Micrografting was used in our experiments for establishment of in vitro culture from one rootstock (`JTE-F') and three scion cultivars (`Remo', 'Rewena' and `Reanda') of apple. Shoot tips of these cultivars were harvested from field and grafted onto in vitro rootstock cultivars. Their survival and development were studied. 42-93% of shoot tips survived and developed further depending on cultivar. Impermanent browning of sticking agar-agar could be observed in 21-25% of the micrografts depending on cultivars but discolouration of agar-agar ceased within one week and did not cause any death of shoot tips. We used micrografting successfully for establishment of in vitro culture from cultivars, from which earlier with conventional methods the culture establishment was not possible because of hard tissue browning. However, further studies are necessary to ensure the survival and development of shoots after removing them from micrografts.
Adaption of temperate climate horticultural plants in tropical and subtropical developing countries (Review Article)
The flowering dynamics of Ocimum basilicum L., (a common population maintained at the UHFI) was studied with the aim to create an exact and practically applicable method for definition of phenological phases.
According to our observation the development of individual flowers of the basil can be characterized by 8 distinguishable phases, which must be considered for description of the actual phenological stage of a spike.
An accurate model was created for the unambiguous description of flowering process of different flowers within the spike and for the individual plant as a whole. The new flowering index formula is calculated from the number of flowers weighed by their phenological phases.
The time dependence of flowering is presented by functions fitted to values of the flowering index. The results reflected different patterns of the main inflorescence, the inflorescences formed on the side shoots in the first or in the second half of the flowering period. However, for description of the flowering process of the whole plant, a sigmoid function proved to be the appropriate model.
The accumulation process of the essential oil could be characterized by the flowering index values. They showed close correlation (r=0.964) at high probability.
The new method assures an exact definition of phenological phases in basil. Its application seems to be optimal during breeding procedures, seed production and even in production of high quality drugs, according to the requirements of the Good Agricultural Practice (Guidelines for GAP, 1998).
Irrigation in some countries is a horticultural practice mainly used only to supply water. At the same time the use of microsprinklers have a powerful infl uence on the changes of temperature in orchards. When the air’s temperature is high (about 20 °C or higher) the evaporative cooling irrigation signifi cantly decreases the plants’ surface temperature and air temperature. The cooling effect is stronger when the air is dryer. By using cooling irrigation regularly, canopy temperature can be decreased so that the beginning of blooming can be delayed. Also if the blooming is early and frost probability is high, serious damages can happen in orchards. The benefi cial effect of cooling irrigation is the temperature reduction and frost protection. In March 2010, one month earlier than the expected blooming an irrigation system was established to produce anti-frost treatment and regulate the micro-climate of a Bosc pear orchard which belongs to the University of Debrecen (Hungary). The objective of sprinklers was to cool the air by increasing water evaporation and relative humidity. The position of the micro-sprinklers was planned in three levels (around the tree trunks, a few cm near to the soil surface, in the crown region and above the crown, a half meter higher). The results showed that the water sprayed in the orchard by micro-jets infl uenced decisively the temperature of the plantation. At higher temperatures (around 20 °C), the drop of temperature may attain 5–7 °C. A low relative humidity of the air may increase the relative effect. When water was applied at intervals of 15 minutes for ten times a day from 8 am to 18 pm, the air, fl owers and bud’s surface temperature could be kept low. At certain days when the temperature was higher than 10 °C, irrigation was used at night time in similar 15 minutes intervals, from 18 pm and 6 am. The beginning of bloom could be delayed for more than ten days. The Bosc pear variety blooming dynamics was characterized by a logistic curve in the treated as well as in the control plot. In the treated plot, the curve was steeper than in the control one in spite of the equal temperatures measured in the plots. Under Hungarian climatic conditions, the method was successfully used to delay blooming dates. The main result was the diminution of the frost damage in the spring that assured pears yields.
