The reason why We have chosen this topic for my research is that new technologies have appeared in our environment, particularly the unnamed aerial vehicle. In Hungary, similarly to some other countries, there is a gap in the legislation concerning the use of UAV.
...="font-weight: 400;">The UAV technology raises many questions because these vehicles can be used for several reasons. It is necessary to analyse in depth the legal environment of UAV and to change our perspective because it is not enough to consider the legal context; technical and other aspects have to be taken into consideration as well.
Most academic sources concerning the usage of UAV focus on the military use of UAV. In my research I focus on the topic from the aspects of civil law; the reason for this is that I consider the legal restrictions concerning the ordinary vehicles used for everyday purposes not for governmental ones.
The main goal of our paper is to study how the usage of UAV can be legally controlled. This question is important because the number of these vehicles are gradually growing which leads to several legal issues, for instance privacy or tort.
In our research We have analyzed the international laws and regulation plans, the international laws, draft legislation. The „abnormally dangerous activities” that appear in the title of the paper is only a call for attention to evaluate the liability in the civil law.
The other aim of our paper is to make a proposal to set up a work group who is going to work out the regulations in detail. Legislators and researchers could participate in the work group, among whom are technical and legal professionals as well.
Partnership under the civil code is a harsh institution in Hungarian legal system. Despite of this fact, most of the European countries apply this legal entity a lot as a background for other, more complicated corporate forms. In my essay I demonstrate those rules in German Civil Code (BGB), which show the importance and opportunities of these...partnerships.
If we would like to describe the essentials of partnerships under the Civil Code, the most important question is the legal relations from both inner and external point of view. Internal relations mean an obligation between the parties, who form this partnership. It is natural that we can find both rights and commitments between founders. This is a contract but BGB says that all parties have equal rights and commitments in the same partnership. As a general rule of the Code, it is permissive, not cogent. BGB has basic regulation for operating such a partnership, but can be useful if founders live with this permissive opportunity and shape special rules for their partnership, which fit to their aims, functions, different financial potential of the parties.
There is a chance for founders to neglect building a whole structure and organization for their partnership, if they want to operate it as an inner partnership, without external relations, focusing only for the rights and omissions between the parties.
From all contract that establishes a partnership under the Civil Code membership rights follow. These rights cannot be transferred. A distinction can be made between administrational, common business management and financial rights. Rights to common business management can consist of right to information, right to supervision or the most important right to vote. Financial rights gather typical rights such as right to dividend or liquidity proportion. These rights are social omissions from the viewpoint of the partnership itself, as these are for the interest of the parties.
The most important omissions of the founders are financial contribution to establish the partnership. This regulation results from that partnership is to promote common aim of the founders, and to achieve this, all of them have to make available pecuniary or non-pecuniary assets. According to a special rule of BGB, over against the other corporate forms, members of the partnership have no omission to increase or complete their assets.
Management of the partnership is not only a right but an obligation too. A special omission is that all members and founders have to be loyal to the partnership. Because of the strong partnership character of this corporate form, this means that members have to keep the interest and aim of the partnership in view. They all are responsible for achieving the aim of the partnership and nobody can sit as a beneficiary. Loyal members have to keep secrets in connection with operating the partnership and of course the sudden obligation to inform the others of all events and experiences, which are in tight connection with the partnership and the interests of the parties. If any of the members breach these obligations, rules of damages can be applied in BGB.
Assets of the partnership are special, because no separated corporate assets form. Financial and non-pecuniary contribution becomes the assets of the community of members. It is undividable and common. But these common assets are strictly separated from the private assets of the parties. Rights for profit and deficit are equal, but this permissive rule allows different regulation in the contract. The only cogent sentence is the prohibition of societas leoniana, i.e. nobody can be precluded of profit and deficit.
External relations mean the representation of the partnership. In this case the most important law is the contract itself. In case of disagreement between the parties, there is a helping rule of BGB: members can act as a body. If we take into consideration the rules of liability, we can say that because of the lack of legal capacity of the partnership, individual liability has its important role. Generally this liability is unlimited, but there is a chance to agree with the creditor to limit liability. But this limitation is only valid for that legal transaction.
Rules for partnerships under the Civil Code in Germany are more detailed and nuanced than in Hungary. Partnership is the basic type of civil law partnerships, such as limited partnership or general partnership. We have to consider that building up a more coherent regulation for these partnerships can be useful to categorize atypical corporations.
Nach mehr als zweijähriger Gesetzeswerdung wurde im Herbst 2005 das neue Unternehmensgesetzbuch (UGB) im Parlament beschlossen und damit das bisherige Handelsgesetzbuch reformiert.
Es gibt nur mehr zwei im Firmenbuch eingetragene Personengesellschaftsformen, und zwar die Offene Gesellschaft (OG; früher OHG) und die Kommanditgesellscha...ft (KG). Eine OEG oder KEG kann nur mehr bis zum 31.12.2006 gegründet werden. Eine am 1.1.2007 bestehende OEG oder KEG wird automatisch zur OG, KG und muss bis zum 31.12.2009 ihren Rechtsformzusatz im Firmenwortlaut entsprechend abändern. Für eine bestehende OHG sieht das Gesetz keine Anpassung des Firmenwortlautes vor.
Die Einführung des neuen Unternehmergesetzbuches (UGB) mit Wirkung zum 1.1.2007 bedeutet das „Aus“ für OEG´s und KEG´s. Dies bedeutet, dass bestehende OEG´s und KEG´s bis zum Jänner 2010 den Rechtsformzusatz „OG oder KG“ entsprechend anpassen müssen. Dies geschieht gebührenfrei. Der Zusatz „OHG“ darf weiterhin geführt werden.
Neu ist, dass die im Unternehmensgesetzbuch geregelten eingetragenen Personengesellschaften zu jedem Zweck gegründet werden können, egal ob gewerblich, freiberuflich, land- und forstwirtschaftlich oder nicht unternehmerisch.