Fruit drying traditions in Hungary

Since the early eras of human history, the gathered products (roots, shoots, crops, fruits etc.), the environmental conditions of the preservation of the animals caught and the fishes; and accidental observations have been born new methods. Under cold and moderate climates, the effect of permanent frost, the use of ice as a means of curing as in dry, desert areas is the drying or exsiccation and the dehydration of salt. For convenience reasons, some of these methods have been forgotten, but the resurfacing of different fruits seems to resume. The short review gives an overview of the methods of drying used in the Carpathian Basin, especially among the Hungarian ethnic groups, which by the Hungarian ethnology thoroughly explored. The author attaches outstanding importance to the fruit-drying industry, because dried-ups at industrial scale are not equivalent to traditional low-fat lime scales. Excellent drying products are much better in terms of eating habits, with modern methods and small-scale production relatively easy to produce.

Assessment of apple varieties based on consumer judgement in integrated production for fresh consumption

In a former paper we treated the same relation comparing varieties frown in the biological or organic system of growing, now the tests have been performed with samples grown by the integrated system. The scores registered properties as taste, skin, colour, consistency and size. In addition, we also explored the relation between general impression and the individual properties.As first purpose, we started with collecting primary data on 15 samples taken from fruits grown by the integrated method and kept over 60–90 days in a store, then offered to the consumers. The test is based on an organoleptic assessment (records are registered in a questionary). The individual judgements are processed and coefficients of correlation between the traits (taste, skin, size, colour) calculated. The validity of the mathematically proved relations is considered to be decisive in judging the preferencial consumption of fruits.

Influence of foliar nutrition on apple production

On the basis of different experiments the technology of intensive foliar nutrition was studied in apple orchards in the period from 1996 until 2000. Yearly apple nutrition programs based on soil analyses. The foliar nutrition program was prepared in accordance with the soil, fruit analyses and climatic conditions. If needed, certain improvements were made according to the analyses of leaves and precipitation in the current year. The richness of the soil and ratios between individual nutrients gradually improved. The foliar nutrition influenced the yield quantity, quality and flower bud differentiation. The yield was doubled and the mean of five years reached 70 tons per hectare. In spite of high yields there were no problems with alternative bearing. The analyses of soluble solids, firmness, fructose, glucose, sucrose, malic acid, citric acid in the fruits and mineral soil composition indicated that the produced fruits were of high quality despite greater yields.

Effect of the placement of self-incompatible apricot varieties on their yield in commercial plantations

Earlier studies concerning self-, free- and cross- fertilization of apricot varieties grown in Hungary, proved the existence of self-sterile as well as self-fertile varieties within the recommended assortment. The self-sterile and partially self-fertile varieties should be planted in association with polliniser varieties, only. The present paper reports about the yields of trees of the widely grown, self-sterile local variety, Ceglédi óriás (Giant of Cegléd), depending on the distance of adequate polliniser trees. In the univarietal, 27 row-wide block of the relevant variety, an efficient polliniser, Magyar kajszi was planted to the 10th and 19th row. In the close vicinity, another block of polliniser, Rózsakajszi C. 320 was located. The number of fruits set per tree has been counted or estimated in two consecutive years. In both seasons, the yield of the Ceglédi óriás trees diminished with the growing distance from the nearest polliniser trees. Those trees in the center of the block, between the two (10th and 19th) rows of Magyar kajszi bore acceptable yield (40 kg/tree in 1987), however, considerable reduction of the number of the fruits set was stated already in the 4-5th row from the polliniser away. Similar gradient of fruit set was apparent in relation to the neighbouring block of Rózsakajszi C 320. The beneficial effect of the vicinity of polliniser varieties was obvious as far as the distance of the 10th row. Taking into consideration the self-sterility, the early blooming time and the poor fertilization of the variety Ceglédi óriás, a planting design of associating it with at least two polliniser varieties (e.g. Gönci magyar kajszi and Ceglédi bíbor) is highly recommended. On the basis also of earlier results, a proposal has been developed for the association of apricot varieties as recommendations for optimising yields. Blooming time, fertilizing potential, schedule of the picking season and market possibilities have to be considered simultaneously.

