Nowadays the condition of the good saleability of the fruit is the application of controlled environmentally friendly technologies. Success of the growing is basically influenced by the production value of the cultivars, and their flexibility to the different technologies. In our examinations the effect of the integrated and organic farming&nbs...p; system has been evaluated on the growing characteristics of the apple cultivars. According to our results the trunk thickness of the trees both in the initial and both in the later bearing period is higher in the integratedproduction compared to the organic farming system. This differences most likely caused by the variance of the crop load.
Lycium barbarum is known exclusively as an ornamental plant in Hungary, and is planted so, as popular belief deem it a toxic plant. The plant’s fruit receives great respect in countries abroad, thus, due to its favourable content values the Lycium has achieved the title of ‘biological gold mine’. The last couple of years has seen the impo...rt of Lycium shrubs and its corresponding products, dried goods or in the form of various processed products which have been marketed and sold at extreme prices (under name of Goji, Wolfberry, Lifeberry). Our goal was to examine the similarities of the content values of wolfberry found in Hungary and those cultivated abroad. Along with Miklós Józsa the domestic Lycium population was surveyed based on foreign examples, between the years 2009 and 2011. Those defined sweet and largefruited were selected for further investigations to be set into a clone repository. This clone repository– which contains 67 different clones from a number of regions of Hungary – was established in the nursery of Dr. Miklós Józsa, located in the city of Szombathely. The phenological and morphological characteristics and the fruit ripening and quality indicators of plants in the clone repository were investigated. Six ‘best’ clones – selected based on flavour, disease-resistance and vegetative characteristics (plant size, fruit set, yield and fruit size) were analysed based on their content values. The control plant was a cultivar imported by a delivery service, found also in growing. In addition to the results of the selection, the results of the content values of the six selected ‘best’ clones (total soluble sugar content, glucose-fructose ratio, carotene content, FRAP value) is documented in this paper. Further, based on the resulting information the possibilities of the fruit’s utilization are suggested. Significant differences were measured in the vegetative characteristics of the clones (plant size, fruit set, yield and fruit size) and of those of
its inner content values. The resulting properties are considerable in regards of the plant’s introduction into cultivation and also utilization. Based on growing characteristics, more favourable clones were selected than the foreign varieties already in growing. Those clones selected by us have had similar or better content values than foreign breeds. The investigation of these content values is still in progress.
Sour cherry is a hungaricum. Hungary has several excellent and self fertile sour cherry cultivars. Hungarian sour cherries have a name for fruit quality and they are suitable for fresh consumption. Today breeding is focused not only on fruit quality, but also on disease resistance. The new, investigated cultivars have these characteristics too.... But growth characteristics are also very important because they contribute to successful production. The vegetative and generative properties of the cultivars are different. If a cultivar is very productive, the ignorance of cultivar-specific pruning may result in the decrease in tree condition and fruit quality. The properties of producing fruiting wood greatly determine the renewal capabilities of cultivars. Knowing these properties is essential in case of sour cherries, the fruit species that requires a lot of sunlight and tends to produce bare wood. The research of candidate cultivars until now focused on fruit quality. Our aim was to investigate the vegetative characteristics of the resistant ‘bosnyák’ cultivar group in detail, defining the growth characteristics of these cultivars.
In our study we aimed to evaluate the growing characteristics of new prospective apple cultivars and their canopies. The following parameters were measured: I) thickness of the trunk and the central leader, II) ratio of the trunk thickness and the basic branches (Zahn indexes), III) number of the branches of the central leader, and iv) thicknes...s of the branches of the central leader. The main branches of the trunk and the central leader tend to over thickening in the case of cvs ‘Red Idared’, ‘Wilton’s Red Jonaprince’ and ‘Jeromine’. The density of the branches of certain parts of the canopy was too low for cvs ‘Crimson Crisp’, ‘Wilton’s Red Jonaprince’, ‘Fuji September Wonder’ and ‘Red Idared’. The density of the branches of certain parts of the canopy was too high for cvs ‘Gala Venus Fengal’, ‘Wilton’s Red Jonaprince’ and ‘Red Cap Valtod’. Relationship was found between the tapering dynamics of the central axis and the thickness of the main branches, which was stronger in super spindle canopies than in slender spindle crown forms.
