percent and seed germination power during our research: the influence of hot water treatment and the effect of exo...genous or endogenous infection of seed. Following these recognition we modifi ed our technique, in such a way that we fractionated the seeds based on their fresh weight / or relative density before we carried out the treatment. When we fi ltered the fl oating seeds on the surface of water, the hot water treatment was performed considerably better on the sink seeds after separation. Therefore, by this special priming process we were able to reach 80% germination capacity of Virgina mallow seeds under laboratory conditions (26 oC without illumination). From all nurseries tray methods preliminary results, it is clear that, Sida seeds, which were treated with these methods, gave the best growing rate for industrial uses.
Based on the experiments, an assessment was made to determine for green pepper the amount of nutrients extracted by unit weight of fruit and plant parts not meant to be consumed (foliage, stem, root), i.e. the specific nutrient requirements of pepper. A further objective was to find out to what extent nutrient accumulation in individual plant o...rgans was influenced by differences in production technology and soil conditions.
Favourable parameters are offered to the formation of noble rot caused by Botrytis cinerea by the climatic conditions, soil circumstances and grape-varietes of Tokaj-region. As the result of noble rot, aszú-berries represent the most important raw material of the world-wide known Tokaji Aszú Wine. The objective of this study was to m...easure the penicillin-content of aszú-berries and Tokaj Wine Specialities. As the result of infection of Botrytis free way can be opened in front of other mould strains, especially Penicillium and Aspergillus. There is a possibility to the presence of Penicillium chrysogenum on the surface of aszú-berries during noble rotting process. P. chrysogenum was found to produce the so called Naturally Derived Penicillins such as Penicillin-V (phenoximethyl-penicillin).
According to our findings the Penicillin-V content was detected between 0.4 and 26 mg/1 wine and 0-74 mg/kg aszú-berry. These values do net have therapeutic effect, but physiological benefit and it can be a basis to the qualification of the raw material of Tokaj Wine Specialities naturally together with the other component of noble rotted berries and botrytized wines.
The pear has large water requirement, therefore the planting of high density and grass covered pear orchards are needed irrigation
conditions in Hungary. Drip irrigation spread in the orchards is due to the 90–95% of water use efficiency. One of the key role of irrigation is the
proper determination of evapotranspiration and crop coeffi
Penman-Monteith method is used for the estimation of evapotranspiration, using CROPWAT 8.0. The research field was the genetic collection of
pear at Újfehértó, in Hungary, which is situated in Nyírség meso-region. Our aim was to establish drip irrigation at this site. Based on the results
of CROPWAT irrigation model the mean amount of the total gross irrigation is between 230–270 mm, within 3 irrigation interval regarding
climatic and rainfall data of the last 10 years. In 2009, due to heavy drought, the total gross irrigation was 355,4mm/year on sandy soil calculating
with 45% total available water depletion in 5 irrigation interval. The sizing of the irrigation system was set to the maximum 0.55 l/s/ha, which is
6.3 l/tree/h. 6.3 l/tree/h can be carried out with a drip emitter having 16 mm wing lines diameter, 4 l/h water flow at 3 atm pressure.