In this study the changes of the characteristics of Satureja hortensis herb were investigated during flowering period, in case of savories of 4 different origins. The change of drying ratio, leaf/stem ratio, essential oil content, the ratio of several essential oil components (carvacrol, y-terpinene, p-cymol, a-pinene, p-pinene and fi-caryophyllene) were studied from bud formation till seed ripening.
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the 10% threshold level for cherry leaf spot incidence on 23 commercial sweet cherry cultivars in two training systems. Twenty three cherry cultivars were evaluated in the two training systems with a spacing of 4 x 1 m and with a spacing of 2 x 5 m. Results showed that leaves of many cultivars were heavily infected, e.g. cultivars (cvs) ’Biggareau Burlat’, ’Sunburst’, while others showed low disease incidence e.g. cvs ’Celeste’ and ’Blaze Star’. According to the 10 % threshold level, cv ’Celeste’ proved to be the most resistant cultivar to leaf infection, while cv ’Münchebergi korai’ exceeded extremely the 10% threshold level. Leaf spot incidence was affected by training system on most cultivars. Thirteen cultivars had less than 10% infection in the 4 x 1 m spacing (i.e. they did not reach the 10% disease threshold level). At the same time, only 3 cultivars showed less than 10% infection in the 5 x 2 m spacing.
Thinning is a h ighly crucial point of the apple production technology. According to results of numerous studies the earliest thinning is deemed to have the best amending effects. There can be considerable difference between trees of the same cul tivar and age in a plantation in respect to their flowering, in the numbers of fruits set and also in their canopy volume. Thus it can be crucial -just l ike in the case of pruning- to establish a fruit thinni ng su i ted for specif ic characteristics of actual trees. This experiment was established to examine how does primary fruit set (fruit load before thinning) and further on specific (fruit/TCS cm2) and absolute (fruit/tree) fruit-load of the trees affect quality attri butes at harvest. Our experiment was establ ished in a plantation on medium-tight loamy soil in north-east of Hungary. Harvest date was determined w ith the joint observation of the calendar date, starch-index, flesh firmness, background colour and fruit weight. Three fruit-load levels were established based on local experience and on data of several years, I Ot/ha lower and higher besides the advised optimum yield in the same orchard with slender-spindle shaped 'Gala must' cultivar standing on M9 rootstock in 1m x 3,8 m spacing. In the establishment of the 15, 25 and 35t/ha fruit-load levels on 20-20 apple trees total number of fruits set was counted at each tree. After this number of apples due to be removed was defined using an objective index on the basis of trunk cross sections (fruit/TCScm2) (Lafer, 1999). The following attributes were measured: weight (g), flesh firmness (lb/cm2) total soluble solid content (Brix %) and total titrate-able acid content (g/J).From the data on sugar and acid content quality index (Pomona value) was determined (Thialult, 1970). We could ascertain, that in an orchard, of the same aged but in concern to trunk cross sections somewhat different trees besides the specific index (apple/TCS cm2 the absolute fruit load (fruit/tree) can also be an important data, that has considerable effect on the internal quality. Secondly we could observe, that higher level of fruit load before thinning (primary fruit set) negatively affects quality index of the apples irrespective of the specific fruit load level (fruit/cm2 TCS) set later. Results underlines necessity of the earliest chemical thinn ing.
Some parameters involved in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in muskmelon Hales best (HBS) were studied. Cotyledon explants excised from 3.5-day-old seedlings were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harbouring binary vectors which contained GUS and BAR genes. After co-cultivation on a low pH medium, explants were transferred to selective medium, with higher pH, containing Claforan and Finale. The medium was changed every two weeks till shoots were induced. All shoots rooted on MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/L IBA. These parameters combined as a whole led to successful transformation. The expression of the introduced gene construct was confirmed by GUS staining of shoot segments.
