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Hidden Curriculum in Teacher Education Programs
Published July 19, 2021
121-124

Bibliography of the reviewed book: Mazawi, A. E., & Stack, M. (Eds.) (2020). Course Syllabi in Faculties of Education. Bodies of Knowledge and their Discontents, International and Comparative Perspectives. Sydney: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781350094253

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Family and Career. Future plans for university students. Ed. Ágnes Engler.
Published November 30, 2020
99-101

Bibliography of the reviewed book: Engler, Á. (2018). Future plans for university students. Debrecen: Center for Higher Education Research and Development. p. 212., ISBN 978-615-80077-6-4.

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The Effects of Family Background on the Processes of Foreign Language Learning in Hungary
Published July 19, 2021
87-97

In Hungary, the academic achievement of schoolchildren is very strongly influenced by their family background, a statement often quoted in connection with PISA surveys (Róbert, 2004). Although the effects of family background have mostly been studied in connection with key competences, it is easy to see that they are also likely to influence f...oreign language learning, possibly to an even greater extent (Csapó, 2001). The aim of our paper is to provide an overview of theoretical and empirical findings related to the family background of Hungarian schoolchildren on different aspects of language learning: language choice, individual differences and success in language learning. We hope to provide a meta-analysis of empirical studies and their results, however it needs to be noted that their number is relatively scarce. We would also like to inspire future studies exploring similar, under-researched topics. Research into the effects of family background is imperative, as it appears to play a pivotal role in ensuring equal opportunities in language education.

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A Test of the Effect of Denominational Schools in Romania
Published July 13, 2020
38-47

Studies in sociology of education in recent decades have consistently found an advantage for students in denominational schools - those with religious subordination - in terms of educational performance, compared with those in secular schools. Although in Romania a large part of the students from pre-university education attend confessional sch...ools this advantage has not been investigated for the Romanian case. Taking advantage of the increased validity of the Romanian baccalaureate exam, following the measures from 2011-2012 and the availability of the statistical data regarding the schools in Oradea (Bihor county), we checked whether the hypothesis of such an advantage is confirmed in the Romanian case. Applying bivariate analyzes by type of schools (secular vs. confessional) and by types of tracks of the net pass rates (from the total of the graduates) we find that, although the promotion rates are higher for denominational schools, the support for the hypothesis of an advantage of denominational schools is fragile as much of the difference can be attributed to the academic orientation of denominational schools and to the fact that they succeed, probably, in selecting students with better educational skills.

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Non-completed Studies: What Factors Affect Academic Success or Failure?
Published October 31, 2019
79-89

The ratio of early school leavers is 12.5 in Hungary, which means 22nd place within the EU28. Early school leaving is an important issue in all European countries, because those who finished their studies after primary education are more likely unemployed and it causes problems for both them and ...the society. Higher educational drop-out also an important issue, although for other reasons than early school leaving. It is even more difficult to find precise data on this: we don’t know what proportion of the students is affected by this in Hungary. In this study I analyze the database of the Hungarian Youth Research 2016. This survey was conducted on a representative sample of 15-29 year olds, questioning 8,000 people, therefore, early school leavers and higher educational drop-outs should be found among the interviewees. The results show that early school leavers have significantly worse status both financial and cultural. Some of those who had finished only primary school think that they have successfully completed their studies. They answered that despite 18.3 percent of them have started a vocational training, which didn’t finish. Despite the expectations, not much is known about the higher educational drop-outs. 4.5 percent of the interviewees did not answer the question of whether they had completed their studies: they are probably the drop-outs, but we can just assume that. The results show that they have better cultural status than the others.

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A Mobile Suitcase for Informatic Teachers Related to the “Digital” Didactic Goals of the 21st Century
Published November 29, 2021
63-70

This study deals with the optimal equipment of a mobile case for computer science teachers, which offers the possibility to teach the skills of the curricula from primary to high school of the 21st century. First, the Single Board Computers (SBCs) in question are filtered out from previous studies and the accessory parts required are determined... through a quantitative market analysis. Then, by combining the results with a qualitative analysis according to Mayring, the degree of curricular coverage of individual accessories is determined and binarized. Afterwards, the optimal equipment of the mobile case is evaluated and established based on the cost overlap by horizontal summation and vertical inclusion of the necessary accessories after recording the prices and the budget. The results were clearly presented in network diagrams and lists. This study thus provides computer science teachers and computer science professors with a budget-dependent basis for making decisions about the contents of a mobile case for computer science lessons or a computer science laboratory for learning the skills of the curricula from primary to high school of the 21st century. The study closes with a summary and an outlook.