Irrigation in some countries is a horticultural practice mainly used only to supply water. At the same time the use of microsprinklers have a powerful influence on the changes of temperature in orchards. When the air’s temperature is high (about 20 °C or higher) the evaporative cooling irrigation significantly decreases the plants’ surface... temperature and air temperature. The cooling effect is stronger when the air is dryer. By using cooling irrigation regularly, canopy temperature can be decreased so that the beginning of blooming can be delayed. Also if the blooming is early and frost probability is high, serious damages can happen in orchards. The beneficial effect of cooling irrigation is the temperature reduction and frost protection. InMarch 2010, one month earlier than the expected blooming an irrigation system was established to produce anti-frost treatment and regulate the micro-climate of a Gala apple orchard which belongs to the University of Debrecen (Hungary). The objective of sprinklers was to cool the air by increasing water evaporation and relative humidity. The position of the micro-sprinklers was planned in three levels (around the tree trunks, a few cm near to the soil surface, in the crown region and above the crown, a half meter higher). The results showed that the water sprayed in the orchard by micro-jets influenced decisively the temperature of the plantation. At higher temperatures (around 20 °C), the drop of temperature may attain 5–7 °C. A low relative humidity of the air may increase the relative effect. When water was applied at intervals of 15 minutes for ten times a day from 8 am to 18 pm, the air, flowers and bud’s surface temperature could be kept low.At certain days when the temperature was higher than 10 °C, irrigation was used at night time in similar 15 minutes intervals, from 18 pm and 6 am. The beginning of bloom could be delayed for more than ten days. The Gala apple variety blooming dynamics was characterized by a logistic curve in the treated as well as in the control plot. In the treated plot, the curve was steeper than in the control one in spite of the equal temperatures measured in the plots. Under Hungarian climatic conditions, the method was successfully used to delay blooming dates. The main result was the diminution of the frost damage in the spring that assured apple yields.
Strawberry varieties were studied in 3 different growing areas of different soil- and ecological properties in Hungary. We have measured the optical spectra of the leaves together with their nutrient content and performed sensory examinations on the deep frozen and melted fruit. The 6 varieties were Elsanta, Marianna, Spadeka, Symphony, Camaros...a, and Raurica. The 3 sites were Újfehértó, Pölöske, and Kecskemet. Colour of the leaves was characterised by their lightness and dominant wavelength. Under non-optimal soil and ecological conditions the varieties could be distinguished by their colour — the leaves became lighter and more yellow. The fruits did not produce the genetically determined taste if the plant can not grow in optimal circumstances — we found a negative correlation between the leaf colour in flowering time and the fruit flavour. Leaf colour measurements performed in flowering time make it possible to improve fruit quality by changing the nutrient supply between flowering and ripening.
The influence of nitrogen-fertilizer applied in 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha dosages, as well as the time of the harvest carried out in full flowering and early fruit set stages were studied on the herb and essential oil production of garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). The small plot experiment was installed in the Experimental Field of Ta...rbiat Modarres University near Teheran, under sandy loam soil conditions. On the basis of the results the nitrogen-fertilizer had a significant effect on the dry-matter production of the species: the herb yield, calculated on one hectare, increased from 671.88 kg up to 1021.00 kg value as a result of 150 kg nitrogen dosage. The essential oil yield proved to have a similar tendency because neither the accumulation level of essential oil, nor the ratio of thymol were effected by the nutrient supply. Analyzing the effect of harvest time changes in both dry-mass production and essential oil accumulation were observed. The highest herb yield (1238.20 kg/hectare) was obtained in early fruit set, when about.50 per cent of fruits reached their full size in the inflorescence. The accumulation level of essential oil also reached its maximum at the sane development stage, showing 0.75 per cent value, which is about two fold higher comparing to the accumulation level was measured at the time of full flowering (0.41 %).
Irrigation in some countries is a horticultural practice mainly used only to supply water. At the same time the use of microsprinklers have a powerful infl uence on the changes of temperature in orchards. When the air’s temperature is high (about 20 °C or higher) the evaporative cooling irrigation signifi cantly decreases the plants’ surfa...ce temperature and air temperature. The cooling effect is stronger when the air is dryer. By using cooling irrigation regularly, canopy temperature can be decreased so that the beginning of blooming can be delayed. Also if the blooming is early and frost probability is high, serious damages can happen in orchards. The benefi cial effect of cooling irrigation is the temperature reduction and frost protection. In March 2010, one month earlier than the expected blooming an irrigation system was established to produce anti-frost treatment and regulate the micro-climate of a Bosc pear orchard which belongs to the University of Debrecen (Hungary). The objective of sprinklers was to cool the air by increasing water evaporation and relative humidity. The position of the micro-sprinklers was planned in three levels (around the tree trunks, a few cm near to the soil surface, in the crown region and above the crown, a half meter higher). The results showed that the water sprayed in the orchard by micro-jets infl uenced decisively the temperature of the plantation. At higher temperatures (around 20 °C), the drop of temperature may attain 5–7 °C. A low relative humidity of the air may increase the relative effect. When water was applied at intervals of 15 minutes for ten times a day from 8 am to 18 pm, the air, fl owers and bud’s surface temperature could be kept low. At certain days when the temperature was higher than 10 °C, irrigation was used at night time in similar 15 minutes intervals, from 18 pm and 6 am. The beginning of bloom could be delayed for more than ten days. The Bosc pear variety blooming dynamics was characterized by a logistic curve in the treated as well as in the control plot. In the treated plot, the curve was steeper than in the control one in spite of the equal temperatures measured in the plots. Under Hungarian climatic conditions, the method was successfully used to delay blooming dates. The main result was the diminution of the frost damage in the spring that assured pears yields.