The aim of this study was to determine some important growing characteristics of 5 resistant apple (Rajka, Rubinola, Topaz, Otawa and Goldstar) and 7 apricot (NJA 19, Goldrich, Harcot, Venus, Comando, Olimp, Cea mai buna de Ungaria) cultivars in two fruit growing regions in Romania from 2000 to 2003. Height of the apple trees (4-year-old tree)...ranged between 1.96 m (cv. Topaz) and 2.39 m (cv. Rubinola). Diameter of the crown ranged from 0.96 m (cv. Goldstar) to 1.12 cm (cv. Rajka). The trunk diameter ranged from 3.5 cm (cv. Goldstar) to 5.0 cm (cv. Rajka). The surface of the trunk section was the lowest for cv. Goldstar (9.7 cm') and the largest for cv. Rajka (19.6 cm). Height of the apricot trees (4 years old tree) ranged between 2.69 m (cv. Venus) and 3.38 m (cv. NJA - 19). Diameter of the crown ranged from 2.59 m (cv. Comandor) to 2.77 m (cv. Cea mai buna de Ungaria). The trunk diameter ranged from 9.54 cm (cv. Goldrich) to 13.30 cm (cv. NJA - 19). Length of annual branches was the lowest for cv. Goldrich (45.1 cm) and the highest for cv. NJA - 19 (83.8 cm). Bud swelling of apricot trees began on 8 March for cv. NJA - 19 and ended on 11 March for the control cultivar (Cea mai buna de Ungaria). The blooming started on 16 March for cv. NJA - 19 and 27 Mach for the control cultivar. Duration of fruit growth was 89 days for cv. NJA - 19 and 128 days for cv. Comandor. When the temperature decreased to 1.5 °C (in 2001), percentage of viable pollen grains ranged between 48.86 % (cv. Olimp) and 91.57 % (cv. Venus). The germinating grains ranged from 31 % (cv. Olimp) to 90 % (cv. Harcot). Free pollination was the lowest for cv. NJA - 19 (29 %) and the highest for cv. Harcot (41%), while self-pollination ranged between 6 (cv. Olimp) and 11 % (cvs. Comondor and Harcot). Apple yield ranged from 16.65 t/ha (cv. Otawa) to 24.35 t/ha (cv. Rajka) and the differences varied from 4.45 t/ha to - 3.25 t/ha compared to the control varieties. Apricot yield ranged from 11.47 kg/ tree or 9.53 t/ha (cv. Cea mai buna de Ungaria), to 38.83 kg/tree or 27.34 t/ha (cv. Olimp) and the differences varied from 3 t/ha to 17 t/ha compared to the control varieties. Apple fruit weight ranged from 162 g (cv. Otawa) to 222 g (cv. Goldstar) and apricot fruit weight from 42.52 g (cv. Goldrich) to 68.38 g (cv. Comandor). Color, taste and aroma were very specific to cultivars.
The use of an adequate medium is very much emphasised in growing transplants. Due to their favourable characteristics, peats have long been used in production. With the depletion of peat resources the research of peat substitutes has come in the foreground. In the experiments cucumber transplants were grown using baked, expanded clay granules....Results have indicated that by mixing them to peat in a 50 % rate they could be suitable mineral material as a component for soil mixtures.