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Dual Career through the Analysis of Policy Documents: A Case Study Focusing on Athletics
Published June 27, 2022
86-96

Careers can be influenced by several factor groups: opportunities provided by (1) the environment, (2) ambition, and (3) personal aptitude (Juhász & Matiscsákné Lizák, 2014). In the case of a dual career in sports, an athlete’s career is not limited to sports only, but also can include education. It is worthwhile for sportsmen to lear...n alongside their athletic career. For, a sporting career can come to an end at any time due to any unexpected event (Baráth et al., 2014). This dual career’s success depends heavily on the people in the athlete’s immediate environment. In our research, we used a qualitative method to conduct a content analysis of policy documents and semi-structured interviews with Olympians of three countries, one from Slovenia, one from Germany, and one from Hungary. We divided up our investigation into questions related to funding, professional background and studies. Their opinions showed that all three athletes are satisfied with the support they receive for their current dual careers, with only the Slovenian athlete feeling a slight deficiency. They have successfully combined their studies and sport, and all three have attended or are currently attending higher education. It can be concluded that all sport policy efforts show the potential for dual career assistance with a focus on self-efficacy. No differences can be found in the expectations of these elite athletes, and all feel the need to continue their studies in addition to sporting, regardless of whether or not it coincides with their previous studies. As regards the need to continue studying, the Slovenian athlete felt the least need. This degree of “need” does not affect the performance of the athletes in their respective sports, as all of them love sports. All receive adequate funding as well. In all three countries studied, we found such a level of support for the athlete that ought to be held up as ‘good practice’. The German competitor in particular possesses such professional staff that we would highlight and recommend it as good practice to follow.

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Metamorphoses Creative-Developmental Fairy Tale Therapy Against the Dangers of the Internet. A Series of Activities for Young Undergraduate Students
Published November 29, 2021
83-100

This paper is about the practical application of Metamorphoses creative-developmental fairy tale therapy, which is presented based on a three-session Metamorphoses creative-developmental fairy tale therapy session. The sessions were conducted between April and May 2021, among students (n=24) of the University of Debrecen, who were previously no...t familiar with fairy tale therapy, nor with the works of Ildikó Boldizsár. Through the media environment of the session, we also reflected together on the effects of internet consumption and the dangers of the internet. The study highlights the students' attitudes towards this method and their participation and activity in the online space. The experiences gained during the 3 sessions and the feedback of the students appear as a guideline to conclude the study. The practical application of the Metamorphoses creative-developmental fairy tale therapy will show whether this methodology has a role to play in higher education.

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Policy Against Drop-out in Italy
Published October 1, 2019
1-9

In this essay I set out the current situation of Early School Leaving (ESL) in Italy by considering both data provided by institutional sources (national and international) and a review of the most recent contributions from the educational work that have been done intensively to fight against ESL over the l...ast 20 years. I will argue that the way followed so far will not lead to surprising results, due to deep and structural persisting factors of inequality. After a short overview on the position of Italy in the European rankings, the article recalls the main interventions that took place in the country by different investors (public and non-public), setting up a multiplicity of fragmented macro-politics. Then I will look at the mechanisms of differentiation and unequal distribution of educational opportunities and I will conclude with suggestions on how to make the fight against ESL more efficient and forward-looking.

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Differences in Foreign Language Choice of Students from Different Social Backgrounds
Published July 19, 2021
78-86

According to previous research (e.g. Bernstein, 1971; Gogolin, 2014; Hegedűs et al., 2019), family background plays a decisive role in an individual's mother tongue acquisition and in learning foreign languages. In another study, parents with a high social background (54.0%) chose German for their children, and parents with a low social backgr...ound (56.9%) chose English in primary school (Sebestyén, 2021). Based on this, in the study I examine what difference can be detected in the foreign language choice of high school students from different social backgrounds. In the study, I analyze the student data (890 people) of my database entitled “German learning and teaching in Hajdú-Bihar and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg counties” prepared in the 2018/2019 school year, during which I perform cross-tabulation and cluster analysis with the help of SPSS program. The database contains data on 11th grade high school and vocational high school students who studied German and / or English in high school. As the results, there are differences between the learned foreign languages among secondary school students according to family background. Among the clusters related to high school choice, those belonging to the “Higher Education Oriented Local” cluster are most interested in foreign languages, most German-speaking (74.0%) and English (89,0%) students tend to be in this cluster. Overall, the majority of respondents learn English, while students from higher social backgrounds (also) learn German.

