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Non-completed Studies: What Factors Affect Academic Success or Failure?
79-89

The ratio of early school leavers is 12.5 in Hungary, which means 22nd place within the EU28. Early school leaving is an important issue in all European countries, because those who finished their studies after primary education are more likely unemployed and it causes problems for both them and the society. Higher educational drop-out also an important issue, although for other reasons than early school leaving. It is even more difficult to find precise data on this: we don’t know what proportion of the students is affected by this in Hungary. In this study I analyze the database of the Hungarian Youth Research 2016. This survey was conducted on a representative sample of 15-29 year olds, questioning 8,000 people, therefore, early school leavers and higher educational drop-outs should be found among the interviewees. The results show that early school leavers have significantly worse status both financial and cultural. Some of those who had finished only primary school think that they have successfully completed their studies. They answered that despite 18.3 percent of them have started a vocational training, which didn’t finish. Despite the expectations, not much is known about the higher educational drop-outs. 4.5 percent of the interviewees did not answer the question of whether they had completed their studies: they are probably the drop-outs, but we can just assume that. The results show that they have better cultural status than the others.

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Differences in Foreign Language Choice of Students from Different Social Backgrounds
78-86

According to previous research (e.g. Bernstein, 1971; Gogolin, 2014; Hegedűs et al., 2019), family background plays a decisive role in an individual's mother tongue acquisition and in learning foreign languages. In another study, parents with a high social background (54.0%) chose German for their children, and parents with a low social background (56.9%) chose English in primary school (Sebestyén, 2021). Based on this, in the study I examine what difference can be detected in the foreign language choice of high school students from different social backgrounds. In the study, I analyze the student data (890 people) of my database entitled “German learning and teaching in Hajdú-Bihar and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg counties” prepared in the 2018/2019 school year, during which I perform cross-tabulation and cluster analysis with the help of SPSS program. The database contains data on 11th grade high school and vocational high school students who studied German and / or English in high school. As the results, there are differences between the learned foreign languages among secondary school students according to family background. Among the clusters related to high school choice, those belonging to the “Higher Education Oriented Local” cluster are most interested in foreign languages, most German-speaking (74.0%) and English (89,0%) students tend to be in this cluster. Overall, the majority of respondents learn English, while students from higher social backgrounds (also) learn German.

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Tablets in Hungarian Primary Schools: An Empirical Study of Institution-level Application
29-37

The increasing interest in introducing tablets into education as well as many countries’ education policies (see Digital Education Strategy) support the integration of the above-mentioned mobile devices (Mulet, van de Leemput & Amadieu, 2019). Accordingly, several governments are presently procuring or have already supplied a significant number of students with these devices (Tamim et al., 2015). Similar to most international large-scale initiatives, there are remarkable variances in tablet-supported education. The different school conditions (infrastructure, framework, human resources) result in the diversity of technological integration. In our research, in order to learn more about the infrastructural conditions at schools’ institutional levels, with online questionnaires we examined 145 primary schools using tablets in their education. We were looking to answer the following, questions: (1) what kind of infrastructural conditions are characteristic of the different institutions? (2) What kind of differences in infrastructural conditions are there between the schools in different settlements? To sum up the results, we can observe significant differences in the number of tablets, their hardware, accessories and software, along with differences in internet access and the regulation thereof.

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Criteria determining school choice among the ethnic minority high school students
17-25

In our paper we sought for the answer to the question: based on which motives do students from various types of high schools (in our case, denominational or non- denominational school) make their choice of educational institution? The target group of our research consists of the 9th and 11th grade students of Harghita County’s denominational (Roman Catholic, Reformed, Unitarian) schools and the non-denominational ones added to them. All in all, eight high schools got into our sample. We conducted a survey by questionnaire, the sample including 1,064 people. We analyzed the decision criteria formed based on motives behind the decision (primary and secondary effects) on the one hand, and followed the decision making process on the other. The non-denominational sector is often chosen by the elite- and institution-oriented student group, who has great expectations of the institution, e.g. - top of the line standards of education, outstanding achievement indicators, prestige of the institution, local reputation. According to the clusters created from the motives, the value- and community-oriented student group, as well as the one following the orientation of the peer group, can be found in significantly higher proportion in denominational schools.