Fruit drop: II. Biological background of flower and fruit drop

The most important components of fruit drop are: the rootstock, the combination of polliniser varieties, the conditions depending of nutrition, the extent and timing of the administration of fertilisers, the moments of water stress and the timing of agrotechnical interventions. Further adversities may appear as flushes of heat and drought, the rainy spring weather during the blooming period as well as the excessive hot, cool or windy weather impairing pollination, moreover, the appearance of diseases and pests all influence the fate of flowers of growing and become ripe fruits. As generally maintained, dry springs are causing severe fruit drop.

In analysing the endogenous and environmental causes of drop of the generative organs (flowers and fruits), the model of leaf abscission has been used, as a study of the excised, well defined abscission zone (AZ) seemed to be an adequate approach to the question. Comparing the effects active in the abscission of fruit with those of the excised leaf stem differences are observed as well as analogies between the anatomy and the accumulation of ethylene in the respective abscission tissues.

Assessment of soil characteristics in orchard

The research field was at Siófok, in Hungary, which is situated in the South East side of Lake Balaton. The physical characteristic of the soil is sandy loam and loam and the peach orchard is irrigated. The detailed goals were mapping and analyzing of physical properties of the soil in water management point of view, mapping the acidity and CaCO3content of soil for precision liming, measurement of humus the element content. Sites with different physical characteristics (from sandy loam to loamy clay) could be distinguished. The reason for this is that besides the possible increase of clayminerals, the increasing rate of colloidal humus content contributes to larger soil plasticity. Statistics also proved positive and strong correlation (r=0.822) between the soil plasticity and humus content. In the case of pH, only a small part of the orchard is has to be limed, since most of the orchard has neutral pH, which is advantageous for nuts and stone fruits. It has to be mentioned, that the CaCO3 supply is also appropriate for the stone fruits. Based on the results hyperspectral imagery can be a good solution for detecting calciferous soils, although these measurements are still need validation.

The effect of day and night temperatures on apple skin colour formation

The colour of fruits is considered to be an important quality indicator. Saleability greatly depends on how well covered the colour is of the specific type of fruits. It is a well-known phenomenon by growers that apples get nicer colours in one year while in other years the basically red and green colour cultivars can be differentiated only by morphological characteristic features. Cover colour is one of the phenometric variables and it is a well-known fact that significant differences can be experienced year by year. The experienced oscillation can be the cause of inappropriate water- and nutriment supply, however it can be the result of some kind of plant disease, extremely high or low temperature, setting rate above the average and outstanding fruit density. In the present examination it is postulated that the degree of cover colour is mostly influenced by day and night temperature. Therefore, our study aims to find out whether it is true or not. Cover colour belongs to those phenometric characteristic features, only the final value of which is taken into consideration; due to their nature of establishment or forming time it seems useless to follow closely the change in the time of vegetation. However, determining the start of colouring and knowing the dynamics of full colouring could carry very important information for growers. If it is possible to determine the curve describing the time change of colouring, we have a possibility to estimate it by means of enviroment variables. So it is also possible to model pigmentation in the future. Knowing this, colouring irrigation could be made more efficient in the future. For this, as a first step, it is inevitable to find out what the relationship is between the main meteorogical variables, namely day and night temperature and the difference between day and night temperature, and colour cover. In this study we summarize and show these interrelations.

Training systems of fruit trees in Hungary

Growing sites and soil conditions of Hungary warrant profitable production of several temperate fruits at elevated levels of quality. The climate of the Carpathian basin is a mixtures of three main climatic zones the prevalence of which may change seasonally: Atlantic, continental and Mediterranean, therefore, growing sites are rather various. Temperature minima of the winter and late spring frosts are the main elements of risk. In choice of the system of cultivation, regularity of yields and intensity are to be observed equally. Regular yields are particularly aimed in stone fruit cultures.