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An Analytical Review of Cross Cultural Child-Rearing and Care Practices: A Special Reference to India
Published November 30, 2020
7-18

Child-rearing is an individualist, social and cultural process. This paper proposes that Child-Rearing has invariable characteristics and huge diversity. It has been considered that cultural perspective may contribute to the understanding of such multiple forms of child-rearing. The present paper provides an analytical account of dominant facto...rs of child-rearing and caring. The factors selection is done by reviewing the articles which have either more than 50 Google scholar citations or are indexed in top-class journals. It also aims to ascertain whether or not Indian child-rearing intrinsically has something different in its practices and which child-rearing patterns are global and common among all the countries. This article took majorly dominating factors in the area of child-rearing and provided a qualitative comparative account of India especially in relation to the world. Some factors are individualistic as parental attitude and the parent-child relationship. But the study found that corporal punishments, socialization and cultural factors have a strong impact on child-rearing. Altogether these factors affect the cognitive skills of children. The study will give a critical overview of child-rearing patterns in India and across the globe, which would be helpful for policymakers to create new policies and act accordingly.

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The Different Patterns of Religiosity and Their Relationship with Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Model
Published July 13, 2020
76-83

The aim of our study is to create a more detailed and accurate picture of the complex relationship between personality and religiousness by describing the person’s religiousness in a multidimensional way. The sample for study consisted of 240 subjects (161 females, 79 males; mean age: 22,53, SD= 2,98) who attended church at least occasionally.... We divided up different types of religiosity by the way in which they are followed: compiling the participants’ different critiques based on their responses regarding religious practice, on the data from the Hungarian Shortened Post Critical Belief Scale (Martos et al., 2009), and the Hungarian version of the Age Universal I-E Scale (Kézdy et al., 2018). For the measurement of personality based on the Cloninger’s psychobiological theory, we used the Shortened Hungarian Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI 56) (Paksi et al., 2009). K-means clustering and one-way ANOVA-s were used to explore and compare the patterns. The results of the study show that in terms of personality traits, there are significant differences between the different types of religiousness. Therefore, interpreting and analyzing piety and personality as a complex system could help to understand religious practice and education in a more differentiated way.

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Criteria determining school choice among the ethnic minority high school students
Published April 28, 2020
17-25

In our paper we sought for the answer to the question: based on which motives do students from various types of high schools (in our case, denominational or non- denominational school) make their choice of educational institution? The target group of our research consists of the 9th and 11th grade students of Harghita County’s denominational ...(Roman Catholic, Reformed, Unitarian) schools and the non-denominational ones added to them. All in all, eight high schools got into our sample. We conducted a survey by questionnaire, the sample including 1,064 people. We analyzed the decision criteria formed based on motives behind the decision (primary and secondary effects) on the one hand, and followed the decision making process on the other. The non-denominational sector is often chosen by the elite- and institution-oriented student group, who has great expectations of the institution, e.g. - top of the line standards of education, outstanding achievement indicators, prestige of the institution, local reputation. According to the clusters created from the motives, the value- and community-oriented student group, as well as the one following the orientation of the peer group, can be found in significantly higher proportion in denominational schools.

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The anthropological meaning of marriage: main lines
Published November 30, 2020
1-6

Marriage is a deeply rooted institution, but today it is in big crisis. In Italy – with regard to 2015, the latest available survey – 194,377 marriages were celebrated (246,613, in 2008), but separations were 91,706 (84,165 in 2008) and divorces 82,469 (54,351 in 2008). It is a trend in line with European data. Is marriage only an "archaeol...ogical" residual? Actually, also today the fascination of marriage survives as it is confirmed in many books on the theme and within the media where, even when the marriage takes place between subjects who have experienced the previous failure, it is described as if it were the first and the last. Of course, so many cohabitations out of marriage are related to a change of mentality, but not so deep to reject marriage as public institution. My short contribution (recently I published a book on the issue) aims to support the challenge of love in the perspective of marriage. In my opinion, the mistake about freedom could be the cause of current fragility, and education to marriage could be the possible strategy to face the problem. I start by focusing on the anthropological depth of the institution of marriage, whose recognition supports the motivation to preserve and promote the value of the wedding.