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The Impact of Sport on the Health Related Quality of Life of Primary School Children
80-85

By participating in some organized physical activities, even at school or in a sports association, children will have an impact on their intellectual, emotional and socialization abilities, as well as develop their motor skills and abilities. As a result, an athlete’s health will also be at a higher level and their Healthrelated quality of life (HRQOL) will change. In the survey, we were researching if there is a difference in the results of the HRQOL dimensions of lower-grade athletes and non-athletes at Ferenc Gál University’s Szarvasi Training Primary School and Training Kindergarten. In the cross-sectional study, 89 parents responded to questions in the Kidscreen-27 / proxy questionnaire, which asked about their child’s subjective quality of life and its relationship with sports. Based on the statistically processed data, it can be shown that young athletes have higher HRQOL values compared to their non-athlete counterparts in all dimensions. From this, we can conclude that sport has a positive impact on the health and well-being of athlete students, their relationships with family and friends, and their effectiveness at school.

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Encouraging Musical Creativity in Montenegrin Primary Education – A Case Study
27-35

The need to change the paradigm of music education, which primarily relies on performing and listening to music, implies a more systematic introduction of activities that would enable the direct involvement of children in the exploration of sounds and the creation of their own music. By analysing the curricula and textbooks for music education in Montenegrin primary schools, as well as examining the attitudes of teachers about the realisation of musical creativity in teaching practice, it was found that these activities are not given enough attention. In order to introduce innovations in practice, an action research study was conducted, during 2017/2018 school year with 30 fifth grade pupils in one primary school, belonging to the Southern region of Montenegro. The obtained results, based on the qualitative findings, showed the connection between the categories that make up musical creativity in the classroom: acquiring musical knowledge, developing musical skills, encouraging problem solving, developing critical thinking, supporting collaborative creativity, motivation and integrative teaching. Hopefully, the conducted research will contribute to a wide range of understanding of musical creativity in the classroom context, as one of the leading topics of contemporary music pedagogy.

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Information and Trust in Parent-Teacher Cooperation – Connections with Educational Inequality
19-28

There is an ongoing debate on how parents and the cooperation between parents and teachers contribute to educational inequality. In this study, the assumption that information and trust in parent–teacher cooperation mediate the effects of parent socioeconomic status (SES) on student achievement in mathematics and instruction language (German) was examined. The effects of information and trust on achievement were assumed to be mediated by parent self-efficacy expectation in German. The hypotheses were tested using a sample with 1001 students from 4th to 6th grade and their parents in Swiss primary schools using questionnaires and achievement tests at the beginning and the end of a school year. Results from structural equation models with longitudinal data showed that parent trust and parent self-efficacy expectation fully mediated the effect of SES and student achievement in language instruction but not in mathematics. Information did not correlate with SES nor with student achievement, but with trust. Parental trust in the cooperation with teachers affected achievement in both mathematics and German. The model combines the research on parental involvement with the research on educational inequality in school. Teachers need to establish trust in cooperation with low-SES parents to reduce educational inequality in school.

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A Mobile Suitcase for Informatic Teachers Related to the “Digital” Didactic Goals of the 21st Century
63-70

This study deals with the optimal equipment of a mobile case for computer science teachers, which offers the possibility to teach the skills of the curricula from primary to high school of the 21st century. First, the Single Board Computers (SBCs) in question are filtered out from previous studies and the accessory parts required are determined through a quantitative market analysis. Then, by combining the results with a qualitative analysis according to Mayring, the degree of curricular coverage of individual accessories is determined and binarized. Afterwards, the optimal equipment of the mobile case is evaluated and established based on the cost overlap by horizontal summation and vertical inclusion of the necessary accessories after recording the prices and the budget. The results were clearly presented in network diagrams and lists. This study thus provides computer science teachers and computer science professors with a budget-dependent basis for making decisions about the contents of a mobile case for computer science lessons or a computer science laboratory for learning the skills of the curricula from primary to high school of the 21st century. The study closes with a summary and an outlook.

