For the wide implementation of Levisticum officinalе C. Koch in Transcarpathia into production it is necessary to widen its sort composition, as it is rather poor in Ukraine. Solving this problem is possible by enriching the source material with the samples of different ecological and/or geographical origin, by studying the influence...of abiotic factors on the formation of green mass and seed productivity, separating the specimens best adapted to the conditions of growing, involving them into the selection process and creating new, highly productive sorts on this basis. The scientists of the Transcarpathian State Agricultural Experimental Station (TSAES) conducted researches (during 2011-2016) on the adaptive potential of the source material of the type of Levisticum officinalе C. Koch, which counts seven samples (Ukraine – 5 samples, Poland – 1, and Romania – 1), the selection work on creating new varieties for the given region is being done. The investigations were made on soddy podzolic gleyed low-humus soils with low content of nutrients. The results were obtained on the basis of generally accepted methods of investigation, i.e.: laboratory, field, visual, measuring-weighing, biochemical, mathematically statistic, and comparative-calculating. In the conditions of Transcarpathia the spicy greens of the high quality L. officinalе C. Koch are being gathered on days 25-30, the output of the essential oil makes up from 0.72 tо 1.89% on c.d.s., depending on the climate conditions of growing. The plants pass through all the stages of development, the bush is 55.4 to 92.7 сm in height, the plants form a big amount of rosette-shaped stems (11-34 pieces), the productivity of spicy greens is between 9.9 and 42.1 t hа1. The scientists of TSAES created the following sorts – Mriya (А. с. 06131 Ukraine, first registered in the State register of plant varieties of Ukraine) and Coral (Pat. on the variety № 140830). Economic effect from growing of the Coral variety in the conditions of Transcarpathia is 10230 UAH/ha and the level of profitability is 28.4%. The geographic position and agroclimatic conditions of Transcarpathia, as well as the unpretentiousness of L. officinalе C. Koch. tо the conditions of growing contribute to the enrichment of the local flora with useful plants; and the rich chemical composition contributes to the spread of this culture in the given region.
Direct sowing in 16 cm deep trench covered with perforated plastic sheet (for 3 weeks), transplant using, and uncovered direct sowing (control) was tried on 2 locations, with 2 varieties (very early Kecskeméti korai extra, and middle early Kecskeméti SC-370) in Szarvas on loamy soil, and in Kecskemét on sa...ndy soil in 1996 — after a preliminary trial concerning perforated plastic covered trench sowing in Szarvas, in 1995.
The plant height (weekly), the average leaf number/plant, the total leaf area (once), the total yield, the quality of cobs, and the earliness was measured. The results are:
- Kecskeméti korai extra during the first 6 week period the transplanted plants were the highest, but from the 7th week the plants which were sown in trench and than were covered with perforated plastic sheet (for 3 weeks) were the highest.
- SC-370: The transplanted plants were the highest-until the end of plant height development.
The plant height development stopped at the 9th week of the measurement by early, - and stopped at the 10th week by middle early variety. The average leaf number/plant varied between 9,25-10,50 and was not influenced either by variety or by the treatment. The total leaf area was (on 5th of June) the largest by transplanted plants, which was followed by plants that were sown in trench and then were covered with perforated plastic film (for 3 weeks).
- The highest yield was observed by plants, which Were sown in trench, and then were covered with perforated plastic film (for 3 weeks). Transplanted plants followed it.
- Quite the total yield (98,3%) of transplanted Kecskeméti korai extra variety plants were harvested on 4th July. 89% of the total yield was picked up of trench sown and then with perforated plastic covered plants. The harvest of uncovered control started on 15th July. The harvest of transplanted SC-370 plants started 19th July, when more than half of the total yield (57%) was picked. The uncovered control was harvested 29th July.
- The weight and the measure of cobs generally were not influenced by the treatments, but the average weight of the cobs of the transplanted Kecskeméti korai extra plants (0,21-0,18 kg) are less than the, requirement.