We have concluded the selection tests of the `Mézes körte' seedlings planted in the spring of 2006, with special emphasis on the cotyledonary, foliage leaf and the height of plant. Out of the 75 seeds planted in rows, there were 40-45 pieces growing out, so during the first cotyledonary test we had to calculate with almost 40% decay. On 12th...April 2006, we recorded some of the important characteristics of the seedlings in their cotyledonary stage which characteristics were important from the point of view of selection (cotyledonary form, cotyledonary length, cotyledonary thickness, cotyledonary colour, cotyledonary petiole length, cotyledonary petiole thickness, cotyledonary petiole colour). The above morphological characteristics are shown in Table No. 1-6. We have also tested the seedling in foliage leaf state, paying special attention on the development stage of the plants (colour of foliage leaf , height of plant). We have completed statistical calculations of the two above mentioned characteristics. The result of that is summarised in Table No. 8-9. The variation coefficient show smaller value in the case of the foliage leaf number (15-32%), while the wider range of spread of the data referring to the height of the plant is shown by the 33-61% CV values. On charts No 4-9. we present the relationship between the height of the plant and the number of foliage leaf, as well as the differences between the two graphs. Based on the above charts and graphs it can be defined that the 40% destruction of the developing seedlings during the period till the next measurement reached 70-80% level. In spite of this however some seedlings showed strong and balanced growth (A44, B42, C25, D16, E5, E39, F38), the further testing and selection of those is to be completed in the future.
Apricot seedlings are one of the most widely used rootstocks in apricot growing of Hungary. The National List of Hungary contains 7 apricot seedling rootstocks varieties. The production of apricot graft on seedling rootstock takes 3 years from the seed production to the complete graft and requires more space. It is important to provide the true...ness to variety name during this process. In the genus Prunoideae not only the plant but also the stone should have typical characteristics. It seems to be useful to examine the morphology of stone. The observed varieties were 'Tengeribarack C.1300', 'Tengeribarack C.1301', 'Tengeribarack C.1650', 'Tengeribarack' C.1652', 'Tengeribarack C.145', 'Tengeribarack C.1426' and 'Tengeribarack C.2546`.1t seems to be the most suitable characteristic to make a distinction between these varieties by stone, the ratio height of stone to lateral width of stone, the ratio of height of stone to ventral width of stone, the ratio of lateral width of stone to ventral width of stone and the ratio of ventral zone to ventral width. From not measured characteristic seems to be most utilizable to make distinction: the fusion of dorsal groove margins, the shape of apex, the presence of a mucro of the apex, the shape of stalk end in lateral view and the texture of lateral surfaces.
An assortment of 17 pear varieties was examined in 2006 at Keszthely, Department of Horticulture, Georgicon Faculty of Agriculture, Veszprem University. The selected varieties were planted in 1980, grafted on seedling rootstock and represented the majority of existing pear plantations in Hungary. The main objective was the determination of suit...ability of the most important varieties for the purpose of intensive growing technologies even when grafted on vigorous seedling rootstock. The most important growing and fruiting characteristics of the varieties have been assessed and evaluated from the point of view of productivity. We stated that the relations of the trunk or the main axis to the lateral branches and fruiting structures are all subject to varietal effects and are valuable indices of the growing character. The quotient of the diameters of trunk and branch should be around 0.3-0.4, and the relative frequency of fruiting structures (Dárda, nyárs, vessző) meaning the ability of branching and regeneration associated with accurate pruning policies are decisive from the point of view of promising success.
Sweet cherry is currently considered as a fruit with high interests. The amount of the produced yield is well saleable in the world and also in Hungary year by year, moreover often there is a shortage with the high quality fruits. Researches with the sweet cherry production focus on the intensity growing all over the world, namely the realizati...on of producing with small trees ensuring high quality and quantity. In our examinations ’Lapins’ sweet cherry cultivar was evaluated grafted on rootstocks with different vigor (Gisela 5, Gisela 6, Colt) at the University of Debrecen, Pallag Experimental Station. According to our results trees grafted on Colt rootstock can be described with very low yields due to the excessive high vigor. Trees with Gisela 5 and Gisela 6 rootstocks showed excessive high productivity, as size of the fruits did not reach the required values.
In this paper growing characteristics and fruit bearing parameters of ‘Lapins’, ‘Kordia’, ‘Sweetheart’ and ‘Regina’ sweet cherry cultivars grafted on vigorous Colt rootstock were evaluated at the University of Debrecen, Pallag Experimental Station. Based on our data five years old trees can be described with homogenous strong gr...owing, but very week yielding (2.1-3.1 kg/tree), as while fruit size varies between 26.2 and 27.2 mm. Producing the examined cultivars on Colt rootstock with high plant density requires higher attention and more interventions (root pruning, sawing the trunk) during the technology.