For apple and pear plantations of high density required for intense production are promoted favourably. Accessories of intense orchards (irrigation, supporting system, rootstocks, phytotechniques, etc.) are important. In peach and plum trees are trained to funnel-shape crowns, in general, intense-types are possible in plum, only. In apricots, a Hungarian speciality, the "umbrella" type of crown is applied, almost exclusively, according to Papp. In sweet and sour cherry, the harvest technique, manual or mechanised, according to the intended utilisation, are determining the form of training.

Red and black currants as small fruits are grown mostly as bushes or hedgerows without any supporting system designed to facilitate mechanical harvest. Raspberries and blackberries are grown as hedges on trellis. Gooseberry is a special case, being a low, thorny bush difficult to be picked. Thus grafted small trees are attached to a wire-trellis which helps to solve problems of plant protection too.


S-locus genotyping on stone fruits in Hungary: a review of the most recent achievements

Central Europe can be taken as a geographical and historical connection zone between the western growing countries and Asian gene centres of Prunus tree fruits. The determination of the S-genotype of stone fruit (mainly almond, plum, cherries and apricot) cultivars and landraces has both practical and theoretical significance. Our group has allocated complete S-genotypes for more than 200 cultivars and selections of almond, Japanese plum, sweet cherry and apricot. Among Eastern European almond cultivars, two novel cross-incompatibility groups (CIGs) were identified. S-alleles of a related species were also shown in P. dulcis accessions; a fact seems to be indicative of introgressive hybridization. Our results with Japanese plum clarified and harmonized two different allele nomenclatures and formed a basis for intensive international studies. In apricot, a total of 13 new S-alleles were identified from Eastern European and Asian accessions. Many Turkish and North African cultivars were classified into new CIGs, III–XVII. Results suggest that the mutation rendering apricot self-compatible might have occurred somewhere in south-east of Turkey and we were successful to confirm the presumed Irano-Caucasian origin of North African apricots based on the geographical distribution of S-alleles. In sweet cherry, new alleles have been identified and characterized from Turkish cultivars and selections. In addition, wild sweet cherry and sour cherry S-alleles were also shown indicating a a broader gene pool in Turkey as compared with international cultivars. We also used S-genotype information of Ukrainian sweet cherry cultivars to design crosses in a functional breeding program. Our results exhibit an increased number of S-alleles in tree fruit accessions native to the regions from Eastern Europe to Central Asia, which can be used to develop S-genotyping methods, to assist cultivation and draw inferences for crop evolution.

The impact of location, row direction, plant density and rootstock on the sunburn damage of apple cultivars

The effect of row direction (N-S, E-W), plant density (conventional and intensive) and rootstock (M9, MM106 and crab apple) on the sensitivity of 41 apple cultivars to sunburn injury was studied at 6 locations (Derecske, Kálmánáaza, Nagykutas, Nagylapos, Siófok, Tornyospálca).

During the observations the cultivars had rootstock-specific properties in respect of sunburn-susceptibility. Accordingly, the injury was decreased in the order: M9, MM106 and seedling rootstocks. The differences in sensitivity depend on the canopy of trees, caused finally by the growing vigour of rootstocks. Accordingly, the highest value of sunburn injury was observed on M9 rootstock, because this rootstock has a dwarfing effect upon the scion cultivars. Thus, vegetative area of these trees grow very slowly and the foliage is not enough compact to protect the fruit from solar radiation. The size and density of the foliage increased in the order: M9, MM 106 and crab apple seedling as rootstock. Moreover, relationships were demonstrated between the diameter of upper part of the crown, the leaf area, the number of fruits per tree and the injury of sunburn.

Authors categorized the cultivars in respect of values of sunburn incidence: 1. „Not sensitive", II. „Moderately sensitive" and HI. „Strongly sensitive" categories were constituted. Generally, Topaz and Gala cultivars showed low damage (or were free from symptoms), in contrast to this, Golden mutants suffered relatively much. The most sensitive cultivar was Jonica on all the three rootstocks. We searched for relationship between the fruit quality parameters and the frequency of sunburn. Significant correlation was found in the cases of fruit size and the extent of cover-colour. The latter is interpreted with the fact that the best coloured fruits are found on the periphery of crown as a consequence of more intense irradiation.