The inner quality of fruits depends on many components. The analysis of pharmacologically important fruit species as the sour cherry consumed as a common food is an expensive task, mostly requiring an equipped laboratory. In sour cherry, one of its valuable components, the anthocyanin content deserves special attention. A portable analytical im...plement, which has been developed by our team measures the anthocyanin content on a scale of 1024 PharMgrades. The system is a member of the UVEX family of implements working with a microprocessor and performs the measurement quickly. The portable variant (UVEX-ML-1) does not require much training, the laboratory variant (UVEX UL-1) performs a large quantity of tests under modest laboratory conditions. Preparation of the samples is easily done, the necessary elements are available in the trade. The reagent is easily stored and dosed. The system was tested and proved to be of sufficient precision and the result showed acceptable variance according to the checks performed by a spectrophotometer in the laboratory.
In this paper we introduce our results of three years (2007-2009) investigatio ns carried out in the framework of "Research and development in foodstaff chain" - project of Regional University Knowledge Center by the members of Corvi nus U niversity of Budapest - Department of Pomology and. Research Institute for Fru it growing and Ornamentals.... Budapest-Erd. The main objectives of the project were the followings: submi ssion of sour cherry candidate suitable for industrial process for state approval; determination of physica l parameter and inner content value changes of sour cherry varieties duri ng ripening; evaluation of health care attributes of sour cherry fruit; ripen ing process description by the colour and the force required to pick fruits of sour cherry. We stated that the optimal begi nning and period of the harvest can be determined wi th the fruit removal force. In this period the fruit growth stops. ju iciness rat io does not change. refractions are approximately equal.acidic content turns to decreasing trend.However the proportion of anthocyan in and polypheno l can still increase. Fruits harvested in this period fulfil a wide range of industrial process opportunities. 'Erdi jubileum ·and candidate IV-3/48 according to their inner content values arc suitable for high quality products (containing real fruit material in high proportion).
The surface microbial contamination is of great interest in case of fruits, since they are they potential sources of spoilage or foodborne diseases. The aim of this work was to compare the epiphytic microbiota of food safety concern of different apple cultivars as a function of cultivation methods (organic versus integrated), production year an...d place. Investigating 47 samples it was found that the average microbial contamination of the apple surfaces was within a certain range,, practically independent of cultivar, growing area and year. The frequency distribution of the surface bacterial, mould and yeast counts did not show significant differences between growing technologies or varieties. The principal component analysis the samples ranked the apple samples into seven groups on the basis of their microbial contamination level, and the discriminant analysis proved the goodness of grouping. The grouping was independent from cultivars and growing methods. No foodborne pathogen Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were found on the surfaces of apples.
The saving of soil water content and the improvement of adaptability of plants to periodical insufficient water and use of deficit irrigation technology become more important because of the occurrence of frequently dry periods. The water use efficiency of apples can be increased by the choice of appropriate rootstocks and determination of water... requirement of varieties that depend on their growing periods and climatic factors. Depletion of soil water resources need to develop efficient irrigation techniques for quality apple production. A new deficit irrigation strategy (PRD) has been developed that based on partial water supply of root-zone. This does not result a decrease in the sizes and yield of the fruit. The larger fruit size and lower firmness in frequently irrigated trees can result in excessive internal growth stresses that cause higher rate of fruit splitting. Many studies revealed the relationship between irrigation and yield quantity. Recent researches investigate the effects of irrigation on apple fruit quality particularly on the colouration and post-harvest quality. Use of cooling irrigation improves the development of coluour an apple fruit but its schedule can influence on the incomes. Aroma volatiles are responsible for odour and contribute to overall flavour of the fruit and its processed products. Deficit irrigation had only affects some volatile aroma but no the all of concentrations in apple fruit. In the future the high apple quality for consumers could be provided with improvement of transpiration-yield model based on the water requirement of varieties and economic irrigation schedules.
A possible way of the development of Hungarian agriculture is the selection and growing of new fruit species and varieties featuring special qualities, with high biological nutritive and health protecting properties due to their natural composition. A reserve for such new fruits is the native dendroflora, e.g. those wild-growing trees and shrub...s of Hungary, which bear edible fruits. The publication is giving a summary of chemical analyses done on the fruits of the plants listed below. The research team on the project started the work in 2001 with
woody species (genera) as follows:
- common elder (Sambucus nigra) clone named Szcs-1, Szcs-2, Szcs-3, Szcs-4, Szcs-5, SzcsK-1, SzcsK-2
- dog rose (Rosa canina) types: clones named Sz-1, Sz-2, Sz-3, Sz-4 and Sz-5 .