In recent years consumers tend to pay ever greater attention to food ingredients looking for foods with favourable compositional characteristics. Researches nowadays aim to find out what role the different vegetable species play in protection of the human organism. Consumption of vegetables and fruits more times a day plays an important role in... this process. The valuable chemical components in plants can eventually be influenced, besides, by environmental characteristics, also by the elements of the production technology applied. Our work aimed to find out what eventual changes occur in the composition parameters of sweet corn (Zea mays convar saccharata Koern.) receiving different NPK fertilizations and top dressed with foliar application of Zn and Mg, destined chiefly for fresh consumption, in response to the treatments mentioned above. The fertiliser rates were compared with the help of the variety Spirit (normal sweet, very early ripening).
The aim of our experiments was to investigate the internal quality parameters of some old melon and watermelon landraces or varieties whether they have any desirable characteristics. Measurements were carried out using 8 different types of melon (Cucumis melo L.) and 8 accessions of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus...em>[Thumb]), which were self pollinated under greenhouse conditions. Besides the determination of dry matter content; soluble solids, titratable acidity of the fruit juices, investigation of carbohydrates, total phenol content was measured by spectrophotometer. Total antioxidant capacities were determined spectrophotometrically using the FRAP method. We found some accesions both among melon and watermelon varieties, which could be characterized by outstanding inner content.
Recent interest to avoid use of agrochemicals in fruit growing to safeguard environmental and human health has stimulated interest in organic fruit production (OFP) all over the world. Organic production requires a holistic approach to agricultural ecosystem management. Because of the perennial nature of orchards, this is not a great departure...from conventional orchard management, except that corrective techniques are limited primarily to naturally derived materials. Organic mineral nutrition management hinges on two principles: 1) practices that lead to the build up and maintenance of soil that is biologically active and high in organic matter; 2) supplementing the mineral nutrients provided by the soil with fertilizers from approved sources. Organic orchards should be sited on land with superior soils and preplant soil preparation to increase organic matter and correct any sub-optimal soil characteristics. For successful organic fruit growing the following statement should be considered:Weed management is critical to reduce competition for nutrients and water. Soil and leaf analysis provide the basis for correcting mineral nutrient deficiencies or imbalances in organic production. It may be necessary to use a number of strategies to supply mineral nutrients over the life of the orchard. The slower, natural methods applied require a management approach that is simultaneously patient and dynamic.
In this study effect of the environmentally friendly production systems on the brunch cross sectional area of apple trees trained to free spindle canopy are presented based on the data of 39 cultivars. According to our results branch thickness of the apple cultivars located in the lower, middle and upper region of the tree are more homogenous i...n the integrated production system compared to the organic one. Therefore the severity of the annual maintain pruning must be necessarily more moderate in the integrated growing system, than in the organic production system.
Several morphological characters of the hypanthium (size and form of the surface, the shape of the hypanthium) and anatomical traits (number and pattern of stomata) of apple cultivars (Malus domestica L.) with different susceptibility to fire blight were studied. The size of hypantium surface was calculated by modelling the hypanthium...with a truncated cone. Three types of hypanthium surface form have been revealed: straight, convex and a complex "shouldered" one. The angle between the style and the wall of the hypanthium was narrow or wide. The stomata on the hypanthium surface can be arranged in a zone in the middle third of the hypanthium or dispersed more or less evenly. The number of stomata/flower substantially differed among the cultivars examined. The highest stomata number was detected in the flowers of the tolerant cultivar (Freedom)
No single characteristics of the hypanthium could convincingly be correlated with susceptibility to fire blight. We suggest, however, that combination of morphological properties that sustain moist environment in the hypanthium contribute to susceptibility.