Susceptibility of European pear cultivars to Venturia pirina Aderh. infection at a variety collection in Hungary

Field sensitivity of 271 European pear genotypes were evaluated in a large variety collection of pear in Hungary during a nine years survey. Substantial differences were detected in the rate of pear scab infection of leaves and fruits. Some 18 per cent of the inspected genotypes remained completely free of infection even in the years with weather favouring to the disease. On the other hand, 78 % of the inspected genotypes were infected in some or more extent. The rate of infection was generally higher on leaves than on fruits. 18.6 % of the genotypes inspected were tolerant to leaf infection and their majority (81.1 %) were tolerant to fruit infection. Some one fi fth of the genotypes (19.7 %) were highly susceptible to leaf infection but only minor rate of them (2.2 %) were highly susceptible to fruit infection. There were 44 genotypes that could be regarded as tolerant to pear scab leaf and fruit infection under fi eld conditions. Some of these genotypes may be suitable to commercial pear growing with highly reduced chemical control against pear but their yield capacity and fruit quality should be evaluated.

Some physical properties of sweet cherries

The determination of the optimal time of the mechanical harvesting of sweet cherries has a great importance not only to prevent the fruit from mechanical injury but to find the optimal setting parameters of the harvesting machine. The primary objective of the experiments was to determine the force and work required to detach the stem from the limb and the fruit from the stem. Furthermore to measure the three main sizes (width, height, thickness) of the fruits in order to determine the sphericity, and also the pulp-stone ratio by measuring the mass of the fruit with the stone and then the mass of the stone. The average sizes of the fruits: width 19.62–27.76 mm, height 17.83–24.54 mm and thickness 17.30–23.60 mm. The stem length varied between 28.69 mm and 55.80 mm. The sphericity of each variety was above 90%. The average mass varied between 3.63 and 9.68 g. The stone mass turned to be between 0.27 g and 0.42 g. The stone-pulp ratio varied between 3.7%and 7.7%. The average pulp mass varied between 3.35 g and 9.32 g. The average values of maximum loads required to detach the sweet cherries from the stem varied between 3.23 N and, 4.12 N. The force required to detach the stem from the limb was 50–90% higher than the force needed to tear the fruit from the stem.

Total anthocyanine content and antioxidant density of some Hungarian sour cherry varieties

Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Recent research has proven that sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is a valuable natural source of some bioactive compounds important in human health preservation. In our work, we identified the total antioxidant activity, anthocyanine content and "antioxidant density" of sour cherry varieties named "Újfehértói fürtös", "Debreceni bőtermő", "Kántorjánosi" and "Érdi bőtermő" and those of the "Bosnyák" sour cherry clones. "Antioxidant density" is a biological value indicator obtained in a synthetic way, which indicates the antioxidant capacity of the particular food, e. g. fruit and vegetable, related to 1 Calorie.

Inter-incompatibility of self- incompatible apricots and their varietal properties

There are four apricot varieties grown in Hungary derived from local selections known to bear fruits of giant (60 - 100 g) size: Ceglédi óriás, Nagykőrösi óriás, Szegedi mammut and Ligeti óriás. Being morphologically similar, they seem to be closely related to each other. The detailed study of the morphology (of leaves and fruits) and phenology (of blooming and ripening dates) as well as the fertility relations was aimed to find out the degree of kinship between the varieties in question.

It was stated that the value of morphological traits is variable from the taxonomic point of view. The most important signs of common origin were the time of blooming and the leaf size. Less valuable are the date of m:iurity and the size of fruit because of their variability. In the literature Satin') & Nyeki (1991) published the first proof of inter-incompatible relation between apricot varieties. This should be considered as an argument of close genetic relation between those "giant" varieties of apricots.

The first three varieties. Ceglédi óriás, Nagykőrösi óriás and Szegedi mammut are closer related in blooming and ripening date, as well as in size of fruit to each other than the variety Ligeti óriás.