- native rowans: Sorbus dacica, S.rotundifolia, S. degenu, S.bakonyensis cv. Fánivölgy
- hawthorns: Crataegus monogyna, C. orientalis,C..v lavallei.
- cornel cherry: Cornus mas cv. Császló.
The present paper is reporting on the content of the following compounds in the fruits: dry matter (refractometric values), total acid content, ascorbic acid, 13-carotene, pectin, minerals and carbohydrates. The results have shown that these wild fruits have excellent composition. Besides their curative effects, their content of minerals, ascorbic acid and 13-carotene has surpassed that of the traditional fruits. These fruits are rich in ascorbic acid, 13-carotene and pectin. The high content of the above-listed, biologically active compounds makes the new wild fruits studied suitable for the preparation (and later: mass-production) of special curative and exclusive products.
The purpose of phenometry is to examine the measurable parameters of the plants in order to follow up the consequences of weather processes. We should fi nd the reasons, why the diameter of fruits grows larger in one season and smaller in the next. Variation may occur as a response to insuffi cient provision of water or nutrients, but also beca...use of pathological effects and of extremely high or low temperatures, moreover, of extraordinary heavy fruit load. There are phenometrical characteristics, which consider the fi nal consequences (density of fl owers, fruits set, drop of fruits), whereas other parameters could be followed up (size, length and width of fruits) as the dynamic components of growth. The quantitative parameters of growth are functionally related to each other, where the weather conditions, soil humidity and nutrients are on the input side, thus it is possible to model the growth of fruits as a function of the environment. Initially, the relations between the main weather variables and the phenometrical data have to be cleared. In the present study, the interactions between the mentioned phenomena are presented and numerically defi ned.
Hungary possesses excellent agri-ecological potentials even in an international comparison. Despite their decreasing economic weight, agriculture and food production are of great significance, since the supply of the population with high quality and inexpensive food is a fundamental social demand and one of the essentials of the quality of life.... The development of vegetable and food production is of great importance both from the aspect of healthy nutrition and comparative advantages (cheap workforce, professional expertise, traditions of production, climate favourable for quality). Within the Hungarian fruit production apple and sour cherry are essential branches in virtue of their significance. It is widely known, that – though to a different extent in the case of certain fruit varieties – satisfaction of the need for appropriate habitat is one of the important conditions of a decent quality and secure production. In my research, I analyse the territorial distribution, production standard and production risk of the Hungarian apple and sour cherry branches. I did not have the opportunity – because of the imperfections of the database – to compare long time series, therefore I examine the random effects affecting production by using the data of 3 years (they have the same content). I ranked and assessed each habitat and the production risks of certain fruit species compared to each other on the basis of indexes of relative deviation.
Recently, projects aiming to enhance the consumption of fruits and vegetables are intensified. Experts agree in the principle of fresh vegetable foods being a valid panacea in averting risks of ailments as well as curing immune-insufficiency, inflammations, moreover, certain cancerous processes. It is generally accepted that among substances of... biological activity the anti-oxidant compounds such as vitamins C, E and carotenoids, etc. have the major role in this process. Hungarian agriculture has outstanding chances in utilising its natural as well as cultivated plant resources and favourable climatic conditions. It would be, however, necessary to build up a databank of antioxidant substances found in fruits and vegetables and including the modifying effects of technology, growing site, variety, etc. The concept of promoting the trade of Hungarian food-specialities as "Hungaricum" needs, urgently, the aid of a databank of that kind. Some of those excellent products are for instance the sour cherry, pepper and onion. They enjoy high priority as "Hungaricum" in the EU and it should be enhanced by intense and consequent research work, which may prove their role as functional foods. The USA is the leading country in research on the anti-oxidant substances of sour cherries, and up to now more than 17 compounds have been found in Hungarian varieties among others. In pepper fruits used as vegetable and source of vitamin C, the analyses are still lacking because research of the past concentrated on the products of milled spice pepper. Onion and garlic are entirely unexplored in this respect. It should be noted that availability of these fresh products in the moderate climate is restricted to a relatively short season. For that reason, some processing and preservation methods are needed in order to use those fruits and vegetables as functional foods all around the year. The scientifically founded endeavour as a solution of the questions mentioned is stimulated by vigorous commercial interests as well as by the urgent needs of the consumers to improve their health.