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Student Perception of Learning English Online
Published July 19, 2021
47-55

The aim of this research was to highlight the impact of online education on teaching and learning English as a foreign language among students aged 12-19, and to research the importance of learner autonomy and motivation in the online teaching – learning process. In order to collect data from the 81 subjects, members of five different classes... and age groups, a questionnaire created in Google Forms was used. The questionnaire was designed to provide information about the students’ attitude and motivation for studying English in an online context, autonomy and effort invested in the learning process. Student progress was measured using the end of semester grades of the first semester of the 2019/2020 year compared to those of the first 2020/2021 semester. Results reveal the importance of perceived choice as a factor that supports learner autonomy and learner motivation. The limitations of the study are due to the fact that the students’ level of English and their previous knowledge of the subjects studied online had not been tested beforehand as the current pandemic situation was not foreseeable.

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The Use of Linguistic Features in Indonesian Students’ Texts at Hungarian Universities
Published June 27, 2022
131-141

Students enrolled in a higher level of education may face challenges in producing assignments, including writing an essay. They need to present appropriate linguistic features in the text to demonstrate their writing quality. Comparing linguistic features during university study is one fundamental aspect of administering writing quality and sho...wing student writing development. The topic presented in this study describes an initial statistical analysis and the frequency of linguistic features in the texts produced by Indonesian graduate students enrolled at Hungarian universities. This study proposed two research questions: 1) How frequently do pre-selected linguistic features appear in the texts of Indonesian graduate students? 2) How do these features appear in a paired T-test statistical analysis? Seven MSc and MA graduate students took part in the study to meet the goal. They are students at three different universities in Hungary, which all have a Social Science Faculty. During their second-year studies, fourteen essays with a minimum text length of 2000 words were collected. The findings revealed an increase in conjunctions, adjectives, abstract nouns, concrete nouns, noun phrases, expanded noun phrases, active verbs, verb phrases, and passive forms. Meanwhile, the frequency of linguistic features such as prepositions, definite articles, indefinite articles, noun clauses, adverbial clauses, and adjective clauses decreased. In addition, both the rise of nine linguistic features and the decrease of six features in the second semester are not statistically significant.

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Students’ Motivations to Study Abroad: The Case of International Students at the University of Debrecen
Published April 28, 2020
76-81

Today there is a growing demand among international students to study in Hungary, more specifically with the launching of Stipendium Hungaricum program in 2013. The number of international scholarship holders increases each year, but till now, we have no significant research results about their study motivations, research has focused only on in...stitutional perspectives (Kasza, & Hangyál 2018). The motivation of students is an important research field in higher education, particularly because there could be various factors to motivate students studying abroad. The motives can be categorised as intrinsic and extrinsic. Our research question is, what are the main intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors that encourage students to study in Hungary? We performed 15 qualitative interviews among international scholarship holders on postgraduate levels. We gathered semi-structured interviews with the help of an interview scheme with five main questions. The investigated dimensions include the following: 1. introduction and context of interviewees, 2. Reasons for leaving the country of origin, 3. Reasons for country choice, 4. Preliminary knowledge about Hungary, 5. Personal expectations. After the data collection, we analysed texts with open coding process in which line by line and word for word was analysed (Khandkar, 2009). Then we were able to form a typology of motivations and we found subcategories within the intrinsic and extrinsic classification.

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Is it Worth Getting a Doctorate?
Published June 27, 2022
142-149

PhD training is part of the global education competition. The number of doctoral students per 100,000 people is a feature that moves together with the scientific performance of a country. Thus, doctoral training is an important element of a country’s innovation, in which Hungary is lagging behind. We assume that the main reason for the limite...d amount of doctoral students in Hungary is the low level of individual demand for training which, in turn, is due to the fact that the academic career of doctoral students promises low earnings compared to the placement of university graduates in other spheres. The earnings test and life earnings analysis presented by the study support this assumption: the earnings of those entering academically qualified academic careers are significantly lower than those of graduates working in the corporate sector. Though there are limitations present which impede the generalizability of these results, it does call to attention important trends to be acknowledged in future research.