The tolerant bacteria for abiotic stresses such salinity, drought, and different pH have been used as a good tool to improve plant growth in sustainable agriculture. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential of isolated stresstolerant bacteria for red mud-polluted soil on growth performance of giant reed plants with increasing concentrations of NaCl 0.0; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3; 0.5; 1.0% under gnotobiotic conditions. At the same time biostimulator potential of isolated bacteria was observed in case of radish in vitro germination experiment under salt stress. It was found that the observed bacterial strain can tolerate the salt and pH moderately however it is resistant against hydrogen-peroxide caused oxidative stress in high concentration (up to 2640 mM). Molecular identification, basis on 16S rDNA showed 98% similarity to the Bacillus aryabhattai bacterial strain. The isolated strain alleviated the negative effect of salt (0.05%) for the radish seed germination. However in higher salt concentration (≥0.1%) the bacterial mitigating effect vanished. The inhibition of increasing salt concentration for giant reed plantlets was also alleviated by halotolerant bacteria treatment (≥0.5%).
Foliar nutrition experiment was made to investigate the effect of algae products on fruit quality of apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). The study was conducted in 2011 at Siófok inWest-Hungary on cv. ‘Jonagored’ and ‘Idared’grafted on M9 rootstock. In our trial leaf diagnostic and fruit quality measurements were made to study the effectiveness of applied products. Relative leaf chlorophyll content was determined by a portable chlorophyll meter. Fruit weight and shape index were measured. Fruit inner qualifying parameters like titratable acid content and Brix value were also determined. It can be stated that the used products had traceable effect on investigated fruit parameters. Although, leaf N content was not effected by treatments significantly, relative leaf chlorophyll content significantly increased by both treatments. Used products significantly increased the fruit weight and shape index. Applied treatments significantly decreased the pH of pulp. Treatments increased the acid contents (fumaric, citric, malic) of apples and decreased the amount of monosaccharides. It means that the applied treatments pushed out the ratio of acid/sugar.
Hungary possesses very good agroecological conditions even in a European comparison. Agriculture and food production is highly important despite its decreasing relative economic significance, since providing high quality and affordable food for the population is a basic social necessity and one of the decisive factors in quality of life. The development of vegetable and fruit production is of great importance both from a healthy nutrition as well as from a comparative advantage (cheap labour, expertise, production traditions, favourable climate) point of view.Vegetable and fruit consumption per capita is lower than in developed countries, which is a decisive indicator of healthy nutrition, but improvement is continuous and desired. Appropriate quality and quantity in production is a requirement to meet customers’ needs in a highly competitive market from one year to the next. Hungary can only be competitive if production results are improved while risks are reduced. Fruit production is a sector with high capital requirements, risk assessment is very important from a production, investment as well as from a national economy point of view. Our examinations will focus on production risk, which is present in the annual fluctuation of average yields, especially as a result of extreme weather factors.
In this study, the susceptibility of 7 commercially important sour cherry cultivars to Monilinia laxa was studied. Artificial inoculation was made with M. laxa isolates, which were isolated from different woody plants. Artificial inoculation was prepared in the laboratory and in the field. In laboratory, flowers of sour cherries while in the field, the two-year old twigs were inoculated in 2006 and 2007. According to results of stigmata inoculation, there were infection ability differences among the isolates originated from five different stone fruit host. Cultivars could be sorted into two susceptibility groups. In the field, twig inoculation in 2007 was made at blossom period and in 2007 at harvest. Seven sour cherry cultivars were inoculated with 8-day-old mycelial culture of M. laxa originated from sour cherry and almond. The agressivity and pathogenicity of the two isolates were measured by the degree of floem death: Results showed that year and phenological stage considerably influenced the degree of symptoms caused by the fungus. After artificial inoculation, tissue death progression was studied by fluorescent microscope. According to results, sour cherry cultivars were sorted into disease susceptibility groups. Susceptibility orders were identical to results on stigmata inoculation.
The requirements for in vitro micrografting in apple are described. In vitro multiplicated shoots of cv. Royal Gala were the sources of rootstocks and scions after different pre-treatment, respectively. Oxidative browning of cut surfaces could be inhibited by the use of antioxidant mixture during grafting process. Scion base cut in v-shape was stuck by 1% agar-agar solution into the vertical slit of rootstock. There was no any displacement and the rate of fused and further developed grafts was 95 percent. Agar-agar between the rootstock and scion made the transport of different materials possible and hold the graft units together until the fusion took place. Fusion was proved also by histological studies. Some of in vitro micrografts were planted and acclimatisated and the survival was 100 percent.