In the past decades fruit production has become more and more intensive and so the interest towards the bee pollination of fruit trees has increased in Hungary. Thus insect pollination research has become more intensive in the eighties and in the nineties. Recently, high density fruit orchards are planted of dwarf trees at more and more farms i...n Hungary and these need highly controlled growing practices involving insect pollination, too. This is a new challenge of insect pollination research in Hungary. So it seems to be worth to compile a list on research publications having been appeared so far to create a basis to the ongoing new research. Besides papers strictly on the insect pollination of fruit trees publications on some closely related topics, first of all on the nectar production and on other flower characteristics of fruit tree cultivars that directly influence bee activity have also been included on the list.
Widespread application for herbal medicines based on Hyperici herba has been experienced in the last few years, especially in the treatment of depression syndrome. As the wild origins could not satisfy the market demands neither in quantitative nor in qualitative respect, the necessity of the development of intensive growing methods...has been raised. In the course of our investigations we intended to clear up the morphological and chemical variability among and within populations of different origin in order to start a new breeding program. According to our data, growth dynamics of populations could be characterised by a logistic curve. According to the time of flowering the populations formed early, middle and late groups. Morphological diversity among populations was measurable in differences of flower length, plant height, different leaf types and plant habit, according to which characteristics groups were distinguished. Generally, the accessions were the most homogenous in plant height (CV: 7-15%), followed by inflorescence-lengths (CV: 11-36%) and the least uniform characteristics proved to be the number of flowering shoots (CV: 14-59%). The greatest morphological heterogeneity was experienced in the accessions of wild origin as it has been expected. In the second vegetation period generally a much better homogeneity was obtained, than in the first year. The most outstanding accessions produced 1.2 t of dry flowers and 4 t of dry flowering shoots, calculating to one hectare area. The individual yields varied on a large scale in each population (CV: 18-70%).
The content of hypericin varied between 1,85 and 9,9 mg/g in 1996, and between 0,18 and 2,70 mg/g in 1997, showing high individual divergences. Flavonoid values -including first of all hyperosid, rutin and quercitrin - reached 17-39 mg/g in the first and 15-20 mg/g in the second year, respectively. Individual and seasonal variation was less than in hypericin. A joint high level of these two compound groups seems to have low frequencies.
The superior population were selected for further breeding.
In our study, vegetative characteristics of 39 apple cultivars were evaluated in environmentally friendly production systems. Numbers of the branches of the central leader in different high zones were shown. According to our results, number of the branches of the axis was probably larger in the integrated production system, compared to the orga...nic one, which is related to the conditional status of the trees. Based on our experiences training and maintaining canopies in integrated system was easier, as relative more extensive canopies were needed in organic farming.
The geographic location of Bucharest area, the nature of its soil and its climate offer remarkably favourable conditions for nectarine growing, with juicy and well flavoured fruit, good for fresh consumption and processing.
The five years' investigation (1996-2000) has helped to identify some nectarine cultivars and hybrids (NJN 58, ARK... 165, ARK 139, Morton, ARK 107, Romamer I, ARK 125, Firebrite) with exceptional fruit quality (dry matter content, titratable acidity, vitamin C content, overall sugar, and amount of pectic substances).
Dry matter content varied over the three years from 8.3 to 18.5% (NJN 68), meanwhile titratable acidity varied between 0.26 and 1.08% (Romamer I). Sugar / acidity ratio was within the limits of 8.6 and 36.5 (Nectared 7). Nectarines have high vitamin C content, over 10 mg/100g (Fairlane, NJN 67, Regina, Harko), glucides were found in Firebrite, Romamer I varieties and NJN 21, CIR1T127, HFSR3P4, HNA hybrids.
Some cultivars have been recommended for planting in this southern area of Romania (Crimsongold, ARK 125, Harko, Hardyred, ARK 134), others used as quality genitors (ARK 85, Nectared 7, NJN 21, ARK 21, ARK 134, Fantasia) in breeding projects.