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The Situation and Chances of Roma students in Secondary and Tertiary Education in Hungary
26-35

Addressing student drop-out or early school leaving has long been a major challenge for education policy makers at both national and international levels. This phenomenon affects all levels of education and has a profound impact on those classes of society that are economically and socio-culturally disadvantaged. This is particularly the case of the largest minority group in Hungary, the Roma, and its roots go back to primary education. Since the 1990s, so from the change of the regime, a positive tendency could have been observed in the completion of primary education, but in secondary school graduation and in obtaining a higher education degree they are still far behind the non-Roma population. In the current study, we identify causes of their learning failures, and we also present a selection of study grants that are available to young Roma students and support them to achieve higher levels of education. We also highlight the difficulties faced by those Roma youth, who have origins in traditional communities but obtain higher educational degrees.

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Horizontal Segregation as a Consequence of Hidden Curriculum in Primary School
112-119

Much of the special literature deals with examining textbooks, and during their analyses the underrepresentation of women in the world of teaching aids always comes out. The National Curricula (1995, 2003, 2007, 2012, and the new draft of the NC) serve as the basis for writing textbooks, thus it would be worth starting the examination of horizontal segregation according to gender here. In the current study, the goal is to identify and to map theoretical dimensions. This research introduces female education and stereotypes of women in Hungary, their theoretical background as regards horizontal segregation according to gender, and also introduces „hidden curriculum”. Horizontal segregation according to gender in higher education is easily seen, the goal of this study, however, is to examine its presence in primary school education through the teaching of three subjects: music, history, and physics. This dissertation is the first step in the research which furthers the mapping of the theoretical background.

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Big Brother Mentoring in the Let's Teach for Hungary Program
114-141

The number of mentoring programs within the framework of schools is increasing both internationally and domestically (Raufelder & Ittel, 2012; Fejes et. al., 2009). Besides traditional mentoring, the role of peer mentoring (Miller, 2002) has also come to the fore in recent years. In our study, we focus on cross-age peer mentoring (Miller, 2002; Sipe, 2005), where older youth mentor younger youth. One example of this in Hungary is the Let's Teach for Hungary (LTHMP) mentoring program, where undergraduate students mentor primary school students. In our research, we studied mentors at the University of Debrecen who had completed at least two semester-long cycles in the program. We were curious about how the COVID-19 pandemic period affected mentoring, so we examined the transition of a mentoring program based on a personal meeting to online mentoring, and its pivotal points, advantages, and disadvantages. As a method, we used qualitative interview analysis, during which we worked with semi-structured interviews, recorded in the spring of 2020 and 2021 – during the global pandemic situation – with a total of 50 mentors. The content analysis of the interview texts was performed based on the codes formulated based on the theory, and the emic codes emerged in the interviews (Creswell, 2012). Our results show that mentors can be grouped into different types based on their attitudes towards online mentoring. Overall, the digital transition has been a big challenge. The biggest problem was the lack of equipment. The issue of age has been also an important factor in terms of the sense of digital comfort. We noticed the phenomenon of Big Brother Mentoring and the importance of chameleon mentors. Our research, which can fill a gap, highlights both the challenges and benefits of online mentoring. In addition, we can also contribute to the effective and successful operation of the Let's Teach for Hungary Mentoring Program.

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Primary School Extracurricular Music Activities in Covasna and Harghita Counties
36-46

Arts education, including music teaching (Dohány, 2010) in elementary schools is getting less and less importance in our present day education system, accordingly we find quite relevant to investigate the situation of music teaching in Romania among the Hungarian minority educationís elementary classes. This present study would like to map the extracurricular fields of music teaching in Covasna and Harghita counties in Hungarian classes through a questionnaire research made among teachers. Our objective is to investigate extracurricular musical education in elementary classes, where we would like to find out what kind of musical activities exist in this area and how intensively do pupils take part in these activities. The self-made questionnaire was sent out online in Covasna and Harghita counties, based on the teachers ‘database at the end of January in 2020. 78 elementary school teachers took part in this research. All the collected data was processed with the help of a statistical data analysing software, examining the descriptive statistical indicators. The analysis shows that few elementary class students take part in extracurricular activities.
Romanian music pedagogy research do not extend to Hungarian minority classes, thus we see it important to investigate the extracurricular activities in counties where Hungarian minorities live.