Lavandula species are worldwide grown essential oil producing medicinal plants with considerable economic value. Beside volatile oil, lavender also contains different phenolic compounds which have been less widely studied till now. Cultivation of lavender has become widespread in Hungary in the recent years, however, growers have limited knowledge on the productivity of cultivars available. In our research we were aimed to studying the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content of samples collected in two growing areas (Dörgicse and Szomód) from flowers of two L. angustifolia (‘Hidcote’, ‘Munstead’) and two L. × intermedia (‘Grosso’, Grappenhall’) varieties, during the full blooming period of 2017. Antioxidant capacity of the samples was determined by FRAP assay (Benzie and Strain, 1996), while total polyphenol content (TPC) was measured by a modified method of Singleton and Rossi (1965). According to our results, varieties of L. × intermedia showed higher values of antioxidant capacity and of total polyphenol content, than those of L. angustifolia cultivars. Among them, both the antioxidant capacity (179.6 mg AAE/g DW) and total polyphenol content values (152.4 mg GAE/g DW) of ’Grosso’ from Dörgicse were the highest. Concerning FRAP values of all the cultivars investigated, larger variability were found in Dörgicse, than in Szomód. Regarding the effect of growing area, each cultivar represented similar FRAP values in Dörgicse and in Szomód, except for ’Grosso’. However, in the case of TPC values, higher variability was observed between the growing areas, especially in the case of ’Grosso’. In the future our studies on lavender polyphenols will be completed with qualitative evaluation of the values obtained by HPLC analysis.
In vitro cultures have widely been used in horticulture for rapid multiplication of new varieties and clones as well as to produce pathogen-free stock material. To improve efficient hardening and transfer in vitro grown grapevine plants were multiplied by cutting them into single-node internodes with the whole leaf. Microcuttings including the shoot tips were rooted in granulated perlite moisted with tapwater under sterile conditions. After 2-3 weeks the rooted microcuttings were supplied by nutrients and hardened by gradual opening and finally by complete removal of the lids of jars or plastic boxes used for growth. Using this method microcuttings of Vitis vinifera cvs. „Chardonnay", „Cabernet franc", „Riesling" and „Sauvignon blanc" and the rootstock varieties Vitis riparia x Vitis cinerea cv. „Barrier" and Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris cv. „Richter 110" formed new roots and shoots and 100% of the tested plants survived the acclimatization procedure. Similar results were obtained when perlite was replaced with rockwool-, or pit-pot blocks. This method may highly increase the efficiency of producing pathogen-free propagating material and new transgenic lines.
Shoot blight of pome fruits caused by Erwinia amylovora, i.e. fire blight, is present in numerous countries of Europe. The disease must have entered into Hungary in the middle of the 1990's and it was first noted and, respectively, identified in 1996 (Bacs-Kiskun county). The losses caused by the pathogen appeared — in orchards and scattered sites of production — in four counties, namely Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes and Csongrad at the beginning. From June 1996, a process of eliminating infected parts started in the course of a large action performed under the control of the Department of Plant Protection and Agro-Environmental Economy of the Ministry of Agriculture, under the direction of the plant protection inspectors of the then existing Stations of Plant Health and Soil Conservation. The 'operation' against the disease commenced by cutting back out the infected parts of the canopy and, grubbing them out, respectively. As for the spread of the pathogen (1996-1998) it could be observed that the disease entered into Hungary from the south, south-east and then it also spread into the middle part of the country. As a result of adequate official action and efforts as well as of adequate chemical and antibiotic treatments, moreover because of the introduction of more modern technologies of plant cultivation and those of plant protection it can be reported on that the pathogen hardly appears or does not occur at all on the northern, north-western part of the country. The infection also appears mainly on the parts east of the Danube. Cultivars less susceptible or non-susceptible to the disease are planted in recently established orchards what is also a considerable factor in respect of preventing spread of the pathogen.