Comprehensive system of sensory evaluation was developed to obtain information on the different varieties by determining asparagus quality parameters. 9 sensory characteristics were estimated to describe flavour differences. The tests were carried out in 4 varieties of white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) grown on brown humus sand soil by... etiolate method in ridge cultivation. The experiment was performed at the University of Debrecen in Debrecen-Pallag. To increase the Hungarian asparagus consumption, a classification of varieties
regarding to asparagus flavour is necessary. In our experiment it could be stated that there are strict correlations (0.892) between the sweetness – total impression and between lacks of unpleasant aftertaste – total impression (0.870). The result of surveys can lead to higher popularity of the asparagus. These results are presented in order to recommend the varieties to producers for a successful marketing. The taste of asparagus is mostly influenced by variety, soil type and growing conditions. In our experiment, ‘Vitalim’ hybrid exceeded by several sensory parameters. This hybrid scored 788.38 over 900. The elder population showed more interest in asparagus consumption than younger ones. 50% of the participants are able to pay only 500-600 HUF/kg. It could be realized to ensure the proper growing place, hybrid and direct trade. Marketing and more information is necessary to increase the popularity of this vegetable among the younger generation.
Hungary is a traditional fruit growing country for ages. As fruit sector has a very high hand work request and value added, it has an important role to decrease the elimination of unemployment and the lack of income in the disadvantage rural areas. The study was made in the year of 2009, the studied population consisted of the members of the fr...uit-grower marketing organization (Gyümölcsért Ltd.), that organizes growing and sales of stone fruits in Hungary. The studied area of this Ltd is in North Hungary. The growers, who filled the questionnaire, were selected random simple sample. Two data collection were used during our research work: primer and secondary data collection. The resources of the primer data-collection were the questionnaires of our empirical survey that have been completed by the relevant information from informal interviews with farmers (who previously filled the questionnaires in). We introduced and analysed the local (county level) and the wider (region level) farming conditions by the secondary data. By the composition of the questions both qualitative and quantitative methods have been used. This current study intends to represent one part of this comprehensive research.We wish to briefly introduce mainly the research results concerning variety use.
Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) can be considered as one of the most suitable tree species for establishing energy plantations due to its favourable growing characteristics such as vigorous growing potential in the juvenile phase, excellent coppicing ability, a relatively high resistance to pests. Based on national and international test... results the mean annual increment of oven-dry weight of energy plantations regenerated by coppicing generally exceeds the first cycle plantations established by seedlings.
The aim of the first Hungarian apple breeding program for multiple resistance started in the beginning of the nineties is to widen Hungarian apple assortment by good quality, resistant apple cultivars with excellent productivity and ecological capability to the most important fruit growing areas in Hungary. In the first years of seedling produc...tion we made early selection for susceptibility to apple scab in greenhouse. Alter this, field observation of susceptibility to powdery mildew, scab and canker and a yearly negative selection was carried on. From 1997, fruit quality was evaluated as well, and from 2001 the resistance of shoots to Erwinia ainylovora (Burrill/Winslow et al.) was examined using inoculations in greenhouse conditions. From the progenies of crosses in 1992 and 1993, six candidates were announced to national recognition out of hybrids examined for more than a decade. Descriptions of these selections from 'Prima' progenies and the most important data of their resistance, growing habit, morphological characteristics and fruit quality are shown in this article.
Sour cherry is a light demanding fruit species. As most of the crop is developing from buds on one year old shoots and 2-yearold wood, the formation of bare wood can be seen apparently in a badly maintained canopy. The formation of „whip shoots” indicates the degree of bare wood. Unfortunately in many gardens and commercial orchards sour ch...erry trees resemble willow trees. Owners often decide to grub old orchards, although the useful cropping lifespan of the trees planted in a correct spacing can be 20-30 years on a move vigorous rootstock. Therefore renewal pruning can contribute to the full renewal of the orchard, but the length of its effect is depending on the growth characteristics and renewal capabilities of the cultivar. The growth characteristics of the cultivars are different. The regeneration capabilities of different aged wood are also different. These differences emphasize the need for cultivar specifi c pruning. Knowing the reactions to renewal pruning, we can ensure regular high crops with excellent quality by applying cultivar specifi c rotation pruning.