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Is it Worth Getting a Doctorate?
Published June 27, 2022
142-149

PhD training is part of the global education competition. The number of doctoral students per 100,000 people is a feature that moves together with the scientific performance of a country. Thus, doctoral training is an important element of a country’s innovation, in which Hungary is lagging behind. We assume that the main reason for the limite...d amount of doctoral students in Hungary is the low level of individual demand for training which, in turn, is due to the fact that the academic career of doctoral students promises low earnings compared to the placement of university graduates in other spheres. The earnings test and life earnings analysis presented by the study support this assumption: the earnings of those entering academically qualified academic careers are significantly lower than those of graduates working in the corporate sector. Though there are limitations present which impede the generalizability of these results, it does call to attention important trends to be acknowledged in future research.

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Learning English through Shadow Education: Exploring Participants’ Motives and Experiences
Published July 19, 2021
66-77

Parallel to the institutionalised school system, in which no change in pedagogical attitudes has taken place (Einhorn 2015), there is a growing demand for learning languages in non-formal contexts, including out-of-school courses that not only complement students’ studies in formal education but also seem to make the process of learning langu...ages as well as giving academic support to students more effective. The present study aims to explore the international and Hungarian literature on shadow education, which is widespread in Hungary but has little literature (Varga 2015), by presenting the characteristics of the phenomenon and highlighting its shortcomings. A qualitative study is also presented in order to examine the expectations and experiences of the students (and their families) participating in private tutoring. Data gleaned from interviews with students and their parents are analysed to identify their motives, expectations, the development of students’ additional skills and competencies, their career aspirations and the families’ financial background. The results of the study shed light on some characteristics of shadow education that have not been visible yet. Some factors that can potentially enhance the effectiveness of language teaching in the state school system will also be highlighted. Although the study is based on a rather limited sample, the results help us gain important insights into the hidden aspects of shadow education.

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The Development of the Number of Pupils in Secondary Institutions in Light of Political and School Structure Changes
Published November 30, 2020
70-81

There are a number of factors around the world that influence the evolution of school structure such as historical, cultural tradition, nature of the economy, demographics, etc. After-primary school further education is a highlight of the Hungarian school system, as it also defines the entire school career and future of the pupils. The choice b...etween the three types of training, the secondary school, vocational academic school and standard vocational school, is backed by different strategies spanning the entire school career of the students, the educational qualifications being the goal. While choosing high school leads to a degree, the choice of vocational school is one of the fastest and easiest ways of the acquisition of qualifications. However, vocational secondary school also offers a chance to study in higher education (Hermann, 2005) In our study, we look at the evolution of secondary school types in light of policy changes from the 1940s to the present day.

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