A detailed examination of the production of ethylene and other ripening parameters during storage period has been undertaken in transgenic apple fruits, where the ethylene biosynthesis was inhibited by antisense ACS (l-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylate synthase) gene. Data indicate down regulation of ethylene production, softening and spoilage in some transgenic lines. In some cases ethylene production was inhibited for over 90 percent, considerable reduction of softening and spoilage was observed probably due to the reduced activity of cell wall degradable enzymes. ACS activity was also monitored during ripening. The fruits of the best transgenic lines could be stored for minimum 4-5 months longer under 5 °C cold room storage conditions and one month longer at normal room temperature. This molecular approach can provide an alternative way to replace the commonly used and costly atmospheric storage of fruits.
The VirEl protein plays a key role in the transport of VirE2 protein from the bacterium to the plant cell during crown gall tumor induction by Agrobacterium. The virEl gene of A. tutnefaciens pTiA6 was cloned into the plant transformation vector pTd33 yielding pTd93virEl that was introduced into A. tuniefaciens EHA101 and used for tobacco transformation. The presence of the foreign DNA in the putative transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR analysis. Nine of the 41 transformed plants formed only small tumors following infection with the wild-type A. vitis octopine strain AB3. This property was inherited into the T1 generation. The expression of virEl gene in TI plants was demonstrated by Northern blot analysis.
Seed certification and EU conform legislative harmonization in Hungary
The conditions of the cultivation of marketable cherries are diverse. Choosing the production site on the basis of the climatic conditions, selecting the most appropriate variety taking into account the region and the purpose of the production, utilization of the optimal production method, to ensure the required water and nutrients supply, frost and hail protection techniques, modern technology in crop protection, and professional performance of harvesting and handling, to name just a few of the most important issues. The objective of present study is to determine the qualitative characteristics of the UNITEC cherry sorting machine.
The surface microbial contamination is of great interest in case of fruits, since they are they potential sources of spoilage or foodborne diseases. The aim of this work was to compare the epiphytic microbiota of food safety concern of different apple cultivars as a function of cultivation methods (organic versus integrated), production year and place. Investigating 47 samples it was found that the average microbial contamination of the apple surfaces was within a certain range,, practically independent of cultivar, growing area and year. The frequency distribution of the surface bacterial, mould and yeast counts did not show significant differences between growing technologies or varieties. The principal component analysis the samples ranked the apple samples into seven groups on the basis of their microbial contamination level, and the discriminant analysis proved the goodness of grouping. The grouping was independent from cultivars and growing methods. No foodborne pathogen Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were found on the surfaces of apples.
Produce of harmonic nutrient balance and status of trees is basic task of growers for qualified fruit growing. The role of crop loaded is essential to grow the productivity of trees without nutrient disorder or other nutritional problems. To reduce the frequency of biennial bearing there are some ways (site and species selection, crop regulation, irrigation, nutrition etc.) from them one is the best easy way the proper site and species oriented nutrition. Sometimes the responsible for irregular cropping is the insufficient fertilization. Observed irregular cropping at two apple cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh., cv. ‘Summerred’ and cv. ‘Mutsu’) in an integrated apple orchard at Hajdúnánás-Tedej, in 2007 resulted a chance to determine nutritional status of “bearing” and “non bearing” trees and investigate the effects of irregular cropping on nutrient uptake and possibilities of correction. Our results pointed out that irregularity is connection on nutrition status of trees. Irregular cropping results in insufficient nutrient uptake and disharmony of nutrients. For this reason, the establishment of nutrient status of “non bearing” trees is could permit a chance to correct and improve the nutrient supply of trees which help to breakdown the vicious circle of irregularity.