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Self-Study: Tensions and Growth in Graduate Teaching Assistant Development
Published July 19, 2021
14-22

Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) development is an important undertaking for many higher education institutions in the United States. During the GTA preparation process, tensions can arise when the supervisor challenges GTAs by engaging in critical reflection and pushing them to advance their pedagogical skills beyond their comfort zone. Guide...d by Berry’s (2008) framework of tensions, this self-study aimed to answer the research question: How do tensions that arise during GTA development contribute to the professional growth of teacher educators and GTAs in their teaching? Self-study was the research method, and the data were analyzed using the strategy of inductive analysis and creative synthesis (Patten, 2002). This self-study reports five types of tensions: telling and growth; confidence and uncertainty; safety and challenge; valuing and reconstructing experience; and planning and being responsive. The findings explain how these tensions pushed the supervisor and the GTA to reflect on teacher preparation, manage challenges, and improve teaching. While tensions place teacher educators and novice teachers in uncomfortable positions, this study shows that reflections on and articulation of tensions in collaborative dialogues can help both discover aspects of their teaching that provide opportunities for growth and lead both to transform tensions into teachable moments.

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Characteristics of Teaching Community Capital - Focus on Teachers in Reformed Public Education Institutions
Published July 13, 2020
48-55

The issue of the effectiveness of teaching is constantly at the center of research. "Teachers count", presents the OECD report (2005), which confirms the research of the day that the work of the teacher contributes significantly to the performance of students. The question is how to capture the factors that influence school performance. The foc...us of the examination of the theoretical background is on the professional capital theory, with the emphasis on the examination of social / teaching capital in addition to the human capital and decision capital components. Our research is based on a secondary analysis of a questionnaire among teachers working in Calvinist institutions in 2017. The focus of our interest is on identifying the characteristics (frequency) and content (agreeing with norms) of staff capital and the need for teachers to develop collaborative networking opportunities for future professional development.

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Attendance of Pop and Classical Music Concerts among the Hungarian Youth
Published April 30, 2021
67-74

In this paper we wanted to give a comprehensive picture of capital theories from a theoretical point of view, looking at it from several angles. In our empirical study, we analyzed the Hungarian Youth Research 2016 database, which was recruited Hungarian youth aged 15-29. The study was conducted with several variables in mind, mapping the influ...ence they have on the attendance of classical and pop music concerts. We took into account the gender, age, place of residence of the respondents, the highest level of education and looked at the frequency of the concert attendance by counties and regions. Our results show that many variables influence the frequency of attendance at concerts by both genres.

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Educational poverty in Italy: concepts, measures and policies
Published April 28, 2020
1-10

In recent years in Italy, as a result of the initiative by the NGO Save the Children Italia and of the government action, we have witnessed the success of the notion of “povertà educativa”, as an effective way to indicate severe inequalities in education across the country. Firstly, the aim of this paper is to shed light on the different c...oncepts and measures of educational poverty in socio-economic literature, in order to highlight specific and innovative aspects of this idea. Moreover, the paper intends to scrutinize Save the Children’s proposal in order to monitor and tackle educational poverty as well as to show how the action of the NGO has influenced the development of Italian recent government policies against child and educational poverty.

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The Pedagogy of Witness. An Anthropological-Kreygmatic Perspective by Zbigniew Marek SJ & Anna Walulik CSFN – the Reflective Challenge for Education
Published July 13, 2020
111-115

Review of the book The pedagogy of witness. An anthropological-kreygmatic perspective, by Zbigniew Marek SJ & Anna Walulik CSFN

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Third Culture Kids: Growing Among Worlds by David C. Pollock & Ruth E. Van Reken
Published June 27, 2022
161-163

Bibliography of the reviewed book: Pollock, D., & Reken, R. (Revised Edition 2009). Third Culture Kids: Growing Among Worlds. Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

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Labour Market Characteristics of Helping Professionals
Published April 28, 2020
66-75

In Hungary, considerable efforts have been made in recent years to analyse the career paths of higher educational graduates, which have highlighted the need for field-specific and training-specific analysis. In this context, our research concentrates on a special training segment, focusing on the position of young professionals working in occup...ations helping the function of the society. Previous research focused only on the professionalization of the different occupations and the recruitment was examined from institutional and regional aspects. However, during the statistical analysis we examined the social recruitment base and the labour market situation of social pedagogy graduates in the Graduates 2012 (Frissdiplomások 2012) national database. The novelty of our work lies in the comparison of those who graduated in social work, pedagogy and andragogy in full-time programs. The most important result of our quantitative analysis is the statement that the differences in the composition of the group are strongly explained by the regional location of the institutions providing the training. In terms of horizontal and vertical congruence, the values of the humanities group are the most unfavourable.

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