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Health Education in Primary Schools: A Difficult Task
1-10

This study was conducted in a medium-sized French city, in a neighbourhood falling into poverty, with children aged from 9 to 10 years old. Its aim is to build an adapted strategy to improve children’s healthy habits. Our study was based on a mixed methods interdisciplinary approach using interviews, questionnaires, sleep diaries and accelerometers. The unemployment rate of the target population is above 40%, and the families have four children on average. The children of the sample (N=29) practice less physical activity than recommended by the institutions in charge of health matters. The parents correctly manage the sleep cycles of their children, and stand firm when they have to go to school the next day. When the next day is a non-school day, children play more video games in the evening, both on their own and with their families. Healthy habits can be improved through cooperation with the various members of the educational community (parents, teachers and structures in charge of the children). Since it is difficult to manage health education solely during PE classes, this process must be continued both inside and outside school by the community, even more so the family.

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Children’s Literature in Transcarpathian Schools for Teaching English as a Foreign Language
108-120

Since the origins of formal foreign language teaching, literature has always played an important role. Currently, modern language teaching trends suggest starting foreign language learning as early as possible; thus, the use of children’s literature in foreign language teaching is undergoing a revolution. This situation encouraged us to examine the use of children’s literature and the attitude of foreign language teachers to it. This article focuses on primary and secondary school English language teachers in a western county of Ukraine (N = 118). The results of the qualitative research revealed that the teachers’ general attitude to the use of children’s literature is positive; they are aware of their advantages but still avoid using these materials. Most teachers do not apply children’s literature in their foreign language teaching because the school curriculum is too congested and fast-paced, they do not have access to appropriate authentic children’s literature, or they were not taught how to utilize authentic children’s literature during their university years. Results suggest that teachers should be encouraged to use children’s literature, though there is no universal solution. The first suggestion is for schools themselves to support teachers, but it would be a significant step forward if this approach were also to be taken in in-service training.

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Pandemic and Education
1-10

The emergence and rapid spread of the Coronavirus in the spring of 2020 has fundamentally changed our lives. The most important change has been the attempt to minimise face–to–face contacts everywhere in order to keep the epidemic under control. Public gatherings were banned, shopping malls were closed, and sporting events were also cancelled. As COVID–19 spread as easily among children as among adults, schools could not escape the restrictions. During the first wave of the epidemic, institutions had to switch to emergency remote education (ERE) at very short notice, which presented a number of problems for all participants. These problems and experiences of the switch should be collected at all levels of education, as they not only help to prepare for similar situations, but may also lead to conclusions that can be used to make the methods and solutions of classroom–based teaching more motivating, more effective or even more efficient. In this paper, we review both the challenges of the transition and the possible implications for the future teaching–learning process by reflecting on the lessons learned.

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The Effectiveness of the Let’s Teach for Hungary Mentoring Program
150-160

The situation of disadvantaged students has been a problem in the field of education for decades, -so much so that several disadvantage-compensation programs have been set up in an effort to reduce its effect. This includes the mentoring process, the primary purpose of providing support and assistance to younger individuals. The subjects of the research are the 7th grade students participating in the Let’s teach for Hungary mentoring program. The questionnaire survey was conducted in the autumn of 2019 (n=585), during which I focused on the children’s expectations of the mentoring program, their learning difficulties, learning motivations, and their plans for further learning. Classifying students in clusters based on their motivations, highlights the fact that the range of participants is not homogeneous this aspect. The Coronavirus epidemic has posed a significant challenge to traditional education, and the opportunities offered by personal mentoring have been pushed into the background over the past year and a half. Educators and students alike have struggled through the transition to digital education (Kristóf, 2020). Attendance mentoring was forced to continue in the form of distance mentoring. In my current research, I examine the existence of distance mentoring, the exploration of experiences, and the preparedness of the participants in the Teach for Hungary program. Data collection began in December 2021, and the query process is still ongoing. I carry out the survey using a mixed-method. I collect quantitative data among students with the help of questionnaires, which focus on the experiences, opinions and readiness of the children. In addition, I use a qualitative, interview-based research method that provides an understanding of more comprehensive experiences. I conduct interviews with educators, mentors, and mentored students. The subjects of the research are primary school students (8th grade students), mentors and teachers of a small settlement in Hajdú-Bihar county and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county (n=60 people). The research results can serve as feedback to the participants on the success of work done during distance mentoring. The results obtained can also serve as feedback for the Let’s teach for Hungary program because the program can be developed in the future from interviews.

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