Hungary faced many natural disasters in 2007. Due to the estimation of the Hungarian Chamber of Agriculture, the amount of natural disasters that occurred in Spring 2007 (frost, hailstorm and drought in April and May) is about 100 billion HUF. Frost and drought caused damage on about 250 thousand hectares of arable land. Currently, there are four insurance companies dealing with agricultural insurances in Hungary. Their income was nearly 20 billion HUF in 2003, whereas it barely exceeded 6.6 billion HUF in 2004. The reason behind the significant decrease of insurance fee is the state provision made in 2004 stopping fee subsidisation which originally started in 1996, enabling farmers to require a 25-30% reimbursement of the amount paid for insurance. Launching a state subsidisation again would greatly increase the number of agricultural insurances. The law about the national agricultural mitigation system passed last Autumn. This provision declares that the mitigation of agricultural damage that cannot be insured on a business-like basis is based on the common risk-taking by the state and the farmers. The introduction of this system is explained by the fact that the mitigation of damages through disaster can only be carried out if those affected also take part in it, according to EU rules.
In the temperate zone live about 150 species of the Nepeta genus. Our investigations covered the examinations of the volatile oil containing species of the genus endemic in Hungary, Nepeta cataria and Nepeta parviflora. Latter is a relict of the ancient steppe-flora and endemic in Hungary as well. Phytochemical examination of the volatile oil containing plant material has also been carried out. Catnip growing in the Botanical Garden of PTE Department of Botany contained 0,67% volatile oil in May and 0,14% in November. Chemical character of the volatile oils were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and citronellol, citral-A, citral-B and geraniol components were identified. The composition of the oil of November samples shifted towards citronellol (65%). In both samples insecticide and repellent activity bearing compounds (+)-cis-p-menthane-3,8-diol, and (—)-trans-p-menthane-3,8-diol in 2-2.5 and 4-4.5% amount have been found. The catnip sample deriving from Germany contained a small amount of anetol, citronellol, neral, geraniol and geranial (6-13%), and possibly two isomers of nepetalactone in 23-31%.
The Nepeta parviflora endemic in the Nagyvolgy valley near Nagykaracsony consisted of the same compounds in the investigated years (1998-2000). Its limonene, methyl chavicol, b-cariophyllene, b-selinene, b-cubebene, davanone, germacrene-D constituents have been identified. In the year 2000 different GC % of these compounds were detected in the different organs of the plants.
The closely related species Nepeta cataria var. citriodora contained 83% citral, and the N. glechoma (= Glechoma hederacea) contained 41% a-cubebene, 20% patchoulenol, 7,7% spathulenol respectively. These compounds were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography / mass spectrometry.
The Hungarian cultivar Sorbus redliana 'Burokvölgy' was proliferated on Murashige and Skoog (MS, 1962) medium with half-strength macroelements and 100 mg/1 meso-inositol, 20 g/1 sucrose, 11 g/1 agar-agar. Different combinations of kinetin (KIN), metatopolin (mT), benzyladenine (BA), benzyladenine-ribosid (BAR) and indolebutiric acid (IBA) were tested, and pH was adjusted to 5.6 every case using KOH. The cultures were incubated at 20-24 °C in 8/16 hours dark/light photoperiod for 50-52 days. The main aim of our research was to find the optimal growth regulator and its optimum concentration. Purthermore, to determine the chlorophyll contents of the in vitro propagated plants' leaves. During the proliferation, the highest number of shoots were observed in the case of using BA + IBA, and on the medium containing 0.75 mg/I BA + 0.05 mg/1 IBA 8.93 shoots were found. The addition of KIN + IBA decreased the number of shoots and increased the sizes of leaves — the widest (11.2 mm) and longest (17.8 mm) leaves were obtained on the medium containing 1.00 mg/I KIN + 0.05 mg/1 IBA. The longest shoots (36.46 mm) were found in the case of applying 0.75 mg/1 BAR + 0.05 mg/I IBA. The BA + KIN + IBA combination resulted the shortest shoots. Sometimes not only shoot regeneration but spontaneous rooting was observed during the multiplication. The highest chlorophyll content (1.569 mg/g total chlorophyll, 1.132 mg/g chlorophyll-a, 0.437 mg/g chlorophyll-b) was obtained in the presence of 1.0 mg/I KIN + 0.05 mg/1 IBA.