Fruits of different sour cherry varieties cultivated, in 2008 and 2009, under organic farming and integrated cultivation conditions were analysed for their quality attributes, antioxidant activity and subjected to sensory evaluation.. Average size, weight, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total polyphenols, free radical scavenging capacity e...xpressed as Trolox equivalent (TEAC), copper and zinc were determined in freshly harvested fruits. The obtained results indicated that, the principal component analysis can separate and distinguish the seasons of fruit production. The farming system seemed to have slight effect on quality the fruit as compared to varietal factors (genotypes). However, the total polyphenol content was uniformly less in 2009. Total polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity were significantly higher in Bosnian type sour cherries, and outstanding in Amarelle type cultivar ‘Pipacs’. There was no statistically significant difference between the sensory properties of cultivars tested by panels, except the case of ‘Pipacs’. The organolaptic investigation showed marked preference to the fruits of Eva and Petri cultivars.
The production of ornamental plants represents an important branch of our horticulture. The growing area is relatively small (round 2800 ha), the production value, however, a rather large. Notwithstanding, its financial balance is inactive because the demand surpasses the supply copiously.
The most popular plants are as follows: carnati...on, gerbera, rose, bulbous flowers, chrysanthemum, other cutflowers, cutgreens and Gypsophyla — their total production value makes up to Ft 8-9 billion. The area of ornamental nurseries — about 800-900 ha — is to be found mostly on the western part of our country.
Our accession to the EU will have undoubtedly an impact on our ornamental plant production. We must take into account, that in greenhouse production the specialization extends all over the world, field production over a limited region. Our chances will not deteriorate by joining the EU. The buyer — chiefly because of ecological purposes — will prefer the domestic product to the foreign one. By the way, our products will be competitive, as far as quality or price is concerned, with those of western Europe. Last but not least, we may hope a greater saleability of home-bred, special varieties and cultivars, the so-called "hungaricums", both in the domestic as well as export markets. It is anticipated that we will have a good turnover with potted ornamental plants and flower seedlings. Our nursery products will become marketable too.
To exploit the opportunity, of course, the necessary conditions are to be created. First of all, we need development in research, with special regard to breeding, at the same time in education, in extension service, in the training of experts, on a high level. Some tasks can be solved, no doubt by improvement of the organisation within the branch. At the same time the state subsidy is indispensable in order to promote both the technical and the research activities. State subsidy is also necessary to build up more advantageous conditions of sales like in some foreign countries (e.g. the Netherlands).
The world industry of ornamental plants is under wide transformations regarding the changes in the cultivation, management, postharvest technologies and the use of new (bio)technologies to assist the improvement and development of new varieties. This industry worth more than US$ 20 billion, but Brazil shares only 1% of this value. To compete...at this market with permanent technological innovation, the country needs to be tuned in with the progresses in the biotechnologies applied to the productive chain of ornamental plants. In this revision, we analyze the Brazilian and world ornamental market emphasizing the role of the biotechnologies in the modernization and increase of the competitiveness of the sector.
The traditional methods for vegetative propagation of apple and its varieties are the T-budding, and the winter grafting, but this latter way is a difficult and expensive procedure.
In our experiment carried out in the Fruit Tree Nursery Soroksár, the healing process of chip- and T-budded apple trees 'Jonagold' on MM 106 rootstock was...studied.
The budding (T- and Chip-) was made in the first week of August, samples for microscope examination were taken monthly after this time until leaf fall.
The investigated part of plants was made soft with 48 % HF (hydrogenfluoride), then cross and longitudinal section were made and examined by microscope.
Based on analysis of microscope pictures in case of Chip-budding, it was established, that development had started quickly after budding on the rootstock and scion too. But the callus originated almost entirely from the rootstock tissue as new parenchyma cells fills the gap between the two components of graft (scion and stock), becoming interlocked and allowing for some passage of water and nutrients between the stock and the scion. This quantity of callus in case of T budding was under the scion buds larger, than the Chip-budded unions, where the thickness of callus mass is uniformly thick round the chip. The large mass of callus pushes the scion bud outwards from the shoot axis, which later results in a larger shoot-curvature above the bud union.
Following this process on the Chip-budding it can be observed also, that a continuity of the cambium is established between bud and rootstock. Then the newly formed cambium started typical cambial activity, forming new xylem and phloem.
Later the callus begins to lignify, and it is completed within about 3 months after budding.