Some microbial treatments against the tomato leaf miner; Tuta absoluta (Merick) under natural field conditions

In an attempt to find more effective methods and safety to control the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta, this research was conducted to study the efficacy of the four bio-treatments ; two bacterial isolates (Bacillus subtilis. and Pseudomonas Fluorescence), one fungal isolate Trichoderma viride) and Spinosad as a microbial insecticide compared with the most common insecticides used against the dipterous and lepidopterous leaf miners in Egypt; Profenofos and Aphox. In the two successive seasons; 2011 and 2012, the fungal isolate Trichoderma viride achieved the lowest infestation(numbers of infested leaflets, mines, infestation percentages) which were 167, 195, and 21.9% season 2011 and 198, 222 and 26.2% resp. in season 2012. While the highest infestation was occurred in case of using the insecticides, Aphox (423, 559 and 55.9% resp.& 384, 839 and 72.2%. and Prohpenofos (436, 562 and 57.7% &391, 534 and 51.7% resp.).during 2011 and 2012 respectively. The other treatments occupied the intermediate levels. On the other hand, the yield of tomato fruits was increased by 75% over the check in case of plants treated with Trichoderma viride isolate, but the pesticide treatment given weak or no impact in increasing tomato crop. In season 2012, the infested tomato fruits percentages with T. absoluta larvae and Rhizoctonia soil rot disease(that Frequently observed incidentally) were recorded the minimum levels obtained by spraying Trichoderma viride isolate(21.38 and 10.32% resp.). In contrast, the maximum levels were recorded in Prophenofos (44.87 and22.78% resp.) and Aphox treatments(47.22 and 27.78% resp.).

The investigation of suitability to various purposes of industrial processing in stone fruit varieties and variety candidates

In the laboratory of Conserve-technology in the Research Institute for Fruit Growing, Company of Public Utility, Cegléd, 6 sour cherry, 6 apricot, 5 peach and nectarine, 6 plum and 4 Japanese plum varieties (canned fruit, juice, dried fruit, deep frozen). The products were evaluated by organoleptic methods on a scale of 1-5 steps. The varieties receiving at least 4 points were listed (in brackets also the respective product was indicated): `Kántorjánosi' sour cherry (for all the three purposes), '13' variety candidate (canned and deep frozen), 'T' var. cand., (canned, deep frozen), 'Érdi bőtermő' (dried fruit), 'R' var. cand. (deep frozen); ‘Ceglédi arany', 'Ceglédi bíborkajszi', 'Magyar kajszi"C. 235' (fibrous juice); `Babygold 5', 'Redhaven' peaches, and 'Caldesi 2000' nectarine (canned); 'Stanley' plum (canned), 'Besztercei Bt, 2' (deep frozen).

Evaluation of foreign apricot cultivars in Hungary

The extension and renewal of cultivar assortment is one of the key elements in the improvement of apricot production. Competitiveness can only be achieved by planting cultivars which meet all market requirements and yield reliably under the environmental conditions of the given production site. Beside breeding programmes, the range of cultivars can also be extended by the domestication of foreign cultivars. Most apricot cultivars have low ecological tolerance, therefore, cultivars improved or developed in other countries should only be involved in production after due consideration. The suitability of such cultivars has to be examined for several years. Foreign apricot cultivars have been tested in our cultivar collection for over 10 years. Hereby, the most important aspects of market value and the adaptability to the environmental conditions of the production site are demonstrated. According to the results of our examinations the production of early ripening 'Orange Red' and `Goldrich' can be promising in Hungary. From cultivars ripening in the peak season only those are expected to be widely produced which differ from Hungarian cultivars or surplus them in some respects. From the cultivars examined 'Harogem' which ripens at the same time as `Gönci magyar kajszi' has remarkably aesthetic fruits with glossy surface, while the large fruits of `Hargrand' has firm pulp. Late ripening cultivars have significant importance in the northern border of production. According to our examinations the cultivars 'Callatis', `Comandor and `Sirena' are applicable in Hungary to extend the harvesting season.