Five years old “Desert red” peach trees budded on Nemaguard rootstock and grown in sandy soil at commercial orchard Al-Nubaria city, El-Behira Governorate-Egypt were treated with some agricultural treatments involving thinning out pruning, fruit thinning and foliar application of potassium silicate (25% S +10% K2O) at 0.1% and super grow (2...0% N, 20% P2O5 and 20% K2O) at 0.3% in 2014 and 2015 seasons, to study their effects on yield and fruit quality and the relationship between nutrient balance and yield of “Desert red” peach trees. Beside, testing the influence of used treatments on two physiological disorder, double fruit and deep suture %. Also, economic evaluation of different treatments was done. All obtained data were statistically analyzed using a randomized complete block design. Depending on the obtained results in this study, it could be concluded that application of thinning out pruning 35%, fruit thinning by leaving 15 cm between fruits on one-year old shoot at 20 days after full bloom and foliar application of potassium silicate which sprayed five times during each growing season at fruit set, the second fruit development stage, the beginning of the fruit color change and twice after month from harvest, most profitable treatment for peach trees grown under conditions of this investigation. This treatment gave the best vegetative growth, yield, fruit quality, higher crop value with high net income /fed. from “Desert red” peach trees, in addition, reduced the percentage of double fruit and deep suture by more than 50% in both seasons, therefore, the study recommends this treatment for “Desert red” peach growers.
Integrated research aimed to intensify the practices of afforestation especially of white poplar and grey poplar woods. A new, simplified tending procedure has been developed to substitute earlier models considering the target diameter by right spacing as a tool to achieve adequat quality of logs. The practice-oriented model may help the qualit...ative improvement of white poplar growing technology in Hungary as well as in Serbia.
Interaction between the rootstock and scion varieties (clones) was examined. Berlandieri x Riparia T. K. 5BB, Berlandieri x Riparia T.5C being the most widely used varieties in Hungary, Fercal, Ruggeri 140 being recently used on special soil conditions ; Georgikon 28 a new established variety and Berlandieri x Riparia T. 8B GK 10 clone were the... rootstocks used. The V. vinifera L. varieties were a clone of Italian Riesling and two new hybrids from the same cross population f ( Noble Italian Riesling X Ezerjó) X ( Noble Italian Riesling X Pinot Gris ) }. This study presents the results how the growth habit depends on different scion/stock combinations in the first three years.
Shoot growth characters were observed during the initial years after plantation in the vineyard until we got the first yields. Our results did not agree with those of Pospisilova (1977) that the anticipated vigour of shoot growth will appear later in the vineyard only. However we agree with Zimmerman (1970), who showed that the differences are caused by the rootstocks in the growth habit of vines during the first two years already. The differences in shoot elongation decreased similarly to the rootstocks in the first year of fruit production. It shows us that the intense root development caused vigorous shoot growth, which we think to be a rootstock effect. When the vegetative and generative development are balanced already, the effect of scions in shoot elongation became stronger than the effect of rootstock.
We also found great differences in the maturation of wood each year from planting of the vineyard to the year of fruit production.
During the first years the differences of cane maturation were greater according to the scion varieties, the means were significantly different. In the first ripening year the differences dwindled or increased due to the rootstocks. This means that the effect of the rootstock on cane maturation became stronger in the first year of fruit production.