A review of the bee pollination research on temperate zone crop plants in the past decade: results and the need of further studies

Intense research was made on the pollination of cultivated crop plants in the temperate zone region during the past decade. Some 400 publications appeared on the subject and some additional 150 papers on the effect of pesticides to the most important pollinating insects, the honeybee and the wild bees. Progress of knowledge is discussed in this paper based on the most important publications. Most new results relate to field crops and deciduous fruit species and much less to field vegetables and small fruits. Great effort was taken to improve insect pollination of crops grown under cover. All these are connected to the utilization of the honeybee as a pollinating agent and much less to native or managed wild bees. However, a number of questions arose partly from the results of latest pollination research and partly from practical experiences in commercial plant production. These indicate several research tasks to understand and to solve the problems possibly in the near future. The questions concentrate on the effectiveness of bee visits in the pollination of individual crop plants and their different cultivars and on the reliable estimate of the overall amount of bees as well as on the control of bee density during the flowering periods of crops for optimal, controlled pollination in the changing environment of agricultural crop production.

Effect of pre-harvest spray of calcium nitrate, boric acid and zinc sulphate on yield and quality of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco)

An investigation was conducted on uniform, healthy, eight year old trees of Nagpur mandarin (citrus reticulata Blanco) at Fruit Research Farm, Department of Fruit Science at College of Horticulture and Forestry, Jhalawar during 16 September, 2014 to 1 March, 2015. Various doses of calcium nitrate (1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0 %), boric acid (0.2 %, 0.4 % and 0.6 %) and zinc sulphate (0.2 %, 0.4 % and 0.6 %) were sprayed before harvesting and compared with untreated ones. The results obtained indicated that the trees sprayed with T27 i.e. (calcium nitrate 3.0 % + boric acid 0.6 % + zinc sulphate 0.6 %) showed maximum increase diameter of fruit, fruit weight, fruit volume, number of fruits per plant, fruit yield per plant, estimated yield per hectare, reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, total sugar, juice per cent, sensory score and reduced peel thickness over control. Further, T24 treatment combination (calcium nitrate 3.0 % + boric acid 0.4 % + zinc sulphate 0.6 %) has also significantly increased number of segments per fruit, TSS, TSS: Acid ratio, ascorbic acid content, and reduced number of seeds per fruit and acidity percent of fruits.

Preliminary evaluation of selected Prunus spinosa and P. insititia genotypes for their nutraceutical properties

Fruits of nine Prunus spinosa and P. insititia selections were compared in their ferric reducing antioxidant power and total phenolic content. The antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content ranged between 6.36 and 29.26 mmol AA/L, and 5.04 and 29.71 mmol GA/L, respectively. These ranges cover an almost 5-times variation among the tested genotypes. The Pearson’s coefficient was very high (0.92) indicating a major contribution of polyphenolics to the antioxidant capacity of the tested Prunus fruits. Conserving resulted in an approximate 20 % loss of antioxidant power and slightly increased phenolic contents. Our results led us to the conclusion that fruit of Prunus spinosa and P. insititia might be considered as rich sources of antioxidants. In addition, procession with heat treatment caused only a slight decrease in the antioxidant capacity without loss in the total polyphenolic content.

Effects of self and cross pollination on fruit set and fruit quality of sour cherry cultivars

An experiment conducted using factorial based on randomized completely block design during 2005 and 2006. Flowers of Érdi bőtermő, Érdi jubileum and Cigány meggy before anthesis and in balloon stages were isolated with paper bags from guest pollens and pollinated in appropriate time. The averages of final fruit set showed the advantage of open pollination (14.6% fruit set) in compare with artificial self pollination (13.0% fruit set) and natural self pollination (4.4% fruit set). Siah mashhad sweet cherry cultivar with more than 70% overlap of flowering and 9.8% fruit set in 2005 and 17.9% in 2006 was the best among applied pollinisers for Érdi bôtermô sour cherry cultivar.Also, Siah mashhad sweet cherry with more than 50%overlap of flowering time and 25.8%fruit set was the best polliniser for Cigány megg. Among the pollinisers, Siah mashhad was the best for Érdi jubileum with more than 50% overlap and 15.22% fruit set. Meanwhile, pollens of Siah mashhad caused the increase of fruit size in Cigány meggy cultivar. phenomenon. Pollens of Siah mashhad caused reduction in total soluble solids of Érdi bôtermô fruits, however, it does not have any significant effect on the acid rate of fruits.

Comparative study of effects of a complex fertilizer and a biostimulator on macroelement content of leaf and fruit quality on sweet cherry (Prunus avium)

In this study. we are partly focusing on consumer acceptance of fruit, like fruit cracking, weight and flavours, and maturation, fruit density and content of nutrients which are undelie consumer acceptance, and important equally to the growers and marketers. the results on the dynamics of N-uptake corresponded ti thephenological phases of cherry and independent on the applied treatments. Younger leaves contain more N than elder due to the effective N uptake of young leaves. Based on the measurements conducted in June, the P content of leaves was in low P supply category at the control and the Benefit treatment, while was in the lower range of optimal category at Damisol treatment. According to our measurements, the K of cherry leaves decreases continuosly until September, expcept the control at which it increased from the end of June to September. the fruit weight was increased significantly by applying Benefit PZ. the best results for fruit cracing observed at Benefit treatment too. The best result for fruit density was observed at Damisol treatment.

Effect of different cultivation methods on strawberry’s antioxidant value

The small fruit and strawberry production is economically important in Serbian agriculture. The fresh fruit is sold in domestic markets, but the frozen and processed is mainly sold in foreign markets. The growers find themselves in an ever-expanding selection of the varieties, but besides the nursery and breeder’s descriptions of new cultivars, there are only few exact results for the biological and economical ability of the varieties, which makes easier to choose the proper cultivar. The performance of the varieties in modern strawberry production is worth to investigate by adaptive cultivation methods and production technique. In the case of new strawberry varieties we know neither their needs in production nor their real capability, so they have to be compared with an older, standard control variety (‘Clery’). The breeder’s manuals give only references for the needs of the production technique, of the variety, so it is necessary to have facts, which are based on objective testing results. In this work, a new variety (‘Joly’) is being compared with the control variety. Comparative study of individual varieties are required covering the antioxidant content of the fruits (FRAP) and variability of these amounts in different years of breeding as well as the production techniques under similar circumstances.

New sweet cherry cultivars in intensive plantings

The study took place in the largest sweet cherry plantation in West Hungary. The purpose has been the identification of those varieties, which will be suitable for intense cultivation, early fruiting and excellent fruit quality, moreover, the selection of the optimal phytotechnical procedures. At the same time, scion-rootstock combinations have been tested also from the point of view of growing intensity and fruiting in high-density plantation. The dense planting is induced to start fruiting early and yield regularly by special methods.Yielding was stimulated by maintaining the balance of vegetative-generative growth by binding the shoots, by summer pruning, by cuts on the trunk and root pruning. Best experiences have been found in yield and quality in the following varieties: Canada Giant, Carmen, Firm Red, Giant Red, Katalin, Kordia, Regina. Dense planting has been feasible also on vigorous rootstock, like P. mahaleb. Dwarfing rootstocks like P-HL-A, Gisela 6, accelerate the formation of flower buds and yielding earlier with fruits of adequate size. ‘Firm Red’ and ‘Giant Red’ excelled with their large fruit (>27 mm diameter) in all combinations, thus being promising under Hungarian conditions.

Spectral properties of strawberry plants

Strawberry varieties were studied in 3 different growing areas of different soil- and ecological properties in Hungary. We have measured the optical spectra of the leaves together with their nutrient content and performed sensory examinations on the deep frozen and melted fruit. The 6 varieties were Elsanta, Marianna, Spadeka, Symphony, Camarosa, and Raurica. The 3 sites were Újfehértó, Pölöske, and Kecskemet. Colour of the leaves was characterised by their lightness and dominant wavelength. Under non-optimal soil and ecological conditions the varieties could be distinguished by their colour — the leaves became lighter and more yellow. The fruits did not produce the genetically determined taste if the plant can not grow in optimal circumstances — we found a negative correlation between the leaf colour in flowering time and the fruit flavour. Leaf colour measurements performed in flowering time make it possible to improve fruit quality by changing the nutrient supply between flowering and ripening.

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